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SK017

Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

Unit 4: Periodic Table

Jul 99

1. The table below shows the consecutive ionisation energies (IE) for five elements J, K, L, M and
N in kJ mol−1.

Element IE 1 IE 2 IE 3 IE 4 IE 5
J 801 2430 3660 25000 32820
K 1086 2350 4620 6220 38000
L 786 1580 3230 4360 16000
M 418 3052 4410 5900 8000
N 738 1450 7730 10500 13600

Based on the information in the table above, answer the following questions:
i. Which element can form ion with +1 charge most easily? Explain.
ii. Pick two elements which are in the same group.
iii. Explain why there are differences in ionisation energy for these two elements.
iv. Determine the group for element J.

2. The table below shows the boiling points of the third period elements in the Periodic
Table.

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Boiling
890 1120 2450 2680 280 445 −34 −186
point

(a) i. Based on the structures and chemical bonding, explain why there are wide
differences in the boiling points of the elements.
ii. Why the boiling point of aluminium is higher than magnesium?

(b) The third period elements react with oxygen to yield oxides.
Discuss the acidity of the oxides of the third period elements and give the equations for
the reaction of each element to show their acidity.

Dec 99

3 What is meant by the amphoteric properties? Classify the oxides MgO, SO3, N2O5, Li2O, BeO
and Al2O3 as acidic, basic or amphoteric.
Write the reaction equations to show the amphoteric properties for one of the above amphoteric
oxides.

4. i. How do the atomic sizes vary across the period from left to right and when descending a
particular group?
ii. Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing atomic size: B, Al, Si and Ge.

5. Define the terms ‘first ionisation energy’ and ‘electron affinity’. Explain briefly the variation
in these properties when crossing the second period.

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Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

Jan 00

6.
Element 23 24
11 Na Mg
12
-1
Ionisation energy 496 kJmol 738 kJmol-1

Based on the above table, write the electronic configuration of sodium and magnesium and
explain which element has the smaller atomic size.
Why the first ionisation energy of sodium is smaller compared to that of magnesium, and explain
which element has a higher second ionisation energy.

Jul 00

7. The diagram below shows the energy required to remove first seven electrons from an atom of
element Q.

Log of
Ionisation
Energy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No. of electrons removed

State the group where Q is found in the Periodic Table and give the electronic configuration for
its valence electrons as well as explain the reasons why the sixth ionisation energy increases
drastically compare to the fifth one.
What is the formula for the most probable compound formed when atom Q combines with
chlorine; given Q is in the third period. Give the possible values for the angular momentum
quantum number,  and the magnetic quantum number, m for the fourth electron being removed.

8. The electronic configurations for elements M and N are given as follows:


M 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1
N 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5
State the group and the period for elements M and N in the Periodic Table.
i. What is the molecular formula for the chloride compound formed by element M?
ii. Write the molecular formula for the compound formed when elements M and N react.

Dec 00

9. Predict the most stable oxidation numbers for the elements X, Y and Z with the following
electronic configurations:
X 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 5 4s 2
Y 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 0 4s 2 4p 5
Z 1s 2s 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 4s 2
2 2

10. The table below shows the information about eight elements A to H with their consecutive
proton numbers.

Element A B C D E F G H
Configuration of valence 3s23p
1 3s23p3 4s2
electrons
First Ionisation energy 580 790 1010 1000 1260 1520 420 590

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

(kJ mol−1)

a) Give the configurations of valence electrons for elements E and G as well as state their
oxidation numbers.

b) Refer to the above table, give an example of:


i. Noble gas
ii. Alkaline earth metal
iii. Element of group 14
iv. Element that forms acidic oxide
v. Element that forms basic oxide
vi. Element that forms amphoteric oxide

11. The elements silicon and sulphur are found in the p-block of the Periodic Table. The electronic
configurations for the valence electrons are as follows:
Si : 3s2 3p2 S : 3s2 3p4

a) Why both of them can be classified into p-block? Determine their position in the Periodic
Table.
Explain why the boiling point of silicon is higher than the boiling point of sulphur.
Which element is bigger in size? Explain.

b) Explain the differences in the first ionisation energy for both elements. The removal of
which electron will involve a large increase in energy if eight electrons were removed
consecutively from sulphur. Explain.
Classify the oxides formed by silicon and sulphur. Demonstrate the properties of these
oxides by using chemical equations.

Aug 01

12. Give the meaning of electron affinity.


The first and second electron affinities for oxygen are −140 kJ mol−1 and +870 kJ mol−1
respectively.
Explain the reasons why the first electron affinity is negative while the second value is positive.

MST 01

13. a. What is meant by the first ionisation energy?


b. Explain the factors that affect the ionisation energy.
c. The following diagram shows the variation in the first ionisation energy for elements in the
second period.
Explain the observed trend.

Ionisation
Energy

Li Be B C N O F Ne

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

14. The following table shows the elements P, Q and R with their respective proton numbers.

Element Proton number


P 16
Q 25
R 28

i. Give the electronic configurations and draw the orbital diagrams for elements P and Q.
ii. What is meant by orbital?
iii. Draw the shapes of orbital that the valence electrons occupied for element P and Q.

15. The following table shows the proton numbers for five elements S, T, U, V and W.

Element Proton number


S 7
T 8
U 9
V 11
W 13

i. State the group and period for elements U and W.


ii. Pick an element of p-block.
iii. Predict the oxidation numbers for T and W.
iv. Arrange the elements S, T, U. V and W in order of increasing atomic radius.

Aug 01

16. The following table shows the configuration of valence electrons for elements A to H.

Element A B C D E F G H
Configuration of valence
3s1 3s2 3s23p1 3s23p2 3s23p3 3s23p4 3s23p5 3s23p6
electrons

State the element that


i. forms amphoteric oxide.
ii. has the lowest boiling point.
iii. forms the most acidic oxide.
iv. has the noble gas configuration when forming ion with charge −2.

MST Jun 02

17. If the ionic radii of A3+ and B3− are 0.050 nm and 0.212 nm respectively, predict the ionic radius
of Y4+ by comparing it with the ionic radii of A3+ and B3− , if Y is in between A and B in the
same period. Explain your answers.

Aug 02

18. The table below shows the proton numbers and stable ions that are formed for atoms P, Q and R.

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4
Atom P Q R
Proton number 9 11 13
Ion P− Q+ R3+
Arrange and explain the increasing in ionic radius for the ions of P, Q and R.
Compare the atomic size of atom P and atom Q with their respective ionic radii. Explain.

Jun 02

19. The table below shows the first till the fourth ionisation energy for five elements:
Ionisation energy (kJ mol−1)
Element I II III IV
P 500 4600 6900 9500
Q 740 1500 7700 10500
R 630 1600 3000 4800
S 900 1800 14800 21000
T 580 1900 2700 11600
i. Based on the above table, state two elements that are in the same group and hence name the
group.
ii. Explain the reason why there are differences in the ionisation energy for the two
elements stated in (ii) although both elements are in the same group.
iii. Which element can form ion with +2 charge from its gaseous atom with the least
energy?

Jun 02

20. X3+ ion has electronic configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6.


i. Write the electronic configuration for atom X in the ground state.
ii. Predict the formula of the compound formed when element X reacts with excess oxygen.

Aug 02

21. The elements A and B have proton numbers 11 and 19 respectively.


i. Write the electronic configuration for both elements.
ii. Elements A and B show the same chemical properties. Explain.
iii. Write the equations for reaction between element A and oxygen.

MST Jun 03

22. a) An element M is from group 2 and period 3 in the Periodic Table.


i) Draw the orbital diagram for element M.
ii) Determine the block of element M in the Periodic Table.
iii) Element Q is at the bottom of element M but they are in the same group.
Compare the atomic size of both elements M and Q. Explain.

b) The graph below shows the relationship between log ionisation energy and the number of
ionisation for all the electrons in an atom Y.
log ionisation energy

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

No. of ionisation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

i) Define the first ionisation energy.


ii) How many protons are in the nucleus of atom Y?
iii) Write the electronic configuration of valence electrons of atom Y.
iv) If Y forms cation, what is the most possible charge on the cation? Give your
reason.

Sept 03

23. The proton numbers of D and E are 16 and 37 respectively.


i. Determine the block of each element in the Periodic Table.
ii. State the group and period of D and E.
iii. Predict the formula of the compound formed by D and E.

24. Moving down the group for Group I elements, explain the trend in atomic radius, ionic radius,
ionisation energy and the electron affinity.

MST Jul 04

Ionisation Energy (kJ/mol)


Element
First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth
P 1100 2400 4600 6200 38000 47000
Q 420 3100 4600 5900 8000 10000
R 1200 2900 4600 7500 9000 53000
S 480 4600 7000 10000 13000 17000

25.

Table above shows the successive ionisation energies for the elements P, Q, R and S.
a) Which element is most likely to be in group 14?
b) Which element is most likely to be in group 1?
c) Which elements are most likely to belong in the same group?
d) To which group might R most likely belong to? Briefly explain your answer.

26. a) Define the term effective nuclear charge


b) Arrange the following ions in the order of increasing size
Br - , Mg2+ , Na+ , Al3+
c) The electron configuration of the element X is shown below:
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 5s2
i. What is the proton number of X
ii. What is the oxidation number of X

d) The successive ionization energy of elements X is 800 , 2400, 3700, 25000 and
32800 kJmol-1. Predict the group of X. Explain your answer

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4
Oct 04

27. Sketch a plot of the ionisation energies of carbon atom against the number of ionisations.
Explain the trend shown in the plot.

28. The following shows the boiling points for several elements in the third period of Periodic
Table.
Element Na Mg Al Si P S
Boiling point (°C) 890 1120 2350 2680 281 445

Based on bonding and structure of the elements, explain why


i. the boiling point rises from Na to Al.
ii. Si has the highest boiling point amongst the third period elements.
iii. the boiling point of S is greater than that of P.

MST Jul 05

29. (a) Define the first ionisation energy.


(b) The valence electronic configuration of sulphur is 3s2 3p4. If 9 electrons from sulphur had
been removed continuously, which electron undergoes the largest energy change? Explain.
(c) Why is the boiling point of phosphorus lower than silicon?

Oct 05

30. The proton number of element A is 34.


i. Write the electronic configuration of element A.
ii. Identify the group, period and block of element A in the Periodic Table.
iii. Predict the stable oxidation number of element A. Explain.

31. Figure below shows the variation in ionic radii for elements in the third period.
P3−
Ionic radius/arbitrary unit

S2−
Cl−

Na+
Mg2+
Al3+

Si4+
Number of proton
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Discuss the variation in ionic radii in the above figure.

MST Jul 06

32. (a) The table below shows the first, second, third and fourth ionisation energies (IE) in kJ mol-1
of element X, Y and Z.

Element IE1 IE2 IE3 IE4


X 738 1450 7730 10500
Y 800 2427 3658 25024
Z 495 4663 6912 9540

i. State the element(s) with oxidation number +2


ii. Write the oxide formula of Y

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4
iii. Determine the group of Y in the periodic table. Explain.
iv. The second ionisation energy of Z is higher than first ionisation energy. Explain.

(b) Silicon and sodium are element in period 3 of the periodic table. The electronic
configuration of Si4+ and Na+ are as follow:

14Si4+ : 1s2 2s2 2p6


+
11Na : 1s2 2s2 2p6

The ionic radius of Si4+ is smaller than of Na+. Explain.

Oct 06

33. (a) The proton numbers for elements A and B are 16 and 24 respectively. State their position
in the periodic table and give the set of quantum numbers for the 8th electron of A and
23rd electron of B.

(b) Explain the changes in atomic radius from


i. Li to Rb
ii. Na to Ar

34. Define first ionisation energy.

Arrange the elements Al, B, Mg and N in an ascending order of the first ionisation energy.
Explain the trend.

MST Jul 07

35. (a) Compare the radius of fluoride ion, F-, with that of magnesium ion, Mg2+.

(b) Cation Q2+ has the following electronic configuration:


1s22s22p63s23p6
i. Determine the period and group of element Q in the periodic table.
ii. Give one physical property of Q.
iii. Classify the oxide of Q. Write the chemical equation to show its property.

Oct 07

36. The first six successive ionisation energies, IE, (MJ mol-1) of element B is as follows:

IE 1 IE 2 IE 3 IE 4 IE 5 IE 6
1.40 2.86 4.58 7.48 9.44 56.27

Based on the data given, determine the block and group for B. Explain your answer.

37. Describe the acid-base character of oxides of elements in period 3. For each type of oxide, give
one example and write a balanced chemical reaction that shows their acid-base character.

MST Jul 08
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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

38. (a) The table below shows the proton numbers of elements A, B, C and D in the same period.

Element Proton number


A 12
B 15
C 17
D 18

Arrange the elements in order of increasing atomic radius. Explain.

(b) Explain why the first ionisation energy decreases down a group in the periodic table.

(c) An element X has the following successive ionisation energies (IE):

IE1 IE2 IE3 IE4 IE5 IE6 IE7 IE8


Ionisation
1600
energy 786 1580 3230 4360 20000 23600 29100
0
(kJ mol-1)

i. Determine the group where X is located in the periodic table. Explain.


ii. Write the valence electronic configuration of an atom of X.

Oct 08

39. FIGURE 2 shows part of a periodic table. The positions of nine elements are indicated by
letters not representing their usual symbols. Answer the following questions based on this
figure.

A B
C D E F
G H I

FIGURE 2

Identify the element which


i. has the largest ionic radius.
ii. has the smallest atomic radius.
iii. has the lowest first ionisation energy.
iv. has the highest electronegativity.
v. forms amphoteric salt with oxygen.

40. Explain why diamond has a very high melting point compared to aluminium, Al.

41. The ionic radii of elements in the second period of the periodic table are given in
TABLE 1.
TABLE 1

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SK017
Past Year Examination Questions Unit 4

Ion Li+ Be2+ B3+ N3- O2- F-


Radius (nm) 0.060 0.031 0.020 0.171 0.140 0.136

Explain the trend observed in the ionic radii.

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