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Wildlife Conservation

Wildlife conservation is the science of analyzing and protecting the Earths biological diversity, which is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity on the Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. Wildlife conservation is the process of individuals and organization to protect and preserves these species through conservation education, preservation of habitat and management of fish and wildlife. There are many wildlife conservation societies and organizations that work tirelessly to save wild lands and wildlife through international conservation and education. These groups strive to change attitudes toward nature and to protect natural areas and wild populations of plants and animals, including endangered species. They also work to promote more efficient use of the Earths resources and energy to reduce pollution. Environmental preservation, mainly within the United States, is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent damage caused by contact with humans or by human activities, such as logging, mining, hunting and fishing. This differs somewhat from conservation in that conservation allows for some degree of

industrial development, within sustainable limits. In other parts of the world, preservation and conservation are often used interchangeably. Preservation of Wildlife

Nature has always helped mankind to flourish. But have we ever realized the fact that as humans what have we given to nature? Are we at all concerned about the nature that serves us so well? Does making necessary plans and implementing them in order to save the unique and endangered species existing in India mean something to us? Wake up before it is too late. It is the right time when we should join hands with the associations working for preserving wildlife in India.

Animals and birds are amongst the most beautiful creations god has ever created. These creatures adorn the nature through their extraordinary way of existence. Wildlife is an inseparable part of the natural treasure. But India is continuously losing this heritage because of deforestation and several other reasons too. Only a handful of wildlife enthusiasts are actually concerned with conserving endangered species through serious efforts.

In order to promote wildlife awareness in every nook and corner of the country, the Government of India has started some natural programmes and projects like Project Tiger to save the tigers from being extinct. It has till date been the most successful step that has led to the preservation of the tigers in India. Then there are jungle lodges and nature camps that have been established. These projects have been started not only to save the declining numbers of animals but to encourage eco-tourism as well.

Several national parks have taken steps to protect those species which are on the verge of extinction. For instance, the Gir National Parks is the one and only home to the existing Asiatic lions in India. Yet another remarkable instance is that of the Kaziranga Sanctuary is Assam that functions as a habitat of the endangered Rhinoceros. Then, Periyar in Kerala conserves the Wild Elephants. Biodiversity and National Parks

The national park system avow some of the most vibrant ecosystems and biodiversity remaining in this country. Over sixty percent of the endangered species are present within our national parks. The habitat preserved within park boundaries affords many species an oasis of survival and some of the last bastions of intact ecosystems found today.

Yet the biodiversity found within our national parks is in jeopardy. From pollution to poaching, invasive species to habitat loss and fragmentation, these islands of life we call our national parks may not be enough to ensure the survival of those who call them home.

Wildlife Conservation Program

The North Cascades is one of the most magnificent wild ecosystems in the world. But all is not well in this wilderness paradise. Grizzly bears and wolves are present only in small numbers, nowhere near their natural population levels. Both species are essential for proper functioning of the North Cascades ecosystem. As demonstrated in Yellowstone Park, large predators control herbivore populations and smaller predator populations, ultimately impacting vegetation growth and other major ecosystem characteristics.

Grizzly bears are often portrayed by the media as vicious and highly unpredictable. In fact, they are very reclusive creatures that act aggressive toward humans only in specific situations, usually when they feel threatened by human actions. Grizzly bears in the North Cascades are omnivores, with about 10% of their diet as meat or fish, and much of that winter killed carrion. Research has indicated that suitable habitat and adequate food sources are present in the North Cascades for maintaining at least 400 grizzly bears.

Wolves are extremely intelligent animals with a complex and fascinating social structure. There have been only two documented incidents in North America of wild wolves involved in human fatalities. Wolf livestock kills are not nearly as common as thought. Wolves generally prey on ungulates, with elk being the preferred prey and deer a close second. Wolves usually prey on old or injured animals, thus helping to maintain the vigor of prey species.

Wild animals destroy the crops.. Sometimes wild animals kill tour pets and in saving our pets we expose ourselves to the risk of lloiing our lives. For the fear of wild life our cattle cannot go for taxing in the meadows and forests. Most of the graze too is eaten by wild life. Such being the position, the question arises why mid we protect and preserve these wild animals and birds ? After which are more important, domestic livestock or wild animals ? y should there be wild life sanctuaries ? Why should people i not allowed to hunt them where and when they want ? What do lose if there are no Gir lions, wild buffaloes of Bandipur or binoes of Kaziranga ? In a poor country like India what should 8 protected and preservedmen or wild animals, who are : apparently of no use to us ?

This question requires to be examined objectively and realis-tically. Wild life belongs to the nation. Wild animals and birds are wealth of the whole nation, Protection and preservation of Wild life does not mean that all wild animals and birds must be laved, however, harmful they may be to us. It only means that Wild life should be properly managed i.e., dangerous and harmful animals like wolves, hyaenas and wild dogs should not be allowed to operate freely. They should be killed or their number be reduced, , if necessary. Wild animals and birds are an essential part of nature. Excessive increase or decrease in their number is harmful. If you wipe out panthers and tigers, the number of deer and stags would swell and they would cause extensive damage to the crops of our fanners. Again, if you finish the deer, stag and other small animals, the lions and panthers would prey upon our cattle and may attack us also, when very hungry. There are very many urgent reasons to justify that the pro-tection and preservation of wild life is necessary. We shall classify them into three cultural value, scientific value and economic value. From the cultural point of view, animals and birds have always been an inseparable part of our mythology, art and literature. In our mythology the bull named Nandi is the conveyance of Shiva, Garuda is the conveyance of Vishnu, the lion is the conveyance of Durga, the elephant is the conveyance of Indra and the swan is the conveyance of Saraswati. Thus these wild

animals and birds are objects of reverence. Panchatantra and Hitopadesh are full of stories of lions, jackals, bulls, crows, rats, monkeys, elephants, cats and, owls, etc. One can very well imagine how dull and lifeless our mythology, art and literature would be if all wild animals and birds were destroyed. What would our gardens, fields and forests be like without the beauty, colour and chirping of wild birds ? How ugly and bare would our country-side look without antelopes, deer and peafowls ! Many of us enjoy the beauty and presence of wild life, but all may not realize that it is so precious. It is, however, certain that the total absence of wild life would make it quickly noticed by all. The fact is that we all enjoy and appreciate wild life, without being conscious of it. Snakes, elephants, lions, cows, bulls, etc. are the animals we worship. Parrots, mynas, pigeons, crows and sparrows are the life and charm of our gardens and houses. They have become a part of our daily life. Their relationship with our life is age-old, natural and inseparable. As one cannot imagine India without the Taj Mahal and Ajanta caves* similarly one cannot imagine India without her elephants, tigers and chitals. If we examine the issue from the scientific point of view, we will come to the conclusion that wild life maintains the balance in nature. If the balance is disturbed, harmful and unfavorable results will follow. The so-called cradles of civilization in the Middle East are now deserts because there was indiscriminate des-truction of flora and fauna. If you reduce the number of pythons and snakes there will follow an undesirable increase in the number of rodents. Destroy the birds and agriculture will be closed down entirely because of innumerable insects and pests. Even vultures and kites do valuable work without which the whole population would be caught up by many diseases. Birds play an important role as flower-pollination agents and seed dispersers. The most important economic aspect of the preservation of wild life is that it can develop our tourist trade. Our elephants, tigers, chitals, peafowls and egrets are great attraction to foreign tourists. Lions, rhinos, bisons, sambers, blackbucks and hornbills are also a source of attraction to them. When tourists come they spend money on travel, on 1 things and on so many other things. Tourism can be con-into a big foreign exchange earning industry if properly

lloncd. European countries like Switzerland, France and Britain I thrived on tourist trade. Some African countries also earn Hmounts of foreign exchange from tourists. Wild life is valuable from other points of view as well. Many i and animals are sources of many important medicines. We from the musk deer. The fat of tigers and musk can cure J (Uncases caused by cold and wind. The flesh of many wild Dull and birds is eaten. India earns a lot of money by exporting of wild animals. We have seen how precious our wild animals and birds are. Rtly it has been observed that the number of several wild ill and birds has decreased alarmingly. Some of them have TCOme rare. Lions have almost been wiped out. Panthers and i have also decreased in number. Indian rhinoes are also IP extinction. The number of musk deer, Kashmir deer, wild I ind mountain bears has been reduced to a large extent. Red Id ducks are almost extinct. White wild ducks are very rare. Can we allow the extinction of such beautiful and useful 1 wealth ? Certainly not. We must make an all out effort land preserve these animals and birds. We cannot afford .jy more of our wild animals and birds. They are much too I national asset to be wiped out.

wildlife conservation as an Government involvement

The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed "framework" to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources "(IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)" The strategy aims to "provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions."This thorough

guidebook covers everything from the intended "users" of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows:

The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna. 3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.

Priorities for national action: 1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. 2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.

Priorities for international action: 1. International action: law and assistance. 2. Tropical forests and drylands. 3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas.

Map sections: 1. Tropical forests 2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification.

Non-government involvement

As major development agencies became discouraged with the public sector of environmental conservation in the late 1980s, these agencies began to lean their support towards the private sector or non-government organizations (NGOs). In a World Bank Discussion Paper it is made apparent that the explosive emergence of nongovernmental organizations was widely known to government policy makers. Seeing this rise in NGO support, the U.S. Congress made amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act in 1979 and 1986 earmarking U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funds for biodiversity. From 1990 moving through recent years environmental conservation in the NGO sector has become increasingly more focused on the political and economic impact of USAID given towards the Environment and Natural Resources. After the terror attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001 and the start of former President Bushs War on Terror, maintaining and improving the quality of the environment and natural resources became a priority to prevent international tensions according to the Legislation on Foreign Relations Through 2002 and section 117 of the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act. Furthermore in 2002 U.S. Congress modified the section on endangered species of the previously amended Foreign Assistance Act.

Sec. 119.100 Endangered Species: (a) The Congress finds the survival of many animals and plant species is endangered by over hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike. Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an important objective of the United States development assistance.

(b) 100 In order to preserve biological diversity, the President is authorized to furnish assistance under this part, notwithstanding section 660,101 to assist countries in protecting and maintaining wildlife habitats and in developing sound wildlife management and plant conservation programs. Special efforts should be made to establish and maintain wildlife sanctuaries, reserves, and parks; to enact and enforce anti-poaching measures; and to identify, study, and catalog animal and plant species, especially in tropical environments.

The amendments to the section also included modifications on the section concerning "PVOs and other Nongovernmental Organizations." The section requires that PVOs and NGOs "to the fullest extent possible involve local people with all stages of design and implementation." These amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act and the recent[when?] rise in USAID funding towards foreign environmental conservation have led to several disagreements in terms of NGOs' role in foreign development.

Active non-government organizations Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with wildlife conservation:

The Nature Conservancy is a US charitable environmental organization that works to preserve the plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on Earth by protecting the lands and waters they need to survive.

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300[4] conservation and environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with approximately 60% of its funding coming from voluntary donations by private individuals. 45% of the fund's income comes from the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. Wild Team Wildlife Conservation Society Audubon Society Traffic (conservation programme) Safari Club International Wild Earth Guardians

Written by;malik seerat and tahseen