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|) Pgo Peso Be amit FOW LE | PROFICIENCY USE OF ENGLISH Sper oTe cs O} (: Ni FOWLER PROFICIENCY USE OF ENGLISH W. S. FOWLER (NEw EDITIONS) First published by New Editions 1998 Revised by New Editions 2001 New Editions New Baitions 37 Bagley Wood Road PO Box 76101 Kennington 17110 Nea Smyrni Oxford OX1 SLY Athens England Greece Tel: (+30) 210 9883156 Fax: (430) 210 9880223 E-mail: enquiries@new-editions.com Website: www new-editions.com WS. Fowler 2001 {All rights reserved, No part ofthis publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission ofthe publishers. Any person who carries out any unauthorised act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. ISBN Student's Book 960-8136-66-0 ISBN Teacher's Book 960-8136-67-9 Acknowledgements, Te publishers would like to thank Visual Hellas for permission to reproduce copyright photographs. [Every effort has been made to trace copyright holders. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement. Ilustrations by Stavros Georgiou. Ilustration on page 53 by Panagiotis Angeletaks. Introduction TON required by the new form of examination is the first part of a two-part course enabling students to pass the Use of English paper in the Proficiency Ic has been thoroughly revised since it was first published in 1998 in order to take into account the ‘changes in the examination that came into effect for the first time in December 2002. ‘the previous edition, the book is designed to be taught in sequence, unit by unit, but the modifications by the changes in the examination have meant that two of the four sections teaching and revising essential have been replaced and a third has been substantially altered. In the same way, the different way in which for comprehension and summary are now presented and tested in the examination has made it necessary ‘new material in the majority of the units devoted to it. To sum up, more than 60 per cent of the material is completely new, and the new material has been thoroughly pretested with students in appropriate being included here, in the examination effect of the changes made in the Use of English paper in the examination is to shife the emphasis away ire, represented by the sections on structural conversion and on completing sentences by blank fling, ‘0 emphasise lexis to a greater extent. The new sections (2 and 3 in the contents list in this book and in itself) require students to form the correct word in context when given a word from which it may (eg, upbringing from bring) and to indicate the only word that can be used correctly to complete each of ‘To aid students in dealing with these new sections, | have incorporated in this book a revised form jx listing words derived from a common root previously published only in Volume 2 of the course. fin the six test units, which are printed in exactly the same format as in the Proficiency examination, | have oice in the sections of three sentences as a means of developing the correct technique for dealing kind of question. jon and Summary jon and summary is now tested with two shorter texts instead of one longer one, and with fewer than before. The comprehension and summary units have been adapted to the new design, but once again, ‘in the four test units where summary questions are included, | have provided far more questions for Practice than are used in the examination, Js not introduced until almost half way through this book, since the aim here is not to reach examination but to teach the essential techniques required in easy stages. This treatment of summary reflects that of asa whole. ‘of this volume of the course six test units in the book are designed in accordance with the examination and have been thoroughly to ensure accuracy, the book as a whole is primarily intended to develop students’ knowledge of the particularly with regard to common usage in everyday contexts. In this way, and by means of an approach the techniques required to deal with each examination task, they will be prepared by the time they begin part of the course to concentrate fully on material writen at the level of the examination itself, ¢ AC: sy Qevos unneo 33g Personal pronouns and possessive forms ‘lan the, some any Whose, own belong “The Oidert Member of the Family Thi, tha, these, those. nfs fon, sme, ony Wis one nothing nobody ‘Sport speriativ, never, ever Convincing Evidence There they Relative pronouns Semtcolon or comma? Preposisons of piace Warwick Gerunds and infiives Verbs * preposisons Prepositions of time Comparison Sporting Twins PRACTICE TEST | 4s tke SU en a ch Result clauses and t0..for My Friend the Well ‘Common collocations Verbs + prepositions Wot (ee thing cha) Far ding Fev. leo fe, ot, less nt muchimany Eke ‘May, might, can, could be able to (unjobe to, in)eapable of [A’Pappet Show in Greece 60 years 2g0 Reflexive pronouns and reciprocal forms Reflexive verbs and akeratves Verbs of preference Gerund and infniive: preference Gores ete + prepositions Verb * question word * infin Homemade Education Seeing what’ missing Ipveher Sul yet, ready, no longer, ot ony mare ‘Why are quiz shows popular? PRACTICE TEST 2 allocations: on Tas lotest later, next, nearest Hora, scarce, alms ‘ary seldom, rarely Famous Paining Stolen Seeing whacs missing: Time what’ ising: jn and contrast Word formation What sort of word i ising! ‘The Mother of Frankenstein Word formation rime that doesn pay Word formation ‘community locked in the past Word formation ‘The Olympie Games — ancient and modern Word formation Should we Bring bac wolves to Seotand? Word formation Afim actor Word formation Return to a Cambridge college ‘Word formation No more Auney— just Mum and Dad Word formation “Tough on crime but tougher on vis ‘Word formation Teenage worries Gapped sentences ‘Completing sapped Senrenees Completing sxpped Completing gapped ‘Completing xpped Completing xpped ‘Completing sapped ‘Completing sapped ‘Completing apped ‘Completing xpped Completing gapped Describing people PV: break Phrases: beak Tranetormation Thetaw Pv ge Pras ve ‘Transformation Places Pv: set Phrases set ‘Transformation Time PVs come Phrases cme TTranformation Ania PV: get Phrases: get Transformation Theatre and ‘Cinema PV cary Expressions vole, breath “Transformation Education Pv: make Phrases moke ‘Transormation Ratio and TV Pv: do. Phrases: do ‘Transformation Crime Pv: keep Phrases: keep ‘Transformation PV: bring Verbs and noun expressions Traneformation i 4 ' 15 6 t 7 > Dam 9 ' » Bio 21 ' 2 a7 ‘Comprehension and summary Seeing whats mising Lexis Word formation ‘One, andher, de ter, In debe for ie toch other, one another How much are works of PRACTICE TEST 3 Collocations: a ‘Word formation Say, te speak tok Convincing the experts Ateratives to 0) tell ‘xk in reported speech How the bran works Phrases and colocations: for Word formation Verbs, ec + preposisons Mobile phones: plus and minus unless, pronde, providing Staying young and beautiful ‘Comprehension and Summary Colloeations: out of. Word formation Verbs ete > prepositions Where crocodiles walk Sem-calon oF comma? (revision) Fer, during while, meanwhile Swating fee PRACTICE TEST 4 CCollocations: by Word formation Prepostons of place (revision) Citzen Hearst Prepositions of time (revision) ‘The good and bad side of tourer Collocation: in Word formation Verbs, ec * prepositions Brainstorming “The Las Lighthouse Keepers ‘Comprehension and Summary allocations: in Word formation Ether..on ele. .nor Voluntary servic abroad ‘Comparative forms (revision) Seudy Holidays PRACTICE TEST 5 Verb + Prepostion and Word formation Collocation: money Company togos Gerunds and infives (reson) Verb to" gerund The Birth of rifation Verb + preposition (revision) Word formation Whats missing? (revision) "St George for England — Verb + object a: and many other places Reflexive forms and aleeratives (revision) Our debe ea ancient Greek civieation ‘Comprehension and Summary Relate causes: (revision) Word formation Collocavons (revision) The cockney sparrow — Verb * subjunctive fiend or foe? ‘Are health foods avays heathy? PRACTICE TEST 6 dx: | Verbs taking prepositions ic 2 Related words Completing xpped Completing gapped Completing sapped ‘Completing supped Completing sapped Completing gapped ‘Completing sapped ‘Completing xpped Completing gxpped Completing gapped Cost and value Pv take Prrases take Transformation Phrases 2, el! Expressions min, head eee Phrases: go Transformation xpresions: hand, heart Pv put Phrases: put “Transormation Expressions eye, sight Pv see VE think Transformation form, means, woy Expression: form, ‘mean, way Can may might, must and alternatives Phrases with prepositions Pv: tum Transformation Work Pv work ‘Transformation PY: hold Phrases: hold “Transformation Banks PV Fok PV: fll ‘Transformation Expressions: word Pun PV: stand ‘Transformation Heath PV: cal Phrases cal ‘Traneormation 2 6 104 m2 14 128 136 140 48 16 184 168 196 200 205 Personal pronouns and possessive forms Open cloze ees ees POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. ny your fis er, is your the Read this paragraph twice from beginning to end before you fil any of the gaps. Then write one word from those in the table above in each space. Katerina i (1) leone bestfriend. Thave known (2) sunll@Eannw $iNC€ (3) nome Were at school together. Her family lived next door when my brothers and (4) sendnnee WET little and, as her father worked in the same office 88 (8) o_iME ey HE USE £0 BiVE (6) ne nee Tift to work im (7) nnn ea every day. When Katerina’s family moved to another house, we ere all sorry to See (8) ntftMnnone 80 DECAUSE (9) HY. nn ad been very good neighbours 10,(10) enn vannon « My father was especially upset because (11) wwMEaneunn ad t0 take his ‘own car to work instead of getting a lift in (12) on AMIES an aNd i COS (13) ele fortune in petrol, ‘All the same,’ he said one evening, ‘as I explained t0 (14) ved! QME smu fiend Katerina’s fathe isn't the cost that upsets me, though his car uses less petrol than mine. I miss (15) ee pleasant conversations on the way to work.” Alan, the, some, any B Read these notes and then complete the paragraph, filling the gaps with a/an, the, some or any. We use alan the fist time we mention something, the when we refer to i again. (0) We use alan in expressions of frequency or quantity: thre times a wee, fifty pence a kil (© Weuse the where there is only one ofits kind, asin the sun, the earth and in phrases like the county, the city, the sk, the sea, the environment (8) Weeuse the in superiatves: the best, the oldest. (©) We use the to indicate groups or classes of people: the young, the bind (young people or blind people in genera) (9 We say the cinema, the theatre, the radio, But we do not use the article with television, (2) We use some in the affirmative, ay in mose questions, not any in the negative to talk about a number of people or things. The preposition withour is negative in meaning and ls followed by ‘ny. In the affirmative, any means ‘every’ or ‘it doesn't matter which ‘Always read the whole passage tice and think abou it before answering any questions. The conect anover ‘may depend on what comes oftervards nd {In Exercise A, yo do not know whose father gave the other one a it unilyou have read the She es ina big hse in 1) Mn out near Warmington (2) oe has belonged oer fay for @) on Sng od a (4) el nesting Stee Ales ween she totes evar a nell oo (6) SM fe ends and lations. (1) Th weckond was very enka though had never met (8 ff of them before (9) SQME.. of the peopleshe | | invited came by car but (10) tM majority of them caught (11) nthBn same train | | as I did. There are only four trains (12) a. day to Warmington but (13) any. | cbalede | J You can avoid careless mistakes if yo Took corel athe ver? forms (singular and plural) and see how they relate to what has gone before and comes after. Whose, own and belong Compare these sentences. Whose dog is this? es minelmy sister's Who owns (is the owner of) tis dog? 11do (I am)/My sister does. (My sister is) Who does ths dog belong to? I belongs to melmy sister. Is this dog yours? Yes, its mine No, it's my sister’s/hers. Do you own (Are you the owner of) ths dog? Yes, I do (am)./No, my sister does (is) Does this dog belong to you? Yes, t does. No, it belongs to my sister. Complete the sentences, filing the gaps with one word from those in the tables above in each space. 1 Canyou tell me nO. tortoise this is? 2 Are you the QM... ofthis animal? 3 IS this Ca MES. 887? 4 DO Y0U ve MB this house? 5 Who does that sQop ALONG on 0? © Th pecs i sob the fl a 7 Does tis alligator in the bath beIONg ren 4Baeeee YOU? 8 She'svery rich. All the land round here i cnonlRES Open cloze Word formation this kind of question you need to form the correct word from the key word given. The relationship between words from a common source is shown in Appendix 2 on page 205, But to complete the passage correctly you must Bes: decide what kind of word is missing, What sort of word is missing? A Amber of words ae derived from the verb please (oe Append 2). Inthe sentences below decide whether the missing word is @ noun, an adjective, a present or past participle or an adverb. If is an adjective or adverb, you must also decide whether the word is affirmative or negative Albay read the tet carefully fo understand tts general meaning before you attempt 10 supply any words In this way, you wll indi easier to se ‘ompete the sentences below with the correct form of a wor ‘Complete the senter caer which part of speech is missing, derived from please. 1 She greeted mewith a ...Hl20Sant.. smile 2 Ie gives me great nnP288..n to welcome our next speaker. 3 “You've made a mess of it again, haven't you? she said, with an...ARIGASAM... expression om her face 4) Tam very wo ll69564, ont accept this award on behalf of my wife 5 “Look where you're going stupid!” he said ..uneleasanty Word formation B Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in che same line. There isan example atthe beginning (0). The Mother of Frankenstein Frankenstein is almost certainly the most famous monster in fiction, but the most (0)... MCRrisiA@..... thing about him is that he was created by Mary Shelley, SURPRISE ‘young woman, not yet 20. Mary was the daughter of the philosopher, William Godwin, and his brave (1) ..unsenventional... wife, Mary Wollstonecraft, CONVENTION sho had writen a famous bOOK if (2) von f6L8M68nnn Of the Fights of women. DEFEND But she died only a few days after Mary's (3) bit and Mary was oR brought up by a stepmother. At 16 she fell in love at first (4) SI ne ith see the poet Shelley. Shelley expressed great (5) ....adiication.... for Godwin’s ideas, ADMIRE and Mary's father welcomed him to the house because he was hoping for a © Joan, Shelley was already married, but he took Mary abroad with exp him, Two years later, by now married after Shelley’s wife had drowned herself, the couple were in Switzerland, staying with Lord Byron. One night Byron suggested that they should tell ghost stories and so Frankenstein was born. But although ths child of Mary's (7) .-.ftaginath... became famous, she was nacine tragically (8)....unfortunate. ith her own children. Only one of them survived FORTUNE (0) wend... and i 1822, only four years after Frankenstein was cmp ‘published Shelley, too, was dead, drowned off the coast of Ttaly. Byron remained ‘a good friend to her but even this (10) ...ftigndstin..... ended when he died of RIEND fever at Missolonghi in 1824 | Ree Study the Appendix and not the use of prefies to aictives such asin, um, dis and mis Prefices are usualy negative but suifces may be afmative or negative, asin hopeful and hopeless. Gapped sentences For this part of the examination, you read questions that each consist of three sentences. There is a gap of one word in each sentence. You need to think of the only word that would be correct in all three. In the examination, you are not given any list of words to choose from but in the exercises in this book, except for the practice tests, you can choose from alist of four Look at the example of this kind of question Example ree that there is a good The detective made his name by solving a dif It’s not worth asking him, and in any T think he’s on holiday. ‘The only word that is correct in all three sentences is D ~ case, ‘Completing gapped sentences A. Puta circle around the letter (A, B,C or D) next to the only word that can be used appropriately in all three sentences. Vi ow down when Iwas on my way tomy sister's j ‘The champion the world record for the high jump yesterday. | ‘She loved him so much that when he left her, it her heart. | need a(n) ‘of rope to tie the boat to this post. 1 did not expect to have to wait this of time for the repairs, He said that he just wanted to say afew words but in the end he spoke at on the subject. ‘The bal rolled down the hill and came to a(n) atthe foot. rd better ring the bell. want to get off at the next T'm not prepared to put up with that sort of behaviour. I'm going to put a(n) twit. Te told him and again that he mustn't do that T hope you enjoy yourself atthe fair. Have a good The trains on this line never arrive on these days, Gapped sentences a eee Iyou say it’s true, I'l take your for it T trusted you, I never expected you to break your His reputation spread by of mouth [WilveacatB pace” C ection” @) stroke He's a remarkable man, He solved the problem at a(n) What a of luck! ‘The sun came out just as we were leaving. She's such an elegant player. That was a beautiful Beskil == ©)work —_—D_ bussiness He started as soon as he left school ‘That's a fine piece of . with excellent craftsmanship. He doesn't like people ringing him when he’s at forget (A stop B) break It’s too far to drive in one day, so we'll ‘our journey at York, 1 know biting my nails looks bad, but ean’ seem to the habit. Like all politicians, he'll any promise that may cost him votes. 1 EE ‘The comect answers to these questions realy depend on wide reading, The best way ram the is against the sentences one by to answer them i 10 test each Wor and se if you remember reading the phrase with that word. You will sual find that each ofthe words nthe list willbe conect in ane ofthe sentences bu notin the others Do not tr to answer he questions by means of oanslation. You will get them right ‘yn recognise the phrase from havin sen cor heard it Key word transformation Expanding vocabulary: Describing people AGE when I wos your age 6 When she met him she found, him, very, attracth 7 They met at school and have always been very close 8 She..is.0n 9 She wasn't very happy when they first moved to the vi with the people there and they didn't give her a very Phrasal verbs: break adverb. Write your answer in the column on the right. 1 My car came toa stp in the middle of the road, s0 Thad to walk the rest ofthe way. 2 The war started without warning, 3 When she realised what he was really like, she ‘erminated their engagement. 4 The burglars entered the house legally and stole everything valuable. 5 She collapsed in tars when she 6 School ends for the holidays just before Christmas. 7 “Lithink the process willbe easier to understand if we separate it into stages. 8 The meeting came to.an end at 10.00, and we all went They said on the news that a dangerous criminal has escaped from prison 10 Twas sorry to hear their marriage has come to amend and she has asked for a divorce. tall for her age 10 Fortunately, things have improved and now she has a wide ...ifsle J the terrible news A. Study the following phrases and make a note of them. Pay special attention to any prepositions used. Then fit each one into an appropriate place in the sentences, inher early tires BIRTHICHLDHOOD at birth (an only child RELATIONS ‘member of the family maiden name named him ofter ‘Complete the sentences below with a suitable word or phrase, You may need to supply one word or a number of words. 1 The baby weighed three kilos. at bith They annem. $8. his grandfather, 2. She's only four but she's growing fast. She's already fl, {0 a 3. John Stanton is a distant cousin of Margaret's. He was the only ..0etne. athe. family. not invited to the wedding. Stanton is Margaret’ .noufgiden,name 4 She's only ..f.her. early, thirties. but she looks much older: 5 Thad very few friends MEN. |. Was. Your. age... My childhood was rather lonely because I was an.only child FRIENDS cicle offends ‘make fiends lifelong fendship be on good terms with easy to get on with friendly reception found him very attractive love at fist sight and fell in love immediately. You could say it was a case of Twas the beginn ‘ecms with, all the other gies in the office. They're very pleasant and illage. She found it difficult 0 uoa.tMaKe.Ltiend Eriendb..cecention B__ Replace the phrases in italic type with the verb break in the correct tense and the appropriate preposition or broke, down laceaks. 1 home. broke, un oF of Key word transformation Phrases with break | Study these phrases with break and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in each case in the correct form break one’s heart + break one’s journey + break the law + break o promise breok the record + break the silence + breok the speed mit» _ break one's word 1 Stevens... 29K. the. £2604... forthe marathon last night with atime of two hours and two minutes. 2 Teas too far to drive all the way to Scotland in one day, s0 We ..2£2KE. OWE JQUERY... in Yorkshire 3 Don't argue with me, Sir! ‘The car was travelling at 100 miles an hour, so you've . broken. the. speed, limit 4 Noone knew what to say until I....oroke. the. silence... by asking what time it was. 3 He... fis. eras... to marry her, and she was so upset about i that it almost iotoke her. hea 6 What you have done was egal, so you haven't... Coker the. lav... but you ..u.OKE, YOU Mod so leant trust you any more. Transformation D For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight ‘words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). © He was attracted to her from the moment he saw her. love He fell in Jove, with, her at fist... sight (A phrase with loved or loving would not be accepted) 1 suppose she's about 35 but she doesn’t look it, does she? thieties She must be. ner. thirties, bbut she doesn't look it, does she? “The negotiations were broken off when the employers refused to give way, a The negotiations. came. t0.an en when the employers refused to give way. 3. She getson very well with everyone at work terms She's an.dond. trams with everyone at work 4 His action was illegal, and he knew that very well Ls broken He unAMeW,very, well that he had broken. the taw. Inthe examination 60 ‘marks are given for his kind 5 Mrs Brown was a Miss Smith before her marriage. ‘of question so you must be maiden ‘careful include all the She's Mrs Brown now but her maiden, name was Smith. details. In ihe example, you would set one mark for in love with belongs der, and another for at frst Does anyone know whe, this, dog. belongs, to? 6 Does anyone know whose dog this is? 7 None of my relations is as old as my grandfather. member My grandfather is. the.ldest, member of... the... family. 8 You should have kept your promise if you wanted me to trust you in future. broken Ifyou wanted me to trust you in future, you shouldn't have, broken, your promise, Open cloze This, that, these, those, one(s), a/an, some, any A. Read these notes and then complete the dialogue, filing the gaps with this, that, these, those, one(s), a/an, ‘some or any. (@) This (plural these) refers co what is near in ime and place, that (plural those) to what i further away. ‘At this time and these days refer tothe present, now; at that time and in those days refer to the past, then, (©) One (plural ones) is used for countable nouns to avoid repetition, but we seldom use the plural form with these or those. Study these examples: had « lot of presents for my bichdoy. This one (The one on the table) was from john These (The ones on the table) were from my parents. (© Some and any are used wich uncountable nouns in the same way: I went tothe shop to buy some furniture but in the end Idd’ buy any. Mr Stevens: hardly ever buy (1) wonnnom MEWSPAPEE (2) nn AMESE, nun days. ToUught B) er Manne Yesterday But there WASMt (4 nnn MM. cane REWS init worth reading. Mrs Jones: know what you mean. I bought this one (5)... morning and all the news items are about crime, Here's (6) uo QM... about a murder, fr instance, and here's another (nnn MB er 08 the Opposite Page. Mr Stevens: It wasnt like that when I was a boy. In (8) nut... days they had long articles in newspapers and there were (9) very good (10) +100, But [bet that the only useful information in (11). AM..- ME, the (12) nn OME cee YOUVE | got in your hand, is the weather forecast, and even that’s probably wrong! ee Negative forms: no, none, nothing, nobody (no one) B__ Read the notes and then complete the dialogue. Before answering any of the questions, read the whole. passage twice. Decide from the meaning in the context whether the most suitable word is affirmative or ‘negative and fill he blanks with one of the words given above, or with some, any, something, somebody, anything, anybody. wie a ee See (@) These words can begin a sentence or appear in the course off: "Nobody answered when | knocked atthe door. hnocked atthe door but nobody answered (©) They can all be used as alternatives to not + any, anything, anybody (anyone) There lsn’t any (is no) reasan to get upset. (0) Note that no one is ewo words so that if you have to write one word to fila blank, you must write nobody. (@) Note that none is singular, not plural: ‘None of us knows the answer Policeman: Now think carefully and tel me what happened when you returned home yesterday evening Did you have (1) ..--2¥..oneTeason to suppose a burglar had got into your house in your absence? | fm eveen = pees iP alan, | ® Open cloze Mrs White: Not at fist, When T opened the door, I didn't orice (2)...2N¥thing.. wrong. But then | thought I heard a noise in the garden. Iran out to see but there was (3) ...M0b04y. | there. I went back into the house but (4)....0thing... was missing as far as I could see and there Were (5) mur4nm Signs of things being out of place. Policeman: So you had (6) vv! Feason to feel alarmed. Mrs White: I dida’t think so, but Ehad (7) .uS9ME..onu money and documents in a safe in the living-room wall, and when I opened i, it was obvious that (8) ..39Meb04Y.... had broken nto the Rowse. (9) vanmuNQM nou of my private documents had been taken but there was (10) nn MOQNINN, else inside, (11) nn! money at all! Policeman: Have you (12) mM idea who the thief might have been? Mrs White: No. It must have been (13) ..S2Me#04y... who knew where the safe was. But (14) cle OF ny neighbours knows the combination. How about members ofthe family? can’t believe (15) ...2N¥P.... in the family would take the money. But there’s my ex-husband, He still has a key to the front door. Oh dear! All and every [Allis plural, but we do noe say all people, nd ail things is not common in modern English. Al the people, all the things are used bit in general we prefer to say everybodyleveryone and everything. These words are singular. ‘Study the examples and then complete the sentences, filing the gaps with one word. All the people who live here own their own houses. Everyone who lives here owns hislher own house. 1. EYELYONE... who knows him likes him. 2 Allthe people inthe village ..QC8..-- lOOking forward to the game, 3 Everyone Who enenllU$B.non i this St02t wou MMQEKS on in the factory 4 Didyou buy ..everything... asked you to? 5 Trmsure he's guilty. wow Allmone the evidence points to the same conclusion. 6 'msure he's guilty. ..Everything.. points tothe same conclusion, Superlative, never and ever D Compare these sentences and then complete those below, writing the correct word in the gap, ever or never. He's the rudest man Ive ever met. Tve never met such a rude man. BT nnn MEVEF. un Sen such a good film. 2 It's the most dificult job that I've... ®¥8E.... had to do. 3 TV snnnllY8E nun faced such a determined opponent, 4 It’s the most interesting competition 1'Ve ww. 8¥€f me taken part in, 5 It's the most enjoyable holiday PV woo €¥& nn had 6 TV nna MEYE nn listened to @ more interesting speaker Test E Fill each of the numbered blanks in the passage with one suitable word. | SE EEE You need to read and understand the whole texto decide whether a mising word is negative Inthe same way, before filing a gap, uve the cone to decide, for examples it Better or worse, more ales, win or lone?” ne ‘Years ago, when the police gave evidence in trials, nobody doubted their word. Tn (1) moult... days, everyone respected them and assumed they were (2). the truth. (3) .-Ll§fmuuu days, however, their popularity is not very high, especially among (4) sons tBE ns YOUNG, AMM (5) nennrfBEnnsee 8 TeSU the police often lose cases ‘against people they know are guilty because (6) ...u20MG.u oftheir witnesses sounds convincing. At the same time, defence lawyers are m0 (7)... frightened of using tricks to discredit them, A police witness giving evidence in court nowadays expect to be cu (8) er cr YING 19 (9) SUE Situation, recognising that officers hhave had hardly any proper training in legal procedure, the police have employed experts to teach them (10)... tO Behave. AS one teacher std: ‘Remember that defence lawyers aren't interested in justice. (11) om All that matters to them i (12) ...Winning, the ease. They make the police feel they are the people on trial, not the accused. They use ail the tricks they can think (13) of. to upset witnesses. But (14) .....1QNE. of them will work ifyou keep calm and always speak to the judge, (15) sn! susan tO the lawyer. ‘No, honestly, thats the truth Word formation PA Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space J inthe same ine. There is an example at the begining (0). Crime that doesn’t pay Most ofthe films made about crimes such as bank (0) on... REIS. on show clever (1) enn SFiMiNas...u. devising incredibly complicated plans CRIME requiring great (2) .o.n(ftell@6M66.... in order to escape with millions INTELLIGENT | of dollars, This sort of thing is necessary to provide the audience with the 8) oon BAGIREMENE ns that makes such films interesting, ExcrTE Fortunately for the police and for bank managers, however, thieves ‘are not usually so clever. (4) Judging, from a number of accounts JUDGE, published inthe newspapers recently, many of them are ether very stupid or very (5) ae For example, there was the man in the United CARE States who went into a shop wearing a hat with his name (6) nun PRIN rust con it in large letters, and demanded money. In England a robber with several previous (7) ...-.6VIGIQNS..... for convicr fraud left his wallet and passport behind when he robbed a house. He [Sala 5 a Em aT) ‘Youll find the shop i hen EL Thave a ver ‘pinion of his abil She looks tall because she's wearing. heels. | sae ED aia EM Noone must open her ltrs. They wll on her desk while she's on holy. ‘The two lakes to the north of the town. The robbers planned to in wait forthe van from the bank 4 A pot @ame granted offered He evidence against the other members ofthe gang at the tra The minister only an interview to journalists who were friendly to him. He denied the crime but the look in his eyes. him away. 5 ke an Oke aaa Take to know how you about the idea Many people .~ strongly opposed to the new law. ‘There's a good film on at the cinema if you like coming, Gapped sentences rin all 6 1 don’t belong to any political We're sending out a search 10 look for the missing git hope you enjoy yourselves at Jack and Brenda's a How long has he been in of the investigation? The lawyer offers his services free of unless he wins the case, He's being held in prison on a of fraud 8 He gave me a useful of advice, but I didn't take any notice 'm so glad that what I sent arrived all in one ‘and nothing was broken, W's very valuable chess made of gold, { eee When you ear the comect answers to thee questions, ‘male a note of any pases tht you have nt seen before For example in question I, note the expression used in the ‘hind sentence ~ the shadow ofa Inthe ‘examination, expression ike this often indicate which word i correct inthe tre sentences, where any other word would be wrong “The terms relating to crime and the law are precise so you need to learn the combinations prepositions together as phrases, Complete the paragraphs by writing the correct word from the lis in the Fight-hand column. Do not use any word more than once. When Harry Brown (1) the art gallery and stole the Rembrandt, worth million pounds, he thought the police would never able to (2) he was responsible @) the burglary. But another member of his gang gave him (4) and soon afterwards Inspector Green, who hhad been (5) in charge of the investigation, accused him (6) the theft, Harry denied (7) the crime but the evidence was (8) him, because an art dealer claimed Harry had tried to sell the Rembrandt to him. So the Inspector (9) Harry and charged him (10) the theft ‘When Harry's ease came up (1) court and hhe was put (2) trial for the robbery, the police @ the art dealer as a witness and Jack, one of his gang, also (4) evidence against him. The police did ‘not have the most important (5) of evidence, the painting itself, but although Harry (6) not guilty the jury did not believe him. He was (7) guilty and (8) to prison. Harry thought Jack was to O} Te-was all his (10) that he had been convicted. against arrested lame called fault found gave piece pleaded sent cof nouns, verbs and i Seedy she correct Replace the phrases in italic type with the verb give in the correct tense and the appropriate preposition or adve ‘Write your answer in the column on the right. Harry denied the crime but one of his gang betrayed him, He refused to retire from the match although he was injured. The explorers had to ration their food because they were afraid itywould be completely used up before they reached the Pole. [zopped smoking cight years ago and have never regretted it Hii fat verivoks the park. i ete set one 2 very funny scl Bie reed al i meee 10 2004 cases wae ‘Although the enemy were stronger, they were determined not to surrender. I 27 3H = a os . se 2 78 a4 . 24 wy Forex secant words, 17 : 3 4 s . Key word transformation iphesses with give and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in each case in the five (or sound) the alarm + give evidence + give ahand + ge aninterview give a party Breaperformance + gierise to + gieastar + givewayto + given halfa chance They ..00¥8. 8. performance... Verdi's Otello on TV lastnight The Prime Minister will not .....41VE..20..intervieW. to your newspaper voles you hand your quaion to Pres Serta beforehand. 1 ey Harry was annoyed when one of his gang ......9@¥8. evidence, ‘Questions in examinations ee car. asking you to revrite sentences We ....48, ving, party... on Saturday and hope you can come. tsual require you to change She nnn AVE. 4. S19... and sereamed when she heard a sudden souctres and often to incde Toud noise in the street. orleae ont prepetions. When satiner ms me Beene you lea aleratve ways of The bad weather we ad yesterday has... MERAY. $ave cloudless mm alemaie mae a take note ofthe variations in He isso keen to playin the team tha, iver hall.@.chance... he formand the way in which would pay his own fare to the World Cup finals. words are associated with ach hope the change inthe direction ofthe wind will ....21¥8. is, ‘other. For example, the police aceuse a person of crime but better weather over the weekend, - charge a person with crime Sive..me.2.han.... with this case, will you? I's very heavy ‘When she saw smoke coming from the basement of the hotel, she .gave.the. alarm... and the manager called the fire brigade, rmation For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that i has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given, 1 The person in charge ofthe investigation was in error. responsible The person .....responsible for. the investigation. made... a mistake. 2 They have often been seen together, which has caused some unpleasant rumours to circulate. They have often been seen together, which has. ven rise to Some unpleasant rumours F) 3 ‘Hestole the picture,’ the inspector said accused The inspector accused, him. of, stealing, the picture. Jor adveyl 4 We ran out of petrol while we were going tothe station gave Gur petrt gave. out on, tel our way to the station, p- 5 Later in the day, brighter weather will replace the showers. Later inthe day, the showers wil. ive, ay, 0 brighter weather 6 What happened was not your fault blame You were et. to, blame for. ue 7 ‘Harry Brown, you are charged with the theft ofa valuable painting” trial “Harty Brown, you are on. trial forte, theft ofa valuable painting 8 The jury did not believe Harry when he said he was innocent, ily Harry pleaded .......20%. guilty, but, the jury. was not. convinced. es “wg s0m | 2204 ‘vonduy sop 1041 "0g Som j axaym 230) O49 5204) sasnep Buuyop-uou pue Bunuyop U1 qiaape anneyas ese pasn s Q4OHAA (2) ‘suds 050 2un> yptym ‘youos Auow 0 Buo8 som 24 ow Pon 4 ‘yoga sheave 53 pur unoword ances a4p 210j0q eunuod e skemfe 5} U04 ‘sep Tew 9p Jo ajoyy a4p or ss9je4 asnep sane UA sBENEP OAREIDL-a2UERURS U| (p) 2 (ut ooyps 0 uaM @yM ‘YOIDS 9) 04R1840 HOY "2 (aM joxps or mam ‘yoIOS =! 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(2) JMS dW naman ~pood ou 5,1 *~asn ou 5 “~yiom 5,31 Tuna pood 5,1 suoys 0 534 id © 531 Se ypns "94 (py Byuuloq soseayd wowwo> hues ase arat. (P) ‘aypom pool» poy ays soya snougo 34 :2y pupsssopun 03 (sn so) 450953 10332 poo Alan 0 soy 295 -yeyp {pH asnep e 40 exnuyuy UE + aANDeIpE 40 uNoU € Aq PeMojoy Delgns[eUOssedus UE se pasn 2q UE> 34 (2) ‘pauonuous Apeauje unou e en sajes Kew kup pue ay (@) {aren nn so pod fa og sem avo sea uonsont ‘uy pur sjepous \n‘satuan seypo \pim pasn aq uE> pus Suinauios jo aouersyxe ain saxe>ipul ours} Ou04,. (€) ‘yp 10 31 ‘0u0yp pm sde8 oun Buy ‘osD0x9 o¥p aroyduio> uowp pur serou aia Apmas ‘Aowppt pup 2404, 5 az0]2 uadQ in BE Study the notes and then complete the exercise. Open cloze Complete the passage, filing the gaps with the correct relative pronoun or adverb. | which Bath owes its name tothe fact tha it grew up around the Roman baths, (1) were among the largest in the Roman Empire. The city sill has centres 2)... WEFE... the mineral waters are used to treat people with rheumatism, (3) ..tHfiCh.... is what attracted the Romans in the fist place. The main atraction of Bath today, however, sits architecture, much of (4)... MHC... dates from the 18th century. John Wood the Younger was the architect (5) ..u!M2... ui the Royal Crescent and the Pump Room is also worth visting. Jane Austen, (6)... "NM... ved in Bath fora time ad (7) PR... novel, Persuasion, ist there, refers to itand als to the Assembly Rooms, (8) enn MICH... now house a fine costume museum and was a place (9) a..WHlEU€..n.. people met. Sections of 18*-century streets have been recreated with life-size figures, all of (10). are dressed in the costume of the period. i-colon or comma? eee ‘A semiscolon () ie used to separate two main causes: comma () joins a main cause toa subordinace ‘dase. Compare these sentences ‘On Sundoy we went to Bath: ws very ejoyoble On Sindy we ott Ba which we sry eye, ‘At Bath we met Tom and Sun: they had come down fam London. ‘Bath we met Tom and Susan, who had come down fom London We didnot have time to vist the Assembly Rooms: that was apy We cd nt hae ime fo vst the Assembly Rooms, which wos ty Complete these sentences with one sultable word. 1 Next summer I'm going 10 Rhodes; cli lovely sland 2 Next summer I'm going to Crete, .... ih... isa lovey island 3° That villa was built for Lord Huncaster,.... WHOS... daughier lives there now. 4° Thatvilla was built for Lord Huncaster,...MiS...... daughter lives there now. 5 Aswe came out of the castle it started to rain, HE... spoilt our vst sitions of place: at, in, on Study this list of prepositions of place and the notes attached to them and then complete the sentences in the passage on the next page with the correct preposition. AT is used for Points: t the end of the road, at number 27 Places where we are concerned with thle purpose or location, not size or shape: at the station, ot the pot office, atthe supermarket used for Being ‘inside’ a place or situation with three dimensions: in the ktchen, in (= inside) the supermarket, in the High Street (but in the USA, on Main Steet) + Allarge area, such as a country, province, city, or place the speaker thinks is important (for example, a farmer taking about the nearest town) ON is used for + A surface: on the wal on Earth, onan island, onthe screen (nema, TV) + ‘Aline: on the coast, onthe river, on the main road to London, on the wey to, on the leftand side Compare the following: They e sailing In their Boot on the lake The boat ison the water, the swimmers ore In the water. The telephone is Inthe corer ofthe room inside). The cinema is atlon the comer ofthe street (ouside). TO/OUT OF are used for movement in ad out of, Get into the car. ONTO (ON TO)/OFF are used for movement On and off. 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Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0) A community locked in the past Lancaster County, in Pennsylvania, is the home of the Amish people, a sect whose (0) vn $QG8 nnn Was portrayed in 1987 in the film Witness social ‘They are the (1) ...escendants.....of people who emigrated to America in DESCEND the eighteenth century, fleeing from (2). MOMS. nue persecution, RELIGION ‘They found refuge in Pennsylvania, a state established by William Penn, whose own sect, the Quakers, resemble them in being totally opposed to G8) ovens cZOIQNEE..nsan im any form, They became known as ‘the Pennsylvania vioesr Dutch’, though they did not come from Holland. Their language isa dialect of German, and ‘Dutch’ isa (4) misunderstanding. of Deutsch’ UNDERSTAND “The Amish reject all technological advance. Their remarkable (5) ...achieverment, ACHIEVE, Honging inwrning Lancaster County into one ofthe most profitable agricultural areas of fees the county has been accomplished entirely by traditional methods. Tey sil this. dress as they did when they first arrived, still travel only by horse and cart, ee and objec to being photographed. Tei (6) 09098... any vient orrose eg behaviour is maintained, They were (7) sun fMCtifi@d...u0 by the scene in HORROR Bers Winess where Harsson Ford, as a policeman who has taken refuge wth them, itis isso angry wth one ofthe young (8) SHEE on for making fun of he rouR fin Amish that he jumps out ofthe carriage and breaks his nose Ee. The communiy’s way o lifes nevertheless being (9) Westnet... a8 rear Bee the younger members establish smal businesses instead of depending on farming. ees Fees pecpared to vk (10) emule by usng computers ea. sss eee pouinasud0q se 19 sn 950909 so plus 24) 158400] doug vor paonposuy a no wow 4o uy patio ap 8444 ptfug ut apeu son9 sours aand ores ap Jo 200s Angsinap styooury umyeay © sien aeds onan a smepe®) + oy payee foun 2 mojeg os Se 3g 280 44 JoH0 We ape 7 Ap Soo samotona s20p ays mn820q poof eons sey aus pune a ps snes soufos01 not oct 40 mno axe spoyous Su1yovDn sty xyuig yo ano wou ani Isnt NOK wo a4 UH} NOK UOyAL {496 Rupppam sn0¥ soy 98 nok ane Soup AOU 01 j.98KUL 01 paprap | 0s epynatg Aus sa, ‘otunfur sou qu 24 uo 94 1nq rendsoy v se paddinb Any se 104 94,944, sofuens e ayy ou nof ing steak Auous 30} 2104 ZuIWOD UD a: On | ont 1 seouanuas asp ne uy Aareudosdde pasn 9q ueo aeip paom Ajuo a4p 02 2x0 (q_40 3‘ “y) 4929) ap punoue 2/24 eang seauaaues paddo8 Sunaduio Ga sentences fyinall Inmy the case should never have come to court. 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Key word transformation 7 ‘ThePrime Miniter seems to have 2.9 £200 __ by calling men ‘guys now everyone seems tobe doing 8 — What he doesn't seem to be able to do is to set limits to government spending. 9 When the jury declared him not guilty, the prisoner was immediately set. free, 10 Wehaveset up. committe to deal with the problem so now all we need is for them to meet nd ‘et the proce nn in motion Gransformation ID For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given He can see the lake quite well from his house. Rees teen ® $0, VOW of the he om his ko They haven't decided when the conference is going to begin yet. They taver sa. doef acing The hostages were set free as soon as the money was paid, tet They let. the, hostages. go, 5 soon as the money was paid ‘The boys no longer have to share a room now we've moved toa larger house. poy. has. his. own. 90m, now we've moved to a larger house. Mr Brown doesn’t want employees to spend more than is necessary on travel limits Mr Brown has Set. limits, to, employees’ expenditure on travel It's no use arguing with him because you'll never convince him, point You'll never convince him so ‘here. is.no, point in arguing with him. Tn my opinion, young people should be able to regard the best players as a model set In my opinion, the best players should set.an.example, to young people The city is called Bath because of the Roman baths that were there Bath wes. its.name, to, ‘the Roman baths that were there. ; ‘nat Teop 01 susajgord rasa Aueus os axe o10yp ‘got a}quion w 9g 1snul oeURUL TeqIOD} PIO — OT re 7804 SY op o1 uy ig" Aes ue nog pue saKeyd pood esq 6 nnn am SuywoW astsu yjsosnoxe Ais aud 28 9,40 yp oquiouer ns ‘na any Bap mouTy Hg sat ft Wwod 8 nok os. ps0 pongo oyiom Ku yy apesnuaouOD oF FUNK LL jUO OFPEL 9 WAM }.UO 1 yoogerow vu» dazy aurouidinbo suods “gg Souow sty Mads Hg 40002 sd wo mpusddye ‘aanutw sp Jo spouod aia urn wp pam Yenbo omy “yg sptsuoD yore eqioo} e Ut ou BuUKe|d feuON Dy, § nfo aeu ayout 009 9 a flezatnzqmn 0m? pron a3 pus a) O14 | WT MOK NOOB a) sma 6p) ses 9 wo NB saved arostmtioag ——sMOyOREEGE UN no yy pun ates a SUED remo MMT 2200102530 ads auounoop Buss 9 pus ywpINO>-HS—Z nog oO CL ETT tuonisodaid sieudo.dde atp nun seouanues ain a12jduio> “asmuaxe sip Bundurosse 210}0q 08 feyd on nou ~~~ Bagi" INONAEN SQN 13 Jo198 ¥ UO spunod pursnowR Bag" KOU — OL apes" IBY 3,889 NOK OS UO swOpUL Bt Mm SHED TON UA gj oN on algo SturEa9 | INq auTON Ye aESNUL PRO] "FG" OWN PUILALOPY 6 ‘npes 94 Ho dtsM EOESSEID oy gggie rotenone py oIsME Jo puny EKA“ BARBIge™"""" ONdood pus uEDT — oxy [38 op ou 5 ‘sunurng Kep Aan sunoy yesanos Joy astonad Joy gr OM AogDRAL TUS 9A pe aus “ou agp Key OL IND] SoMIOM KUTA —L usnoead snoy ue "pips" PuounODD | yore MENOdMH Ue YpNS UL ed =e" BO; 1y anoud ue mos ssayun fas 94 eM SsapuC uy “yp uo NOK Kea ou S.a10NN pu KUO ayR ™"™ iiss§g""" TUPI 1ayON UO Aus 305 “i ju vot mg ‘SOK, 2 ya ewseu 2m OF "YOR a" OA NOK PINON = — od 1 Jong pam aN J 0s alsuad Ks9n 99 prnom 3" pi” AOU RD T1040 - “XepqOW NOK 40} peouge "ASB" PaLApIsUoD NOK aKeH = sel ug = pase DOUSTUY 9A, DUD NOK yaE Ae TLL sou =" ggiggjg™="™ SKolua a4 "HB JOO INO Ue 5,34 salle puost (009) as pusunsoses foyenes send us puna (ou) foe) dow Aaa suiour ou (002) Yat Soue} 320} 002) Aolue aerop Auop “oop sopsu0? ‘prono wpe gp soquuouns pUe Wipf aU © yey onBIYUT UE OU puns & hq pom} are san a4 (P) of oy Buoy 0 prosLe 09 purse © 9 jm 3 Buyoyoj uo} quan ay 55 otos wt Os uonsodaid ose S109 1p sOquIBUaY (2) 03 gm axnuyu 8 4a pomoyoy yuod J0 moje i s2U03u05 fe aT 9m Ly Sse OU 54 397 wou 29 uo wo a 2039 woos sy uDe o3 pou Som 345 "3 tim anntuyul ai Aq pomoyy anew alsed a Ulan “nok dja au 399 80> fay win Kuo>3,u6> ok :aoseq pey pynom "snus ‘ued se yons sep pots a0 “ou Jo EU 99 5 A a SON nstajy ue og ou nt psom ovo Adds on pose ave no 3p Os 09 Yok XBRL oa OFE 494 50H) mol qumsp ou 40a BuppioM Uo OF 2.0%) “lj tou prion oy oops ursoa] s00hy uno € oye sgibn etsud se yp ‘uonssodaud «Aa pono} 5q.08 tos pue purse e shemes| uonsodaid €Bupeojo} so} 24 SEnINNINT ORY SONTHES, ‘uo BABIUYUI 40 PUNJAB a4p Ul quBA w Lp Sde axp Sumy “aspuaxe yp arojdwo> uawa pue seou ayp ApS, azoj2 uadQ (002 aed uo 1 xpuaddy Apms ‘suonisodaud Aq pemoljoj aue ‘sqs0A jeseayd wou) z2ede ‘Squ0A Jo soquinU aBse] yg suonysodasd Bupjor sq12, searyuyjur pup spunses form. a3 practising. to play gol Jage 200 ® ers) in feof the 200° Book in soyou Open cloze sitions of time: at, in, on Study this lst of prepositions of time and the notes that follow them and then complete the sentences below with the correct preposition. eee sed for ‘@aact periods of die: ot five o'dock ot dinnertime, a this moment, ot the end, at the begining (ofthe day) + festivals: at Christmas, ot Easter, ot New Year * others: atthe weekend, at weekends, t night (but during the day, at present (now) is used for * ‘days and dates: on Mondoy, on Mondays, on June 19th, on Christmas Day (compare ot Christmas) * periods of days snd dates” on Sunday morning on Friday night, on summer evenings is used for * “Tanger periods of time: in August in spring, in 1985, inthe nineteenth century, inthe Middle Ages, inthe post inthe fture (compare at (Ue) present (me) periods within which or at the end of which something may happen: the morning. in five minutes, fn aweek’s time 1 The baby was bor en. Q wo $C OCIOCK ele the MOHRING nM un January 15th 2 Vim very busy enon present and $0 I couldn't meet er fu. May 8th, as she suggested, oF any time during the week so we've finally agreed to meet ..~.f.... the weekend. 3 We always goto England ....... Christmas to spend few days with my son and have dinner with him 9... Christmas Day. The only thing I don’t like is that it gets very dark there $0 tly in the fteFM0OM ll ne Winker: 4 Onthe other hand it's lovely to sit outdo04s there wlll ner time snn.Maons Summer evenings when it doesn't get dark til very late, though even then is usually quite cold... Right, compared to what we're used 10 in Greece. We're very busy sill the summer months and I can't see any improvement taking pl4ce wl the near future so the best I can say is that this should e ready iow 8 mOMER'S time, eal nl September. rison Study the notes and then complete the paragraph, filling each gap with an appropriate word. re @) The comparative of adjectives is formed with more + adjective or adjective ending ine: the superlative is formed with most + adjective or adjective ending in -est. We always use the superlative for comparisons employing phrases like in the worl, anywhere, where more than two are clearly involved. He's a more elegant player than his brother, but his brother is stronger in fot, he's the strongest player Tve ever played ogeinst, and abo the most competitive. | thnk he must be the most competitive player inthe world, () Note the words associated with the same, different, si ‘She's the same height a8 her father. The dothes she wears are different from her sisters Her otitude tie similar to her brothers (6) Note the irregular forms of comparison: good better best Bad worse worst uch more most tle’ less least She's a better player than her father He's less accurate ond mokes more mistakes. 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Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0), The Olympic Games ~ ancient and modern Baron Pierre de Coubertin revived the Olympic Games in 1896 with the aim of fostering athletic excellence and (0)... international... harmony. He looked back to the ancient Olympic Games for (1)... Ata, non believing that they hhad had a similar purpose. In fact they were (2) ..£88@0tH@.... religious in origin, and very diferent from what we understand by (3) .u..£0tnneitive.. sport today. The Games were part ofa religious festival lasting five days. This was why there was a truce in wars between city states whenever they were celebrated, This was a means of ensuring that all the (4) .....atticnants.... could travel safely to Olympia. It would have been an insult tothe gods to prevent their journey. In the same way, when Leonidas of Sparta led his 300 heroes to Thermopylae to fight the Persians, his force was small because the (5) velM¥@SI0N..... coincided with the Games. No one blamed the (6) .mant@maitde... ofthe Spartans for staying behind to complete their religious (7) ...8RSSLWANCE. ‘The ancient Olympic Games had more in common with De Coubertin’s conception than with the Games today, where (8) nn £QMMMEUSI@. attitudes are dominant. The victors at Olympia received a simple crown as a prize. But there were also a number of differences. The competitors were all male, and women ‘were not even permitted to watch. Its said that a female relative of the Olympic champion Doreus gained (9) .....admittance... dressed as a man, but tripped and fell. Her tunic came (10) «HOA QN6. revealing all in more ways than one, and she was expelled from the precinets commence : : i j Os sere ea 4 i ‘anea} NOK ways Op 03 FuIOH NOK a4¥ VEYA — powr@ sts 9 mt es Vs © anaes oF Symetey sa 1 — soouanuas 2auip ye u Ajaeudosdée pesn aq ura aeip pom Ajuo ay 022x0U (G40 3 “A "W) Jone} stp punose BAP eI Y seouaaues paddo8 Sunsjdwio> Soouaquas paddoy Ga sentences. It's pity we lost, but never ‘We'll play better next time, Iwas raining hard but I didn’t it all that much. Would you ‘opening the door for me? He only started playing five years ago but he's a long way since then, At my age I can’t play as well as used to, but Ive to terms with it He's been talking for half an hour but he still hasn't to the point His parents taught him how to play when he was very young so he had a head ‘over the other boys. She led the race from to finish “The team were playing so badly that they decided to make a fresh with a new coach, h him, because he won't listen. There's no in arguing wi “Prese animals have been hunted to the of extinction ‘You're entitled to your of view, even though I don’t agree. op" aa4o°""" Sep stn a4 wo S908 oy 31 wy APES pu aoUENEd 204 Iussog oun ep “a0 T1818 420% 03 ut atuOD 3,upIP 94 WorSeI00 au tuo pue aye] Sumo oge wy pause 94,94 BWA =~ 7ARe"aUL™ TeMound AIDA U99q s9A0u SH {mans 19494 NOK Ing IMyaseD axOUL 9q 0 UIERE—— ya PUB" BUUN NOK PION 341 -souoysn9 reindou w 4980} OU s.34 34 * aU. OT a oxy wy sie9 Bs 94 pur YSU} w 2>UO ‘SfeasonUl “"aHIMBSTT YO" YWEINEISOH at 04 BUI09 01 past -noy we sfe4 40} NOK 305 Buea. 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He's Isin from don ‘will Key word transformation sal verbs: come Replace the phrases in italic type with the verb come in the correct tense and the appropriate preposition or adverb. Those marked * require two. Write your answer in the column on the right. 1 Doyou think that question will arse atthe meeting? ome un, 2 He inherited a fortune when his uncle died. i 3° Look! The flowers have started to bloom. are, coming out 4 [don’t know ifthe experiment will succeed but it's worth ying come off S They can argue for as long as they like but in the end it simply has ‘comes, down to to dowith one thing - money!" 6 Thisisan intersting book. found it quite by chance in te brary ame. across 7 How on earth did that happen? It seems very strange. come. about, 8 Theic policies have been the objet of alot of crtism.* cone... 9 — I'mafraid we've encountered a very serious problem." come ip eee, ‘The film was rather disappointing. It didn't reach the level of our expectations.* come. $0. with come Study these phrases with come and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in the correct form: |_come a long way * come to grief + come to @ head + come othe paint + come toa standsil * come to terms with 1 The trouble with committee meetings is that there are people lke George who goon talking for ten minutes at atime without ever ..coming. 9. the. point 2 Since the workers went on strike, all services have ..<2Mme. 10.4, standstl 3 We stared out asa very small company but we've... 40nd. OY...” since them 4 They had high hopes when they opened the shop but unfortunately, because of Jack’s accident, they have all...came 0. are. S The tension between management and workers hasbeen growing for some time and now, with this new argument about pay, it has ...S0Me. 0.4. head % [realise that as I get older, I can't do some ofthe things I used to but one just has to. 62M. 0.868, With i For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first Sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight "words, including the word given. 1 When the concert finished, the audience rose to applaud the conductor. end When the concert came. 9, 9n. end the audience rose to applavd the conductor. 2 Your request wil be dealt with at a more appropriate time. due Your request will be dealt with in, due. course. 3 The twins have begun wel in the competition, start The twins have made.0.aged, start. in the competition. 4 Wenced to consider everything before reaching a decision. account Before reaching a decision, we need 10 vn Aahe.suerthing, Ito, account He was very upset when she refused to marzy him but by now he has accepted it. T © | tsuioreca terms INA | INventanio Hie was very upset that she id not want to marry him but by now he has....come. £0 terms. with Nye 6 This trouble has been building up for a long time and now it’s reached a critical stage head ‘This trouble has been building up for along time and now i's some. 0.2, head 7 There are plenty of reasons why he wasn't elected. To begin with, he's not even a member ofthe ci (S4ee 54d omaz—r| word place f There are plemyof reasons why he wasnt cected. tn the. fist. wace aimember ofthe club | 8 Las lad to sce him go. His vist was nightmare ll he time he washer. s beginning Twas glad to see him go. His visit was a nightmare irom beginning to. end. [a Practice test 1 | For questions I-15, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in ‘each space, There is an example at the beginning (0). Under the Roman republic the calendar was based (0) Moun the moon, and 30 it was about leven days shorter than the modern solar year. In (1) to prevent it from getting too far out of step with the seasons, a committee WaS 2) non 8€brnnn Up to add (3) extra month of about 23 day every two years butas areal of carelessness and.a certain (4)..AMQU..... of bribery and eorruption, the system (5) en DEORE, nn. down. By the year SOC, the dates were (6) far out of touch with the seasons that the spring equinox fll in May (7) ...t#@.... of March, about cight weeks 0 late Consequently, Julius Caesar asked an Alexandrian astronomer, Sosigines, (8) advice. Sosigines realised thatthe only thing t0 (9) enn 2.nan Was to abandon the lunar calendar and replace it with (10) nn based on the sun. In order to correct the error that (11) arisen, 67 days were added to the year 46 BC, and it was decided that in future some of the months would always be a day or two longer. ‘Sosigines did his best to solve the problem but his calendar year was a little too long and by the sixteenth ‘century this had once again become a problem. In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII consulted his astronomers, (12) vv aes advised him to leave out ten days from the year. However, (13) oft religious and political reasons, many European countries refused to accept the change and so for centuries the date varied from one country to another. The Gregorian calendar was finally adopted in Britain in 1752 but in Greece it did not (14) z the place of the Julian calendar (15) Hh ne 1923. For questions 16-25, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is an as example at the beginning (0). ‘Among the remedies that have gained widespread (0) ..gceotance... in recent years for cour the treatment of iliness are the extracts of flowers originally developed about 70 years ago by Dr Bach. Bach was convinced that most nervous conditions have an (16) ...¢matiandl EMOTION basis and that the cure for almost all of them can be found in infusions from simple plants and trees. Since the little bottles containing these infusions and now sold commercially are neither (17) ...24di¢8¥e... nr fattening, itis not surprising that in our health-conscious pict age they have become (18) -inreasinaly... popular. Another advantage that Bach's Flowers INCREASE possess is that they are made from natural substances which are completely (19) ...armh Hart in themselves so that, unlike many drugs prescribed for such conditions, they have no side-effects. “They may not cure but they cannot kil So far the medical evidence for th ‘well-known doctors claim to have used them successfully. Of course, no one is suggesting curative properties is inconclusive, though that they can (20)... @21Q6¢,... the drugs prescribed for serious physical disorders. Pace ‘A-chart issued to explain their properties indicates the most suitable plants for treating such problems as (21) ISS... or different kinds of fear. Those who suffer from Loewy fear of the (22) now... , for example, are advised to take aspen, while those KNOW whose fear stems from (23) Donn for others should take red chestnut. anxious My own (24)... limited... experience with the flowers suggests that while they may not user ‘always be effective, there isa logical explanation forthe help they can offer to people suffering {from stress. Just by looking atthe chart and seeing which plant is recommended as the (25) —_s0ltion..... 10a problem, we are making an effort to understand our emotions and SOLE the reasons for the problem that we have, and that is half-way towards finding a cure. about bo far out ‘month Ebribery bout tdvice. replace ould fateenth in 752 1923, telines to Practice test 1 For questions 26-31, think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences. You must supply the word yourself. Here is an example (0). © agree that there 8 00 $886 no fr changing the aw ‘The detective made his name by solving a difficult murder oe It's not worth asking him, and in any case, | think he’s on holiday. Note: In the practice 26 They built that ef Mn nnn Of HOUSES SOOM after the War ie ieee Hes deat sohe always ies to st in the font oyu athe theatre paris = S They've sacked their manager after losing sx games in beeen 4 posites 27 Ittakes alot of........PEACtE....n to become a good player. She used toe very good but she's out of wn BEC Tm looking forward othe time when Tean put my ideas into x9 2B What funy clothes you're wearing! Ate you trying 10 SEs fashion? The other rers relied of JOR 0 we $€E nthe POE. Be careful with that! You could wa. 38b the house on fie 29 She's doing very well at work and is in Jing. for promotion. The company are presenting a new. fine. in sports clothes. Wout you Bold the lM fra moment? Tl see she’s inthe office 30 I¢san interesting book buts ben disappointing in sles tt. She's on very 00d wR... with everyone atte offic He il has come tn REM. with is alae to be promoted 31 He offered meth ob but inthe same i BA sad he changed his ind Fam just going to step otside fr a FEM... fresh The crowd hed ther. ath. a the captain prepared take the pena For questions 32-39, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given. Here is an example (0) © He was attracted to her from the moment he saw her. love He ocounf@lLJ Jove. with. her. at frst. sight. 32 We get on very well with our neighbours terms We un Af@.90. Very. good. terms. with... our neighbours. 33. There's alot of traffic on the road today so she'll probably arrive late. likely She ...8.Ukely. 40. arrive. late. as | because... there's alot of traffic on the road today. 34 The Minister’ failure to explain the incident caused considerable speculation. The Minister's failure to explain the incident gave.cise, to. considerable speculation, 35 Everyone said that what had happened was my fault. blame Everyone said that I gs, to, blame. for. what had happened, 36 Is this the hotel where the conference is going to be held? take Is the conference going to take place in. this hotel? 37 _ Before reaching a decision, you must consider all the possibilities. account ‘You must ..take.al.the. possiblities. into.account... before reaching a decision. 38 Her parents were surprised to hear that she had decided to leave home. Her decision to leave home came. as. sucoris. 19. her parents, 39 They have made her responsible for the investigation into the crime. charge She has been ...ut.in. chara ofthe. investigation... into the crime ea ‘jdurexa “yop “so0nbsow Jo sye1 ~ ouRAD auued9q So}90ds aos J 2109104 Ino ‘uO 40} ‘| 1nq pouwoddosip sepued “~~~ 5yqj~"--~ Sou Apoud Je 128dN 29 je POM 9m puE UOOULXD YptA ppouoteasuy 3ujaq sajeqy se soxsods “= ysig""™™" ge AON ayHPIHK Yat PauszoUDD axe oY a}do2q_—§ “2ouvysu jg] “uorUNOS 01 “Ay 24) apysino din ep & aye or YANN OE sang uouoypaeg ax “py SYABUUPUT SHOU aqp YSTA ISMUE NOK SUOMBY UL AI NOK NYA —F suronueg pte sopoypy 21910) yB"- SpURIT BuNSSAONUL “ys” ESHER BHTUD yg 2osy PUL Omid se gag srogdosoyd yaaup Jo Som amp peas or poy Kydosonyd SuuKpmIs 212% OY" 280 T sopidung pue sojpoudos sp" sisneueAp Ya1D yo sKeyd ayn peas 9 pur|Su| UE AyssoatUN ye exMTeION POFPMS [HOUT stad s0 s2yous 10 siwoByo 0 saumpasp afuens yans doay aydoad aos “pues oq UeD se YRS YpIM J0pI0 Pom suL_(@) sod s0 yout 10 sinodyo 50 ypnsyayy seumoen aBuons doy adood owos ‘9}dusoxe 10} '2y0U 10 sorely ~ si 50 saumoan a8vons 4904 aydo0d aus "=2u018i 10} 9gluox9 Jo} 03 S2AReUsaAye se SE YSN JO OHI] 95N VED AA (8) SSE ppuom areudoudde a1p (pm sooueuas aun aiajdwo> vatp pue sarou ain Kemg ‘mt pup se yong, nemo “ss aoureunzoyzod sy snoge sn Sot Buu949 apous a4 ads 24 ‘nsn “gy “osu nOgE Bury S040] 24 ‘suo1e sou!“ yi7""""* pte “HORDE Ue BOLO SBA 24 ‘MOU NOK Ey 9 “op mo 5 SBD aS UEP TANG "AOS sHHp— SIND. STOp AaFaId |g ‘pussy sp wa JO UN He NOK asneD9q ‘worUIdo Kul UL 'op "ssi" ABH you ANE SIE ye s01e1p 2101, eg pannag Sey a4 oman SuBeuews ~~~~yp pontnodde sem 4 20uis945 ‘ubwioysy Byyr BUA IN SUED HZ ysy egy NS HD HLT sop Joypoig Au s0jop | $0 ‘uopuny wr yom ays Lusoy qi9e © kg pamojoy se “ounouq Auy/our 94 uopucy ur Byam ays unoUosd 40 UnoU © Aq PaMone} Om > en am “sje aze suonoe 10 ajdoad ZuasaZBns suosutdiwo> up) “nowy nok 50 Bos som | 30924 + hq pamojjos vow pu Aer £0 “uo}0220 snouasd Uo 0 onsn so ay suOISsauchD [eIGIOAPE USE 250 94, (2) ‘pum 2p 99 Suwury som 24 ‘ayo 0 yy 398M UIP UDD 245 tuosuedwo> 4 uno © Aq pamoyy anu 250 2% () 22po3) 0 s0 won puou oso 2s0u 124 p08) | ‘duysuoneas® “nop #0 njapuon som 2g} kedpuyy et padeyd sed © > ‘aa UD sD S00 3H ols aucewos amnage ij 02 unou © kq pamoyoy se a5n 2 (©) ‘piom areusdoudde axa yam sded aip Buy sapuanuss atp arejduio> ays pu saiou axa fpms Wy om pun sy azoj9 uadQ Open cloze jarison (2): as, than, so, such The information you need on comparison is given in Unit 4 (page 31) but students often make mistakes in long passages when the missing word forms part of a comparison. Study these notes and examples and then complete the dialogue with the correct word. Eaten) {@) Inthe affirmative, the comparative form Is as... as. In the negative, it may be not as... as or not so. as. (©) The same is ahways followed by as, even though there are a number of words in between, than. as|s0 Jon: Dogs make better companions (1) not (2) affectionate as dogs are Sorah: I don’t agree. My cat is (3) nen MSacnae a good a companion, though its trae that dogs show their affection more openly (5) ..EM Bn a cals, in my opinion. Cats a ctionate towards me as any dog, and just (4) 88 John: But surely they don't have the same feeling for their owners (6) that they're not attached to a person (7). 45152... much as to the dogs. ve always thought use they lve in Soran Perhaps it depends on what you want from a pet. Cats are not (8) mmm SM6h.... good companions as dogs ityou want to play games with them but they're quieter and more restful and I've always preferred a cat because it’s easier to keep one in a Mla in a city (9)... dog. ohn: 1 alld ree with you there, I have exactly the same attitude towards keeping large dogs locked up in small fats (10) BB YOU have clauses and too... for Study these sentences and then complete the sentences below with the correct word in the space. The fel is s0 diry that we can’t ploy there. The feds too dirty for us to ploy there. They were making s0 much noise that we couldn’t enjoy our meol They were making too much noise for us to enjoy our meal They asked so many questions that | couldn’t answer them al They asked too many questions for me to answer them all The bOOK WAS s-$@L interesting that I couldn't put it down, The court Was o.-f02%.enon Wet for us to play tennis. Repairing the house would cost ..$@..UCh... that it's not worth considering, Thave £00 !MQAY...n. things to do this morning to watch that programme. The street was {00 N&ETOW soon the cars to pass each othe They ene S@rnonse Much that it’s no wonder they're fat There have been fat 499... many accidents on this corner. Hee works quite well but he takes £00 M46. time off ined Lior ours pain on sunt oy nt 24 prow of y0] ff wosonb ERE War OM pao 0 900) tale ‘onan a4 mony 11 op nO 24d. 104 ~ ‘ 121 ypu 250 sao i pod 29 . ous psow 20 S050 yons uy sy my oy au0> 2 ony 01 Sou mg pos us» fo Sou 4 Puosiopun sououis Su nos pry sp fo 19 4p a —_—_<_<—$_ um uotueduios wrung $1 J0 9p 249 Ns ZT 30-36" (GT) aN pop aH UH AHH pouuTIaL Shee IFT MG Sq 2 paw “3994 (PL) 998 01 sEAsOLU SEO ye S903 29 0 YEG AFT YOO HOUDIE 2S wud pinoo “ys;gai"~~ (E1) ‘SBuroq UBUNY s9yN0 Ypooxdde 1 pus un 209 yoseos now 47 aspwsounO “Aus 2401 79Eq WAY 248) O} BABY pom ay pases dyvouyed Addequn sea 9 ey) spe sea ype (21) Buna auam Koy" (LL) 99501 8910} 241 01 pouuntas 24 oq IMG Ano "GBH" (OL) Se UNI a4 “sINOD aNp Up 8040) a4 HS so4) pu UK as} UDNA pu oq BOD poosg Loy 39101 sem wed sip 9405 241 u 900 ye YIU 240 pue axEu S.A] 2410024 HOM WAN sIO 2qeLID} © 20) “yp635p}00) (6) 0 PapLEap aH PH 4p Us gH ¥ 30} auedasdun sem yap 204 eu 94) 38°77" (G) 00 pueage mq qoute, 94H 449 w w amyeax9 |ryLowod v yons Surd209 Jo SsBUHp 241 JO “sao (.) iy sea 2428010) 249 01 HY Yoo: argo atAoUDpeR “de NB (9) ATT SY asamp Sayy e035 8 sg" (6) “ywounuoo ax jo sind “~~~~jigy~" (p) © uF nq Sporsoay Zundo.01d Jo suoseas feonoeAd 94 404 se qe. 10} UF Hondas soM Jo ans (E) MU" eFEG=—~ () OU adouNE UL UOHOUHXD OF oUUTE ¥nog otuny us9q 2464 sOajON “AFT poE> ay Y>uYAN‘SuyBUNOW a4 tH KROTw UE no yom FunOs 2 Sep 2u0 me sjeuue Jo gy" (1) u9Dq sMempe pey a4] uoRd>oxD UP s eRNROAD Ut qa1HeZ, wou, ‘1s0u9qeqt Inet Inq “1, WO} uoNOAAP zo9dX9 40 UOLUEdUIO9 ¥ Se [om B as004! pjno ayood mod Soom ays purrs Sy ;Puom ajqeains uo ym aBessed aya UI SyUEIG pavaquINU ay Jo Y>e2 Id a 3591 Word formation Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space Jn the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0) Ee Should we bring back wolves to Scotland? Whe “The lst wof in Scotland was killed in 1749 but there is now a (0) mawement. Nove 7 among conservationists to reintroduce them. Young wolf cubs born in Wax (1) non YY ne i 2008 em just like friendly dogs and those carro Been. who seek (2) nen APREQVA anf the plan point out that seeing them Aprnove : is enough to reverse the (3) .MISCONCEPEIONS about these animals that concert have come down to usin folktales te. “The obvious place for them to be reintroduced in Britain isthe highlands a ‘of Scotland, where there is (4) ....0UNdanE..... fod for them in AwouND diet the shape of wild deer The (5) vw PEQROSAL... is nevertheless bound PRoPOst to be opposed by sheep farmers, just as similar projects inthe United States have annoyed cattle ranchers. EF The conservationists arguments are (6)... RECS4ASHve.... hut experience PERSUADE in the United States, where the territory concerned was immense by ©) enneSQIMPTHEON.... indicate a numberof problems. Wolves travel coma Jong distances in search of food, While (8) ..thusiasts.. would like EXTHUSE his 1s to believe that they are similar to dogs, the (9) ..afestionate erection household companions we know and love, they would be more than likely : tokill and cat any pets tht they encountered. So far there have been n0 reports of wolves attacking human beings in America, but who knows what a ungry pack would do on @ (10). 460880. 0-n- populated island? Dense m=z —— underard fot know the fewer may | ‘uoturdo Aus uy * Sop w st gol yo uos yews ystu ye ‘21e] 1p 2910 24 wHo¥y susoy 128 ,usoop UdYyO pu ZuswioUs aYp UL Y>o2,0 4n0} re dn 398 01 SEY 944 was w osoyp due sfungn ang Janou v u fam 98 ef Sump Jo UOS eH, oroyscue yous ou sex atau pauasap payoo} asnoy 2x, ‘son { apewr isnt 0s ‘omsue yy8ts ayn Jo apy ou Pe | ‘iaMou, ‘sutos sd 01 940) 241 NH} INO WAN DYE ‘3snoy aun punose Hurjo4 puta ayy em “80 eset ‘ysoads Jo ‘241 180] 24 pu waprooe oy) w pounfur Sea IRONND SHEL ‘ayunoo amp yo sme] 241 poBuey> 24 (1 amo ay se woos sy ‘nok diay 01 uy w Syp62949 Op LL ajqisuodsou spear sea sorstun up yp 998 ue nok ‘sour ayp uodiag ‘nok jing owe 0} Sem U0 OU eH SKes 1H0d95 HLL 101 aweu smog ind nos a10}09 AyRyose9 YoeNUOD aMN YBHO.N sadedsmou a4 ut Yooq Sy uo YEN oH (01 poystuorse ses 941 ‘seouanuas aauip ie ut Ajaeydoadde posn ag ue> rey pom Ayuo aya 022.04 (qq 40 Dg “y) 1009] a4 punare BUD eINg y soouauas paddo8 Sunajduio> Saguaquas \ Gq sentences ly in all What are you looking at me like that for? I've got nothing to Tean’t think why you the keys where no one can find them. ‘She was very upset but thought it best to her feelings. 6 ie hit eg awe Tl We'll have to fast it w hat not going to miss the train, ‘over and make room for Joan to sit down. At first I thought the room was empty but then I saw something inthe far corner, money and soon into debt. He was very careless wil He treated her badly when they were little but when she grew up she her own back It.was a nice place to spend a holiday but the awful weather me down, 8 [A answer B consequence € score @ result ‘Can you tell me the ‘of the blood test I took last week? What was the of the match you played yesterday’? She's been undergoing treatment for the past month and as a(n) she feels much better. yos9 01 1 ,4op 08 au dI9q P,nOK pres HOK ei ois Buoxm 24,n06 ams w,1 Inq Susso8Bns 4NO% EHH NOUYT — 6 ii i 5336 3 4of paysmund jus nq so S91 34 SUEIINHIO OM HT i pai 8 umof ,aasey pur Seng S198 4994 24 14 UH [SE OOS Se AEH L ia) is Ba Sou Sunyovouddo 52 9 ‘iis ab pelos 24 Sjaywunyiojun yng Jay 2 $ aii 8B auokson9s2ssed r ii 36 2yiom ye afdood soqo oun yap diysuoqn £ aa Tae soniaq yon Huj2y we pure NOUS z ee aq sada yous oy 210 ps ys 1 yu op uo uwunjo> 40 uopisodaud asetidoudde aya pue asue 2204 p ut Jomsue anok a),4 ona aunbod pays 950 ful 398 Quon at ua add you Uy Saseayd 2 a 398 :5q/04 jOsDItig mus sur LL popup st way Bu 40 199830] 24 TE oes wr ou paadons 01 asj2 auoiano yn satadsoa auorane axoqo a1 J0 Sem TT sige au 9u0 UI WIA SION mO}Eq 25 palq 40 yeusiue 3301109 ‘ap Yala uo|ssasdxe U>ea arajduo> “s]ewue pue spaiq Yalm suo|ssoudx9 Jo uO} moje s90ua0Uas yy. sasoiyd jousjuy :hspjnqor0n 3ujpuodxg with the ses the ry sts at night. {be found, succeed. with down, may. ion for Ind to ay, with ga of Key word transformation ith get (Study these phrases with get and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in each case in the Korrect form. Use the correct possessive pronoun instead of one's etamove on + gercold feet + getinto debt * getintoone'sstide + get on one's nerves get one's own bock + get out ofhand + getridof + getthesack + get the beter of The way he smiles as soon ashe sees someone with a camera irritates me. It really .n..GEES. OUI. MEER. 2 don't know why you keep those old clothes you never wear. You shoud... G6. £id Af. them al. BS _He'sa very good businessman. You won't find it easy to... GEE. the, Metter Of... him in a deal & He found the work rather difficult at frst, but once he understood what he had to do, he soon at into his stride, E Ifyou come to the office as late as this tomorrow, you'l... 4. the. $4¢k Get. a.move.on.....! We're all waiting for you! F {don’t believe in borrowing money. Once you ....9et. into, debt you never know if you'll be able to pay it back BS Things have, got. out. of hand..... 1m afraid we've lost control of the situation, He treated me very badly when we were at school together so I'm just waiting for the opportunity to gt my..cwn. ack, She said she was going to tell the boss what she thought about him but atthe last minute she got.cold. fet... and lacked the courage to go through with it rmation Fer each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first Seecence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight Breeds. including the word given. F We're not very well off but we've got enough to live on without going hungry. wolf We're not very well off but weve got enough to ....AGER. the. Wot. from. the, doo. 2 He had always liked animals fond He had always been fond of, animals. 3 Ifthe Government doesn't act soon, the situation will be beyond their control hand If the Government doesn’t act soon, the situation will cet. out. of hand, 4 Doyou know the risks involved in keeping the animal here? Are. you. aware. of the risks involved in keeping the animal here? S Weer these tests to help the teacher separate the good students from the weaker ones. sheep We set these tests to help the teacher separate the sheep. from. the goats 6 That awful rap music they're playing upstairs is driving me mad, That awful rap music they're playing upstairs is getting on. my. nerves. 7 They arrived late because of the heavy traffic, due Their late arrival was. due to the heavy traffic 8 You're wasting your time. I's search that won't lead you anywhere. chase You're wasting your time. You're iwvolved in 9..wil goose, chase. ‘on with the Ises the Key word transformation jes with get Study these phrases with get and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in each case in the correct form. Use the correct possessive pronoun instead of one’s. seta move on + getcold feet + getinto debt + getino one’s side * get on one’s nerves selone's own back + get outofhand > getridof = getthesack + get the beer of (ests at night {be found, succeed. with own ay bn for iid to with gat of 1 The way he smiles as soon as he sees someone with a camera iritates me, It really ...GRtS.0M.tNx..IV, 2 [:don't know why you keep those old clothes you never wear. You should .....9¢6i. af them all 3 He'savery good businessman. You won't find it easy to... the. better Of... him in a dal 4 He found the work rather difficult at firs, but once he understood what he had to do, he soon apt. inc, stride 5 Ifyou eome to the offic as late as this tomorrow, you'l....98. 6. $6, 6... Gea. move.on....1 We're all wating for you! 7 {don’t believe in borrowing money. Once you... int, det you never know if youl beable to pay it back 8 Things have. got out. ofhand..... I'm afraid we've lost control of the situation. 9 Hie treated me very badly when we were at school together so I'm just waiting for the opportunity to ‘get. my. 2, back, B0 She said she was going to tell the boss what she thought about him but atthe ast minute she at. cold. feet... and lacked the courage to go through with it formation For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the frst Sentence, using the word given, Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight Swords, including the word given. 1 We're not very well off but we've got enough to live on without going hungry. wolf We're not very well off but we've got enough 0 nw A@&P, the Wolf from, the, door 2 He had always liked animals fond He had always been fond of. animals S the Government doesn't act soon, the situation will be beyond their control hand If the Government doesn’t act soon, the situation will act. out. ofhana 4 Doyou know the risks involved in keeping the animal here? Are. you, aware. of the risks involved in keeping the animal here? ‘We set these tests to help the teacher separate the good students from the weaker ones, sheep ‘We set these tests to help the teacher separate the sheep. from the. goats 6 That awful rap music they're playing upstairs s driving me mad, That awful rap music they're paying upstairs is getting on.my.reeves. 7 They arrived ate because of the heavy traffic, due’ Their late arrival was, due, to, the heavy traffic $ You're wasting your time. I's a search that won't lead you anywhere. chase You're wasting your time. You're involved in 9.wild goose chase, yp1p wapowr ~~~ gyi" PoresUEN u99q KEY Om STH OT “uetano ayy ose 01 soBeueus afeys ayy "gy" POYBUAS LOAN ALL G ayfiu MosioWoI SouEUUOYad ayL jg" SIEOS INO] PEAS. es uy smourey ©" UH SUNS SSE WH, estoyon ayy jg" hed o1 a8ey NOK PIP YO AHL 9 ‘sje auoomos "nig" NOK YoOISU [no We paynoys [AUS WL] § -ayol ayy ig pays] Aoyd ayn BumjoreN wAIPH OMT, “saqpop soon gg passaup SEM IO]E A, E “Kod 24 mr 2ouvuusopsad 304 "ys" 194 pareIMEsBUOD |Z ‘uojstnaqon uo yore yegioo} a ZuysTEA pur aneaKp ax O1 Bus0s ~~ ss" BOON 1 PRY —T uonsodaud aneudoudde oxp yum saouanuas aip arajduio5 -aspuexe snp Zundurene a1ojeq 907 @Bed uo | xpuaddy épms suonssodasd Bupjor squ2, “Assman gs Sea8 a4 URW AL ag Suwodde Speauye sem LL “yup uum © nox Bang 1 “pq ap HO UOYAA "NOK A198 TJE-PQ “BT OB pmo |/PAsH Yoo OX —-9 Jypuoyy mx9u yum avo ys" 5.94 F585 UY Repor Samp ig" USE NETIDS IY, tuogud “gg yuas pu kyr punoy Sea 24 yun09 dn JUTED 9S TY UHM "uawous ayp re pautedas Bulag yop "jf" Sa] “atqssod se Uoos st ogre “pyr pauuntar Aowp os ajqnon auifuo padojasap diys ayn Was-——ypr atom KOMP ETAL ys “ge adam Kay putoy ‘94 pouimias ay wows pue Zunaou w pjay S19y0M ayp ssouNg “i AEA MN SSO WYANT yuo 5 $908 ayy ayn yoodas “4g ApwaaTE uae | Os Burwsous o4p Ul OY Aw BxOJaq awOY ONO] TT pimp w sem Losiod aip fee pjnom am auoy ae suoydaye atp posomsue ‘om jaNq "2 aptsino BupuRDS axe am DUMP Us} uOsied eg pos ap uo ‘suoy 08 | Aes om rep ON pom on (08) yom 10 ‘Assoqun 01 (03) ‘Aue ne uo (0) aso (08) 03530 op 2 (8) esd 01 (08) vosud ous or (08) 2102] uo (08) 2408) U0 rudsoy 0% (03) uy 10 “opyey wo (03) snoqioy 0 (pos) snoqu04 ut ‘np wo (08), pop ut uno> 0 (903) ‘pump 0 (08) pnp 10 supsng uo (08) 440 uo ‘uy 98 ‘uonisodad areidosdde ayp yay mojag soDuezues aup arejdwo> pu ‘a2u210j04 104 21 SP 957, (anoge Bupjre s1 1oxeeds aup jedsoy yoy mouy apn) Tomdsoy oup uy sar88 Au si 03 Byo8 wy "Wu2pO90 409 0 ur Lny som apy TBaIdsOy Ut SH ssojdurexe asoip ut se ‘a2eid “ejnonsed e anoge Supye) axe om ssajun parywo s} yp 2104" suOREIO||OD UOUILUOD Jo JOqUINU BIE OUOYL s40)3020]]09 woulLUo> az0j9 uadQ particular uc) oes tmmed he [ubring [appropriate Open cloze the thing that) What can be used as subject or object in noun clauses to mean ‘the thing that. What made me laugh was the expression on his face. You aren't fistening to what I'm saying. Ber cis not used with an adjective or with words like all, everything etc. The only thing that amused me wos the expression on his face. All (that) you care about is having @ good time. Nou havent token ary notice of anything (that) Ive been saying. plete the paragraph by writing what or that in each space. Actors usually fee! a litle nervous before a performance but the thing (1) ....8MAE..u. frightens them | eesti going blank, This is (2) on .MMAE..... happens when you do not remember (3) .un#A@e you | Fave to say next and even ifthe prompter whispers the next line, you don't remember (8)... | HEomes after it. Everything (5) ...ANE..... you have learnt suddenly goes out of your mind and the only BIg (6) BM nn matters isto try to Fecover before the audience notice (7) nonlin is going Ee Ifyou cannot do this, all (8) okl@ none YOU can dois to say something Hike (9) wn tHMM ao the {er is supposed to say and hope that you don't miss out something (10) uf! i important fan understanding of the play. during refers to the length of a period of time. During and in are used to refer to something that happened Been int period * 5 I booked in atthe hotel forthe night Joke up several times duringlin the night BH _Iewassuch a boring play that I didn’t know ifT could stand it... the whole performance. BS Patrons are asked not o leave their seats at any time ...AWEN.... the performance You've been asleep wmf Mmmm halfan hour, Hell asleep... 4... the performance ofthe play We'll have time for a drink... 4UCiNg...... the interval because it lasts .a..u£% uum a quarter of an hour, lBttle, a few, a little, fewer, less, not much, not many dy these notes. Then complete the sentences below with one word from the list. 1G) Few (often very few) suggests something negative. fe means not many. Little often very lietle) means not much. {A few is more postive. lt menns ‘some but not many’. A little means ‘some but not much There were very few people ot the meeting but afew decisions were reached 1©) FewiA few are used with countable nouns, little little with uncountable nouns Tye bought a litle cheese and a few tomaroes HO) Fewer isthe comparative form of few les is the comparative form of litte. There ore fewer boy than eis inthe cose Theyve go less money thar we hae. the theatre 4 He haso’t....MCh.... eause to blame anyone else for what happened. He would be on stronger ground ite made...._wer..... mistakes himself Tagree. He should have a...jitl.... patience and then there Would De eun@SS.. Cause for complaint 1 There weren't very .....MAM¥..... people in the audience but when he came on stage &.£Wanan Of them started to applaud. 2 Teas my impression that ery nn £Q..... people understood the play and eve onn£EWEF nn. enjoyed it 3 Thave very cnlttlE. nu time (0 spare these days but when ThaVe @ eon flMasnon days off Falways go to nu se + (g) 1 Buiddoyo yno yng aouoypne 24 pus aya ve yng a}qUIO) SEHR (,) soousypny ng "1 28a4}99 Ape “FS 1ysnoup | 1ey) Burwano s94h0 ap Aeyd ¥ O1 NaH | sfasuENS A194 19894” nas e sa} nq 1@nop | - 20uaHxu Hoty BunewHsozopun 29 OY LEAL “AWOL “aouatpne oun jo stoquio yu384a1u 210M a4} 04 eodde iis ap (6) W-pu> 2p 01 oreo 2auoned 4 anny ou gi” (21400 auuos edie pa sensu yeu gsr (€) aude Ing HR 39" fai" Z) NOR ‘Suo] oo1 yonut §3p “azweatp aqp UL pasoons 01 edoy “~~ gigip57"" CD) eM 4 Ae W 3,ue> uevp sounes youre 57) 3yByRU 25r “A> 20u 51 Agysod ap yup nok y ‘aseuyd 40 piom areuidoudde ue yim andojeip axp ut saousnUas atp o12}dW0D “soy ayous uo> avolay saxo shenye rip Aqssod © stosdxo 0: posn Aso ste (P) -asmoy ayp oj rsnfAuo s.ays 74 anDayp axp 30 2q 3,409 2YS “Bw som ays arsyn hos 2.upip 245 ‘an0241 ap 30 aq ou ADU ays -sases eane\nodiy ul pue oun sed vy posh 51 3,upinoc souavesesauo8 uy pe awa 2085044 ut pas 8 (Goud) pe faqnsodun oxepul nupinoa|(aouue>)3,ueD - 200" sdeyod,as088ns 20u ayBheyy °) 24 99 Y00)u590P 11399 MDH afl BsOdds | se 95 Apayssod 9422p 598Bns pynom 3g soydusexe afin w pasn aq PINeD WHBHAA. 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Wel, | could if we meetin the morning. When Ive seen oll the endence, be able to make a decision. Thaven't been able to goto the theatre recent ve been to busy. TS) inpast time, we must use was able to, not could, to indicate a particular achievement rather than general ability Becouse he could swim he was able to swim tothe shoe when the ship sank Jn such cases, we can use managed to or succeeded in (+ gerund) instead of was able to. | Able to is found with modals like may, might, must but not with can or could, Tlean’t promise the st wil be ready by tomorow, but | may be able to finish i by the day after. xe the sentences with one suitable word. Count short forms, lke can't and couldn’e as one word. ‘When he was young he $94... rn 100 metres in 10 seconds Tve never been able. to afford a holiday in a place like Hawaii ‘After quouing for half an hour outside the theatre, ..,usceeded... in buying a ticket Twon't be ble. to give you an answer until I've studied the evidence, Talike to see you tomorrow if enn getaway from the office 1 don’t know much about that, Tm afraid, but my colleague ih. (may... be able to help you. I's worth asking her, anyway. Tye been trying to contact her all morning but I haven'....@Neged.... to each her so far He... £QUIdM..... find the book he was looking for at first, but when he got a ladder he was... BI. toget it down. He .... succeeded... in solving the problem after years of research. Candidates forthe post Sh be able 10 use a word processor. Je trouble your own! anew to and (in)capable of “These phrases do not mean exactly the same thing. Able (unable) to is more common in specific circumstances — ‘apable) of means ‘able to and likely to’. In an examination item, however, i is more important E remember the different structures used. Compare these sentences. g wos unable to attend the meeting becouse ofa previous engagement. He's the most honest person | know, incopable of telling a le. When | left hospital, my leg was better and I was able to run/capable of running quite fest lly is not ‘Complete these sentences with the correct word. Some actors af 8 neon to remember two parts at the same time. rE He's nical... of reading a simple speech without making mistakes The computer is ....6@P0HlE..... of solving the most difficult mathematical problems in a few seconds. ‘They've taken him to hospital because he's... 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Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space Same line. There is an example at the beginning (0. actor atest lm, Phe Ki, Bruce Willis plays the part ofa (0). 34ST. success meets himself as he was when he was eight years old ssman who by may hates everything about the little boy, who is fat and (1)... M@E¥OUS.... and is Neve fied by other children but the child is equally (2) .4mimpressed.... by the man he IMPRESS become. certain extent, the film reflects Will's own childhood, When he was the was very shy and had a speech defect for which he was bullied. Acting in play (3) 8904... him to conquer i, and when he grew up he hid ane curity behind a tough outward (4) ..aPRearance APPEAR is was so (5) ...M¥Nina... that it won him the big part in Moonlighing convince bis (6) haviour... off the sercen reinforced the impression, netive ‘Until he married Demi Moore in 1987, he was always getting involved in fights. Dring the 11 years oftheir (7) ...MQPriage....,in which the couple had ay “three daughters, they are said to have earned hundreds of millions of dollars. Wills's obsession with money and pewter, however, cst him a lot. He bought a and a chain of restaurants, and both projects failed (8) ..s2ectacwary. srecracis, € of his films failed, too, but his (9) ..FOLmance.. asa tough guy inthe Penton, pa ‘Seranare rom Demi Moore in 1998, he says hei ied of playing the same kind of part He would like more interesting roles. Nevertheless, a fourth Die Hard film three Die Hard films saved his reputation. 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My wife went toa lot of. ‘with him is that he never listens to anyone else's advice. hhad a lot of back .. recently and may have to go to hospital . to represent their interests. they win a seat in parliament, they will have no Vt you dare use that tone of to your grandmother! 'doubt if they can hear you at the back. You'll have to raise your . The children cocussom With laughter when the clown fell down. just managed to step back on the pavement as the lorry In the darkness, not far from their camp, a lion [shall . It looks a good plan but it remains to be scen whether they can .-itout, He has tried to advise the boss but his views don't seem to .. ‘much weight. Key word transformation Expanding vocabulary: Theatre and cinema A Study the following phrases and make a note of them. Pay special attention to any prepositions used. Then fit ‘each one into an appropriate place in the sentences. THEATRE on stoge in the wings inthe dressing room the frst night CINEMA on the sereen inthe projection room the premiere THEATREICINEMA atthe box office inthe front row inthe foyer 1 She was very neous while she was being made up... dressing. 00m, on the ics night. of the production of Hamlet and even more so when she was waitit in the wings. to make her first, entrance, but as soon as she got on, stage she forgot her nerves completely 2 Fire broke out .if. the. projection room of the Classic Cinema last night at the. premiere of the new Stallone film, Rocky 13, just asthe audience were waiting forthe curtain ogo up and the teste appear athe screen Tm going to pick up the tickets... B9X office... and then PI meet yOu annundA. the foyer Our seats are.....1Ne FON. W... so we should have a good view ofthe stag Replace the phrases in italic ype with the verb carry in the correct tense and the appropriate preposition or adverb, Write your answer in the column on the right carry. out ‘carried. on ‘carry, through, 1 Atlast he was able to put his plan into practice. 2. He continued working although he was very tired. 3. He behaves as ithe were the owner of the place. 4 We've managed to bring the project to a successful conclusion inspite of all the difficulties. ‘When he forgot his lines, he wasn't sure if he could deal succesfdly with it without the audience being aware of it. carey {id off Expressions with voice and breath © Study these phrases and complete the sentences with the most appropriate one in the correct form. Use the ‘correct pronoun instead of one’. ing loud voice + in that tone of voice ~ lke the sound of one's own voice + make one’s voice heard + raise one’s voice He knocked at the door and called out in.@. loud, voice. ‘Are you there?” ‘When he gets upto speak, you never know when i wll end, Like all politicians, he likes, the scund of his own voi 3° Don't speak to me in, that, tone of voice. It’s very rude. 4 Tan hear you very well. There's no need to tai Your. voice S _ They fee! that no political party represents their interests so it is difficult to ....™ake their voice heard, hold one's breath ~ inthe same breath + out of breath + under one’s breath » toke one's breath away 6 After running all the way tothe theatre, he was ut. of breath, 7 He didn’t dare to contradict the director, but muttered, ‘Silly old fool is, breath The audience nud. theif. Breath... asthe actress opened the envelope to announce the wigner of the Oscar. He doesn't know what he wants. He tells me how to play the part, and then says can do as ike. in the same breath ve never seen such a wonderful performance. It was astonishing. It.....8@9K my, breath, aay Key word transformation mation Then fc For exch of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the fist Sercence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight Brords, including the word given tine 1 Take an umbretia because it may start raining later on. Take an umbrella in.case starts raining later on of the Ee 2 Tetived here all my lie. bom . ve lived here since.1.was, born, to appear 3 Byasupreme effort they managed to get the stage ready in time forthe frst night succeeded By a supreme eff. they succeeded.jn,ottina. the stage ready in ime for the first night ition or “Open the door, he shouted E voice in ‘Open the door, he sald. in.a. loud, yoice ugh haven't seen her since she left schoo! ; last stl The Jost. same. as, when she left school & The standard ofthe acting astonished me Use the breath The standard ofthe acting took. breath. any. 7 He can only walk with the sid ofa stick mai incapable He....16. 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Complete the sentences below with one suitable word in each gap. BP much eo OHREE 80 10-8 Football MACH nul nnn Watch it on TV. 2 Tvl fan concentrating On Subjects THRE sn £Qo nnn studying everything 3 1_ie ng music myself beter MAM none listening tit 4 Gina Traveling to a different place every year for holidays is... REEEECABE.... to going tothe same one. White nn MA. YOU snl GEME ives inthe country or in the city? 6 el a N nn QonnnnnBO 10 the CONE ON MY OWN. Gerund and infinitive: Expressing preference e+ past BPD Seudy the tst of verbs of preference in exercise C and note which of them are followed by a gerund, which of your them by an infinitive with or without to. Then complete these sentences with an appropriate verb in the correct form. 1 Would you rather stay hhome or would you prefer 10 ean 8, to school? 2 Ton ke nnn BENMING..... time on subjects that don't interest me. 3 Two 6 10 nnn a teacher and have to correct all that homework. 4 Ipreter Play... games to studying but rather study, than have nothing todo. Uhate being idle. 5 She stid she had enjoyed nnn EEA... the class and she wouldn't mi teaching... the same class next year 6 Weedon’ mind parents .ut@@CHiNA..... their children at home if they enjoy sing itand are qualified but Pa like them to sive me more information before I give an opinion omit Td rather not Say anything definite a this stage because Pd hate 10 nn! 4 mistake Verbs, adjectives and nouns followed by prepositions E Study Appendix | on page 200 before attempting this exercise. Complete the sentences with the appropriate reposition, 1 Don't interrupt me while I'm working. I'm trying to concentrate uM non MY WOT. 2 He passed his final examination and was admitted i.u£Quunnon the university 3) Hissister had no difficulty eonwllnnon passing the exam, either 4 Tm not satisfied withthe education my sm i receiving. insist nM.unu- Seeing the head teacher. 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Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the (sis space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). Return to a Cambridge college About a month ago I received an (0)... itvtation... toa lunch at my wre old college in Cambridge. The college is one ofthe oldest (1... daundatians. vous in the university, established in the thirteenth century. Those invited had all studied English and one of the main (2)...982F42HOMS... ofthe mecting was armeacr the opportunity to meet people of different generations, with as much as fifty years’ diference in age between them Ee My old tutor, nw almost $0, made & (3) on RGEC on. welcoming sreax all of us oon after Ur (4) ACCA nun at the college. He made snauve . (5) nnn SL6C0NCE... to the fact that atthe time of his appointment he aren ‘was the only lecturer in his subject. At that time, almost everyone who came to the college (6)... $Pe¢ialsed,... in Naturals ences but now, SPECIAL, half a century later, students were just as likely to choose English and the college now had a reputation for (7) nn €ACRNEME... in ExcHL the subject. For my own part, Iwill always be grateful to my tutor for his wise (8) --.n00VICE.....and to the college and the university for the teaching ADvise freedom ‘methods employed. We were given so much (9) to pursue rae, agreeable ‘our studies in the way that suited us best in (10) surroundings. 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S 1 don’t think her history teacher has done his ob and I'm going t6 make a...£OMPl@iM... tothe head teacher about it 6 It may be hard for children to make {rlends, when they change schools. 7 Wmakes no... ifference. to me what he says. I'm going to do it my way, 8 He hasn't done very well in the exam but I must make .....l2wancés.... for him because he has been ver il 9 Anyone can make a....SHOK....., and there's no doubt that an error occurred. But you must admit that there are some parents who exaggerate and make a Ue ahout nothing 10 He didn’t work hard atthe beginning ofthe course, but he's made a reat... £LQFE uuu to cateh up recently and now he's making good .....PLOMCESS, 11 Teas very dificult for the students to understand, Personally, I couldn't make ..P@4. oF. tall |. Sense. of, 2 He makes very lithe eon! MEY nn and a8 a result its hard for his family to make ....£MA5, meet nd they sometimes have to borrow from me TS I thought he was badly hurt but he made Hight... of his injury, saying it wasnt serious. room for 14 Is the suitcase full or can you make something else? Transformation For each of the sentences below. complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word given 1 suppose we should excuse his behaviour because he isn’t very wel. allowances T suppose we should ....make. allowances. for. him. (his.lehaviour... because he isn't very well 2 You should show more understanding of others’ problems instead of complaining al the time. rather Rather. han. complaining, all the time, you should show more understanding of others’ problems 3. He didn't say anything about it when I met him. reference He... made, ne {didn't make any) reference to it. in our... meeting 4 [find the argum The argument at illogical, makes. no. sense to = He'd rather drive his own car than be driven by someone else prefers, He von P hers. driving, his, own, car. to.being driven by someone el 6 passed in every subject except Maths. failed The only sublect. |. failed in) was Maths. 7 He has difficulty in concentrating with the television on, finds He finds. it. difficult. to, concentrate with the television on, 8 Doyou think you could memorise a whole novel? heart Do you think you could learn.a. whole novel. by, heart 2 juostuof pmo 2503 oft anos us 60m 2496, ond Fupye sem dey puoya 20 944 Be uoddey sea rey Spex sex su ‘O8INCO 50 "Bir" OD S3uop “uoystayor ayn Jo uo4} tH 2AHOY Aes UOU 2A AKER BUaWOS OP PUF IMO oF wOLHO aun gy GSD SUT aA CF Jo NO SHE ULL a Sg EY OU uum mnoge my ¥ ponssos ~~" yagi" (ET) ® PuE spout aeEWOS & PaKous PAR € ouyou yas say Jae Ruyoo} stots 294 o aU0 no NON "~~" CED) EMO so isy (UD a8er08 ap endo 3909 SH 184 24H oH BH ONS com anoge Eursp © paswajx oxpms 940 “fxr aoeds uo uN #30" se" COD. yea ou sous tu) ouatpne we oF ead on posoddas 1 wy Jo" 55" (6) apes uy saBeeND J 105 HHA 29501 FuNSHOHEL Sep e soyonew 354) Bunypren jo peut 198 uoos inom pure 2 UE sige" BD uy ‘spuayy oq pu ssoqyey‘spuegsny 1919 axyn 4 posieas Komp asmeD9G soUUrETONA 1) Banyo 01 paproap Siouno wurouto fnuanbasuod -ua19s ~~~gjisjaj” (L) m1 YO OH WE uous joys puods 01 spe2s 103 pow ayn wi ~~ ssijsis™ (0) oUNE OHS w— ION pagar (5) 24 azote Soy wan 995g (BE NRHA uo unanys Buz ses aun £3043 “sous wt poY sem dD PHONL MAVEN 2Kp “GO “66130 sowsuns aqy wy ado 2569 a4) You Seas gr" (Z) Bu ve Aes ia" () 24 1 8 we EOF JosBEH H/o EP ENAMEL | josmesaq 40 08 ‘30 ‘3nq pure S121 2 are>ipuy seye pue 210}0q s00d aeyp jo asues ou S20p 05 J ;p1OM Bun © aq AU] « axon oip ul aseayd 10 pom saxpoue yo anisoddo axp oq Aew 2] + Jaye sooo 2e4p 02 J9jes 40.400 atp ut ApEBUE POM so\pOUE aeOdoY ACU POM AHL + 405 yoo} pinoys nok sux up axe sous “ores «pes u puom aue Suny 2 219jduio> 1 Sonp asoupaen ‘aBessed oip peos anny nok wou rot O2 9Sessut so fed 9u0 9 30 9d plog ui pond sseayd 10 spuom Joupo on enees spuom Bust oxp afeased sip Ui eat ao ydelBeied 10 asusves ofoum ayn peas 30U op Aaya asneaaq Sayessus ssojaye> oye Suopms AvepL v Buss 504m Buo05 a20j9 uadQ mn cloze land whether Study these notes before attempting the exercise. Pes (@) Hand whether can both be used in indirect speech but only whether can be used before an infnive or sage 2 Prepostton. General, we prefer to use whether itn akarnave (oF nod) appease nreece: ete {dort know ifwhether shell be abe to come tothe cnema, | dont know whether to lavte he or ne) Ie depend on whether she want to Some wth her ster. {©) Whether (but NOT if canbe usd to introduce a noun clause as subject or complement. Whether se comes or not does realy wory me It doesrt wary me whether she ces 6 nok (2) Whether (but NOT if is used to introduce ewo possiblities, only one of which can be true Whether you lke tor mot I gg tore er fim going tive herenynay, whether you hie or not. ‘Complete the sentences with if unless whether is the only correct word to use, 1 The performance will take place, on.nMMEUMET..... the tickets are sold or not 2 Lon know sn ¥HEtHET... 1 Bo 10 the cinema tis evening. 3 ASK HEE wml wnnnnan She kNOWS What time the film start, 4 FON nnd MEET... YOU invite her oF not is your decision. Mark: Yes, but Ihave to think about... AME... should ring her up or wait til see her. I don't WANE (0 INVHE NET sells he’s likely to say No" John: Wel, smoot You believe me or not, you Neve Find OM ell got the courage to ask her you haven't ill yet, already, no longer, not... any more Study the table of a typical sequence of question and answer using still, yet, already, no longer, ‘not... any more and the notes that follow. See ere ees Question ‘Answer (yes) “Answer (no) yee Yes, already... No, nos yet No, ~ stil not. ~stl.? Yes... sil No, no k No, ” notany morellonger. Yet refers to something that has not stared or has not finished, Has the fm started yet? Yes, i's already stared. No, thon (started yet) {mn che negative ina question, ic suggests surprise or annoyance and may be answered emphatically lant the taxi here yet? "No, itll host ave. Still refers to continuity He was born in Porigal and still ves there 1s she still hee? | thought she'd gone home. Already refers co something that has taken place. You're lote. The programme has already begun. No longer is the opposite of still: ic indicates the end of continuity They no longer ive in the house where they grew up. (NOT ‘no mere) Informally we use the alternative construction They don’t lve in thot house any morelany longer ‘Complete these sentences with the correct word. 1 Fm not going to see that film. T have oc. ACGAAY. oun 8e€N it twice. 2 = Is Gloria de Catto ence Still rons alive? Yes but she 90 MBs appears in fils 3. They ay i's a good fim but Ihave scent Yt Tve been 10 busy to goto the cinema 4 She's promised toring me several ines but se $l. ant done so | 5 - Have you received your tickets for the show MEt. ? ~ No, but when I rang up, they said they had ... already... posted them. 6 They used to have some good films on TV late at night but they don't seem to put them on any ....morellonger 7 They came to repair my TV this morning but they haven't solved the problem YEE sa sor StH onenan don't know what's wrong with it / .sPuopoyy Woy, {oso 4pograaeK2K9" (S1) 1 roads pemyooyfqun ~ Sonya (1) sopIsuo> youa4y 24H yp BustdiMs Yous SNA se IY MgB (ET) ‘spirpuess qi ‘pom soqnoue Burkes ~~ yr (C1) tISEIUED NU 4p paDRposI UE _2WPERY "YON, :Sieys pes soquosoud ayn pur JO1s9 [Us 940 sp" (LT) aS ALOIS anoge uonsonb paveyduoo v Jomsue os Payse Se UewoM e axoyn SOUR: tH 2u0 0) UL pouM 2240 spay HDANs ab} aos MG wo! 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PoyDUNe| “wos 000 98 24, se sud FouoUs 3 apn HoISAa} UO moys An |ryss290S IH} LL, é4pjndod os smoys 2nb aay Ky yy ‘puom ajqenns ouo unm aBessed ays ul syuejq pazaquinu oi Jo Y>ee II) Word formation Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). No more Aunty just Mum and Dad ‘The BBC used to be known as Aunty because it only allowed us to see ‘What it thought was good for us. Almost every film shown in cinemas nowadays would have been (0) ..automaticaly.. excluded. But in those days, Hollywood, too, avromanic was under an (1) .-».0hligatian... to submit films to the censorship ofthe Hays omice. Office, a unit that objected to Tarzan’s girlfriend wearing the 1930s (2) eave. ofa biki | in real life could be seen in the same bed. and insisted that only stars who were already married EQUAL "Nowadays, in more liberal circumstances, there has been considerable 6 public atitudes, ut the regulations are (4). 464A... to control what i said ADEQUATE vo» f the rules for films and television, reflecting the change in max. ‘and done in programmes broadcast live when children are still awake, and which ‘many parents find (5) .....offens ‘An area where there is hardly any control at alls the Internet, where the providers go about their business almost free from (6) ..disturhance... The main DISTURB omine provider, America On-Line, wars users of the content of some material but in practice children are bound to come across things that are (7)..!MWMOTAL..., MORAL ‘legal or simply disgusting. In effet, the only (8)... Meaninatl.. censorship todays MEAN exeresed inthe home by parents. 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MEDq uosue pu suonson sea Suey em es ‘me Ou pu mesures —Sq}uoK om 2:90 O41 405 9} YE 3110) ySBNSHBT NRE" a O14, ieqays yo usong 2 Buano sp 0} yan Au eg" ONY pur “Bupyeods Ganydwing eiodG a sm ‘2 0} um wx) fauuEYD a¥sMUN 34 OF el uns 1 shepemou oT BHAT" Atensn | BROW) pus uoWo|a pey an a0;Oq i BF Us” O POST eBI0) JONREEM UOMO IpIEN > Ueuny > MOIR ‘owureioad oper u-suoyd ESBS + asmpeorg en] «Oper aiporuNsy Ops iy» uoRedoned ssp ‘seouanuas atp ut aed axeudoudde ue oauy 2u0 ype 2 WOU peensuonsodeud fue ox uonuome eoeds fg woUp jo aout oye puE SOREIYG BuMMOHES Op Aes yy ‘uots149]03 pup o1poy :Aspjnqor0n 3uipuodxy, uoNDULIOfsuDy p10Mm hoy Key word transformation He cle BS SE ne t0 solve the problem but couldn't quite manage it ‘Would you mind 4090... me...9.,4¥0U__ 9 Could you keep an eye on the children while I'm out? She's doing well at school She's Ws a g00d dog. It Won't nnn. 4Banene YOU ANY Why are you arresting me? T haven't M6 eon anything MONG, She's what we call a saint. She has spent all her lie doing. good 2. YOUF eM OfST au! Tm not afraid of you. We do, business. with several firms in Australia, wasn’t bad film but it dida’t do justice to the book, The stom has nn AME nn considerable ...AAMAME.... 0 houses in the area Transformation D For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, including the word give. 1 Despite the great success of the programme, its no longer being broadcast. although ‘Although, the programme. has been (was) very. successful. tis no longer being broadcast They didn't let her stay up to see the programme. allowed he wasnt allowed to slay up to see the programme, ‘We're going ahead withthe programme, even if the Government doesn't like it. whether We're going ahead with the programme, ..ud¥ether, the, Government, likes itor The Prime Minister said the Foreign Secretary was working very wel. Job The Prime Minister said the Foreign Secretary was doing 2. very. good job, ‘That medicine won't hurt you. do ‘That medicine wor do, you. any. harm, “The contestant deserves a round of applause even though she failed to answer the last question. failure Despite. her failure, toanswer the last question, the contestant deserves a round of applause. 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Here is an example (0). © Lagree that there is a good 86. for changing the la The detective made his name by solving a difficult murder case, Is not worth asking him, and in any’ rn6 BSE. T think he’s on holiday. 1 believe the man in ....A4€SI0N.... used tobe a presenter on TV. He left without giving notice. Paying him compensation is out of the... esti0n, The eras calls into... QMRSION.... the governments poliy on air traffic control You have oe realistic and Keep YOU nv ssn Om the ground You look ied. Why don't you pt your sf up and ave a ret? ‘He was enthusiastic at first but by now he’s got cold feet. Johns rise in salary will... MAKE... a big difference to his family He asked to say afew words. [ didn't think he was going 10 .r.u!M™QK@...n.nue @ speech, His behaviour was disgusting, s0 don't ty 0 non IMAKEsonons €XCUSES FOF him It used to be a sports Fone but now they're building houses on it. The ground, is too hard at this time of year to plant trees, They started work on it a year ago but it still hasn't got off the .......8LOMNA. He claimed that he'd done nothing wrong but the COU 24M... him guilty Twas nervous a first in my new school ut T8000 nn UP oe my fee That teach was unsympathetic. She cnn UO fault with everyting I did 1 SEER on the bridge every day on my way o work She suddenly felt faint and passed, on The judge had a serious expression on his face Whe he nu LASS84, sentence, For questions 32-39, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use berween three and eight words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). My car came to a stop on my way to London, broke Twas on my way to London when..my, car broke. down She's getting on well with her driving lessons. progress She's making, good, progress with her driving lessons. There may not be any more filling stations on the road so we'd better fill up with petrol here. We'd better fill up with petrol here... case. there. arent. an. more... filling stations on the road. He hasn’t been able to do his job properly since his accident. incapable His accident has......made, him, incapable. of. doing... his job properly To my mind, these new restrictions are illogical These new restrictions don't KE SE. ul. IN opinion. He's not really as good a driver as he pretends. makes He makes out that he's a better driver than Reet T ant stand it when drivers blow their horns like tha It Gets. on, my. nerves. when drivers blow their horn lke that There's so much noise in this office that I find it very difficult to concentrate, difficulty 1 hhave. difficulty. in concentrating... because there's so much noise in this office. Although we have approved the final design the car still hasn't gone into production despite The car still hasn't gone into production, ....4espite, our approval of, (approving)... the final design. 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MelahbOUr.... at number 33 and her daughter lives in the house next. but. one. at number 35 Ie must recive the copy forthe advertisement from you by sic clock the latest. ana i ‘ust be correct. We can't make changes to it... athe. [ast minute He won the race with several seconds to spare over his... Nearest iva you can’ afford to buy the original painting a good copy ofits... e.next best, thing, When someone dies suddenly the police often have to inform the .....mext of kin {Thave many people to thank forthe sucess of this ook — my publisher, the editor, and ast but not least my patient, long-suffering wife ‘There are many points of disagreement between the Finance Minister and the Prime Minister but in discussion the. latter, will always ...nave. the. last. word "expect someone wll give us. lift home after the party but... ithe last resort. we can always walk Hardly, scarcely, almost, nearly, seldom, rarely C Study these notes before attempting the exercise. Ce eee (©) Hardly and scarcely mean ‘only jus We were so fte thot we hardlyizcarcely hod tine to catch the tain Compare We were sole that we elmestinearly mised the ome (©) Hardly (and less commonty, scarcely) mean ‘most not They hardly hoe enough oe on (NOT The ohao dont hve) (We prefer to use hardly with an afirmatve form suchas ever. anyone instead of almost never, ‘ever travel by tani the rush hour (8) Nearly cannot be used with negative forms; almost cannot be ued with ‘very’ ‘We very nearly missed the train this morning. =e (©) Searcely (and, less commonly, hardly) mean ‘only just before ” SYiat oreo eat aap (9. Seldom and rarely mean nt often rarely i generally used to mean ‘very seldom’ Compare: | hardly ever goto museums these Saye very seldomirarely go to museums these days, Complete the sentences with the most suitable word in the context 1 She's very punctual She ..mestineaey.. always arsves on time 2 He's the opposite He's hardly /scarcel. ever at his desk at nine o'clock. 3 His brother's the same, He’s very ....arelv/seldom on time, either. 4 Ive had a bit of a shock. We very nearly. had an accident on our way here. A dog ran. the car, giving me ..Aardly/ scarcely any time to brake, 1 hardly scarcely. nad time to buy my ticket when the train came i, That species of bird is... MMO sn etinet andi ..£ Fe L$eld0M. seen in Europe. There were har alV$¢AXCel. enough people atthe lecture to provide a reasonable audience but, in any case it ‘was very boring. The speaker said almost. nothing of interest, The famous painter ....S¢/dom/rarely. ives interviews to journalists; in fact, he ..hardly/scarcely.. ever speaks since she moved house because she ..hardlv/scarcelv. knows anyone in the district How you've changed! Ivery...@arl, failed to recognise you. 2 40 spaoy (51) 9418804 SouoU Jo yuNOWE Ku » areata aos ges =" 1) and 39 1 aIgeneA 1 pres soyods y “sue S130 “6 (ET) no 01 pos oH ea sotoue pur sees pas" (CL) a alan puted puedes a rou “iON” (11) 9409 HON uoseas om 01 B29 i" (OD xs pu w ‘i poueop atom fxn 50 sheun0} 030 deo sy pur) 0 a o Soy jon oun" “v0 si 4 20) sant sj" () Wg poe w pa Bus d 249 yn paanoW MOY y ‘USI -(s8A) We (S) A494 SOYA WHOS w WHO¥ UaJORs SEA “poy Sousa nL, “SunUHEd vo astuosssaudiy s,020-) way i 2 Aiag -seydsap “gr (g) axe Jo 40 QOOTOE JO DEA "Gig" (1D) pouredxo wanasmu oyp ve SONG “SaLD| 126 I ALIND9S 0 ‘qn sos ureBe aouo auanory ay) wo4y We Aq Sunuted oqqenfea ¥ Jo y>4p 149991 24 uayors Suguyod sown ploMm ajqenins auo wp of Word formation ‘A. Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0) Tough on crime but tougher on victims The statistical (0) ..€¥idENCE...... published in a recent survey of crimes Even ‘committed contains few surprises for the majority of people, though itis certainly {tightening in its (1) ...implications.... Five million crimes are recorded annwally ipyy but these are in no way (2) .feAresentative. of the real total, whichis probably REPRESENT four times as great. Victims seldom trouble to report minor offences such as the ©) ven. of objects not reckoned to be particularly valuable. rer ‘Contrary to what might be expected, the areas where householders are most concerned about crimes such as (4) ..MFAIAKY..... and take part in schemes unot like Neighbourhood Watch, where the mere (5) ...suspicion.... of erime taking suseecr place is enough for people to alert the police are those least affected, It is sad but true that crime (6) ..peaedly... strikes in the same places. Criminal activity waver is focused on what is easiest and near at hand so the victims are most likely to be (7) o-atesidents....on the same housing estate as the burglars. esipe ‘The most disturbing tatstic inthe survey i that almost half of the crimes reported tothe police are not recorded, The police are constantly being tod to improve their detection rates and bring more criminals 0 (8) vt. , and the usr Government has just launched a tough policy of aw (9) ..enfoccement.. in time once for the next election, sting the police targets to demonstrate that tis strong and (10) oe fAQEISS....- in th face of crime. Such targets must be met so the police mean have reason to list only those crimes that they have a good chance of solving, ypur usoop 20u9}u9s sty ing A408 WL ssoursng poof seu 94s ast809q UY 21 UT TF. 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You can’t expect him to ‘Keep. a, secret, 8 She'sa very private person and prefers to AEeP, herself. to, herself 9 nu KEEP.AM.£¥€.0N.. the soup, will ou, and make sure it doesn’t oil over while I'm out ofthe kitchen, 10 They have so many files in their office that it’s impossible to Keep. track, of them all. insformation For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first. sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given, You must use between three and eight ‘words, including the word given. Sarah walked so fast that she left the other girls behing, keep Sarah walked so fast that the other girls la ee her 1 couldn't help smiling when I heard what she had done face When I heard what she had done, I... hardin, keep a, straight. face. Her purse was stolen as she came out ofthe theatee. robbed She snas.robed. of her rst. as she came out of the theatre. ‘Take care of my bicycle while I go into the shop, will you? we While I go into the shop, would you mind Kesrina.an.¢ve.2n, ny bicycle? It looks as i the burglar entered through that window. 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Yayo AUOPMS y suojssaudxe oui) :Buyssiu s30ym Susoos azojo uadQ abesMla) What is true of science in my 63s i 80 (1) nnn. !44..un Of mathematics, with one exception. Teannot solve a simple problem of geometry or algebra but I (2) un nenn COUnt almost a fast as ‘pocket calculator, This is because I had a (3) 4204... teacher at primary school but very bad ‘ones at secondary (4) $02)... The primary school (5) ..@46 EF... was called Mr Jones. ‘There were 42 boys in the class~ in those days the boys and (6) were in separate clases — but he Wa (7) nnAE8M ne 0 teach us and we were keen 10 (8) onnnl Ql But when Lwent 0 (9) ..$260421Y... school, the teacher was boring and we were (10) .u..PQK€4..... with him, During te first geometry lesson, he said that a circle had 360 degrees, and asked him why. He said: Don’t ask (11) on St¥PIA, questions, boy! It did not seem a stupid (12)....uestion. tome. IT had invented (13)...2¢2MEEY...1 ‘would have given acirle 100 (14). Meare Anyway, that was the end of my interest in serious mathematics intity Study the forms below and the notes about them before attempting the exercise on the next page. (@) Alot of can be used to express quantity for countable and uncountable nouns. We prefer it to much/many in affirmative sencences. Nace the form quite a lot of (= a considerable amountinumber of and that with a ‘comparative form we do not use of before the noun. ‘A lot of people came tothe shop and spent quite a lot of money. Lawyers earn @ lot more money than teachers ‘Amount is used with uncountable nouns. Common combinations of adjectives are: «fair amount, a certain amount, a considerable amount, a large amount. ‘Any amount means a very large quantity. must sy I ew the Milennium Dome with a certain amount of sceptickm, but the Government seem Drepared to spend any amount of money on ic ‘Number is used with countable nouns in the same way, and with the same combinations. The verb following leis always plural ‘A large number of people have visited the exhibition. “The plural form is usually found as a complement, and cannot be used with any. ‘People have visited the exhibivon In large numbers. A great deal of (= a large amount of s used with uncountable nouns. Ie is preferred when we are talking about time, work, eroubl, ably, etc, rather than about a quantity of a product. ‘She's prepared a large amount of food for the party and spent @ great deal of time getting ready fork ‘A good deal can be used inthe same way buc is generally uted with comparative forms, ‘wasn't very well yesterday, but tadoy I fee! a good deal Better. “PHO a 1940 pro (ST pouHaEs2 219m fapou sy "59" (1 Sou aS 9 UO tu jooyos Zgg1 u teap sJoqa01g s04e pue “vanes ue sno} so soe oun “sagt (E1) HoHPIE BoPanpa 4yo sueause se sxnnunoo uadoung Sabu utaouedaoNe peoudsopi pours idaouoo uoneiopury ai, SPUR Ne $ury00] poe Somapue aw Jo 899 “sso 638" (I) ads Ko Se sot0n pu squmy stm 25722089 0} Suos “pays (U1) pu sour paseyd fou, s20f90 ‘01 pase auton9q 01 pio ut sr tntw paged UasPHYD 2, “aoe o spy sangy po" (ON) potssu09 wnynoxuno sp suMpe 105" (6) 0 spoou 24g asiaspynous sjoouas yBaoKs [p40 YO" 1 dom stuosed aon ay wag 0 3109335" (3) 0 uooq peu wasps Busios A198 40 sjooyas wStayDeD) 34) ops vo a9 wa sion) san den “gg (9) anbrun sea wotseR9pUy “onmge newer som) 180 “pf” (S) Jo sau se uoneonpo 489 .aspinp Ur SK) pur sure gr (9) tse pre “HEN pu wey ‘Po Jo un oypausou ay yp (E) fq ‘sdiysuonejas jenuasss ay) Ioge TuARA] WAspPYD 2494 cond © 9" gs" (2) fOo4RS w eM PaHaHER 3, “pe spon gunn eno aie uaspqyp Supraoud jo ssodind 99) 30) Saund pautisep 24 10U prnogsyoouss w “uojudo soqoo (1) Aamuoo yauaarouu ou yo sites) ream sou ‘241 Jo 9U0 sem quaLHaNOWE (,uapze eee 10) uoureSropury aqn Jo s9punoy 24p “Jaqoous YoUupoLs, PON MPOT JOM ajqeains auo ia aessed oun ui syueyq pavoquunu 21p JO Y>eD TI G. 2591 ‘ou Agypasouy 3H “Souow yo — uv sey oH OF ‘softunyp asoq anoge Buy 01 UOHD Jo wai euoye sey 6 {food jouoyweonpa s quausU94049 a4) 1980 KS19NONIUOD JO ueus9 w u39q sey 9191.8 ‘aur uoddo s1yp 305 jyoresd 99 pinoxs aydoad yo fyb ‘ouypeus ayp Sutsredax ayqnon yo “iim POU ANON spafoud 24 wo Kouous yo "ii ‘ajqusapisuco e quads a4, § savas sip 39094 jsp" Poo e us0q sey YsOM INA» tuospemusa109 Jo aa waif v sounbos gots, € sax sip sraquine aay Uap umo1 a4} 01 aus 2x84 sisUMOL, Z 00gps 94) Uy SHaynEMIOD JO BF ~woynb ore aru, 1 ‘oseayd 40 puom ayqenins e pum soouoiuas 9504p a19|dwO> at nop Word formation Read the text below. Use the word given at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits into the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0). Teenage worries ‘The teens are a difficult age. One constantly heats the (0) ...complaint... from COMPLAIN parents: ‘I don’t know what to do with him (or just (1) ..66asionall.. er)" But occasion the problem is much more serious from the teenager's point of view. Those aged li P between 15 and 19 are far more likely to commit suicide than any other age group, and as many as 20 per cent suffer from (2)......depression, ‘DEPRESS “The causes are those that adults remember from their own (3) OU youre ~ the need to obtain respect from the peer group, the desire for (4) ..!Mdependence...prenn worries about money, future prospects or the fear that one is (5) ..unattractve. arnecr to the opposite sex. When these typical teenage problems are linked to the pressures. ‘of examinations and the need to live up to parental (6) ..€xPectations exec the resulting stress may prove fatal Many parents find it cifficult to cope with this situation and up to now there has k thas been very litle in the way of (7) MARE... from health authorities cue I / Ieis 6) ..£582Mtil__ for parents not to add to their stress by imposing a ESSENCE fr ‘Tegime of intensive study. And it is no comfort to teenagers, either, to remark bo that one day they will realise that nothing is quite a (9)... 4¢S0@F4EE.... as it DESPA f Gee eraad tel bat cider snare eegeas rer Oy SL eo (10) .disanpointment.1ooms large in their imagination. The best that parents can DISAPPOINT hhope for i that teenagers trust them enough to discuss their problems with them. But for that to happen, the trust must have been established in childhood. h9yRs 10 24) uso op 01 seBueyD WS Ope 3A.2, “~ atp astuiaape jusaop ing Kouow nos pus} 01 u9d¥ s1YUEG aH, sr anny 01 soo 2 ung sESRAAHD ub sea 3H SS Ole eae ae + “qwou1a%08 uasaid 24 ut Bupyiom oq Jo sraquiow m9} 241 Jo 2U0 5,914, ‘adosng ut punoy tayo 104 are yey sto9su Jo ~ 8 01 sfuojea 11 "ats 224 $e Sues O41 WOU ING DKA Pook wS,2US, ch a « 99489 aunony sty uy uy sure “= pynos puny yeqp Jo ayers pid y ;patwayp nos asnev0q snoNe} ANOK ut yUIOd YEE “OF ROS YOU UH sun sun po suo [EAH oR | pe apDE pg IONE aa « {0€9 28 uiog 01 Bur08 st younys ye BuDAD om “S4MIA UY (ue Sed 10u sonsosop ay rey yea aun di pinoys 40 uN | yo m0 4 8 -9nq 4 UO 9 9 Oa -seoumuas sauip re Uy Ajaeidaudde pasn 2q ue aki pom Ajuo 943 02 3x0U (q 40 > ‘g "y) J9m9} 9x punose apuP eng sentences Tean’t stand rats but I couldn’ myself t kill one. ‘They still oppose the plan but we hope to. v= them round to our point of view. must remember to. up the subject at the next mecting. rd like you to take of these accounts while I'm on holiday. ‘She was wandering along without @ su. in the world. ‘This parcel is labelled ‘Handle with *,s0 don't drop it! Look at this lovely ‘ofa space ship that Johnny has made! The latest vosoosnnnn Of the machine shows a number of improvements. She's beautiful enough to be a fashion but has no talent as an actress. “This litle thing. my eye in the shop window. ‘The police set a trap forthe thieves and su them red-handed. Your face is red, You 100k a8 if You've serene the SUM, sentences 5 Atake convince persuade (B) bring Tean’t stand rats but [couldn't myself to kill one ‘They still oppose the plan but we hope 10. ‘them round to our point of view. T must remember to up the subject at the next meeting. | Vr like you to take ‘of these accounts while I'm on holiday. She was wandering along without a. in the world, *,s0 don’t drop itt, “This parcel is labelled ‘Handle with | SO Ee See Look a this ve) ne pace Ship that Johnny has made! ‘The latest ‘of the machine shows a number of improvements. ‘She's beautiful enough to be a fashion ‘but has no talent as an actress | Os ae ae “Th ile thing oY eye the shop window “The police seta trap forthe thieves and them red-handed, Your face is red. You look as if you've the sun, soso asa pan od aon wa soseayd 24 fo uuof oy fo 20m v ayy 04 29 wos ssnay yy Adon poys 29 01 Soy sou yonu 10 woo UU Tos Bais 0" sons “plow oy pasionus | uays aouallo yoo! 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There will not always be a question from all ofthe main types indicated below. In the Comprehension ond Summary units, ‘while you are learning the techniques required, they have been put into thei respective groups and some assistance Is given with the answers. Note the tip that accompanies each group before answering the question. a) General comprehension These are direct questions. Note that itis not necessary to write complete sentences in your answers. ‘On this first occasion, model answers are given forthe first question in each section to guide you, and some guidance is given with other questions ) 2S {his acceptable to copy words from the et but where posible, use simpler words of your own 1 What evidence is given inthe first text for chimpanzees being the closest species to human beings? Almost. the, same. genes. (98%)... 2- Why sit significant that the plants chimpanzees chew are ones that ‘they would not normally touch"? (first tex, ine 15) They, know they are medicine, cure illness etc 3. What sort of symbols are likely to ‘call forth a deep emotional response"? Give two examples (religious, national, etc). (second tex, line 6) Typical examples are cross, crescent, design and colour of national flag, etc 4 What examples are given in the second! text to show that human beings develop in different ways according, to where they are born and brought up? (three or four points) ‘Language, religion, family composition and relationships, symbols b) Meaning ‘These are questions where you are asked to define the meaning of words in context, usually by rewriting a phrase more simply in your own words, or, as in question 5, to explain what they refer to. 5 Which of the ‘less agreeable tendencies’ of human beings are referred to? (frst textline 5) ling, and. eating other animals, enioying Killing, making war, 6 Inyour own words, say what is meant by ‘the same overall pattern never recurred or even came close to recurring’? (second tet, lines 14 and 15) no. group behaved in the same way as another or the same general behaviour was never repeated eT Inansverng question 6, you don't need to write complete sentence, bu ty 0 avoid using the word recur ©) Continuity and style ‘These questions test whether you understand how the passage is connected so you can show that you can see ‘what a word or phrase refers to. In question 7, how does the word ‘dismay’ relate to what has gone before? ‘Other questions of this kind ask what sort of effect the writer is trying to create by choosing a particular word instead of another with the same meaning — for example, one that is informal instead of one that is formal 7 What idea of animal activists is suggested by the writer saying that the discovery that chimpanzees share ‘some of our less agreeable tendencies’ may dismay them? (frst text, ine 5) They. like. to. think. that. animals. are, not. cruel, like. us, (and, would, be, sorry, to. learn, that. they. can. be) 8 Inwhat way isit (second text, line 17) im both cases, it has developed because of local needs. Always look for the ansers to questions like 7 and 8 in what comes jst before or jus after phrase, though in some ‘cserthe reference may be further back or farther forwar that chimpanzees and human beings display cultural diversity for the same reasons”? {spaau yo2o|) sao 3w2.2])1p uu) Apuesa|p padojerap ax 9 songs, 2101 pot pm, oda io 210.0006 ‘assault ‘a sas ayduas apm aun 2am uv uoyd you, mous on 4p. ay 20s oy sudo vrai, Butkdoo hq pro ao oy ans a nak ft soazuodumyp sapjo woa) wor ¥ sua 80 Sao mg won “som 9yOuL PUD 210 doy syns a 04) sKoyuout 42430 |)9) "Y0aus 303 € joo) 6ursn quam Slo prose‘ 8 1 ‘sins sous padoyanap aNoH Z (686) s2uaB aos ayy 3SoUND 2ADH ‘siya ax ‘Son0u 404s Bhd 9591R JO INO anoge 9q Ayensn jy asotj."uonsenb oup somsue 2e\p s2xe) auf | sutod rel exp ano yotd oF st BIS 35 MLL 1 3803s swig Jo a8paynouy sno 0 «prvasas aoa! 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Aq panoypennuo> Ajqsod 10 pauuiyo> 513844 PU syeqvos uoneuusoy auos 8s91pn parejas axe 2x6) OMG yp YDIYM Ut dew aif anoge NOK ¥SE suoRsonP ese DUNUINS pun UOISUaYyasdLUoy \ Aspuwins 2uDs9jau-sso1D (P contained) develop, xing. and you tips and rite a rare © ‘arch about Comprehension and su Stoge 2 Transform your notes into sentences. When you have finished this draft, count the words to see how long iti. Chimpanzees have a lot in common with human beings because we have almost the same genes. At a much lower l level, they have developed similar ski, using tools, and they also share some of our unpleasant characteristics. They eat ‘This passage wel writen and in ‘meat, kill other monkeys for pleasure as well as for food and general avoids copying from the original ‘make war on each other. But they also learn from older but is much too long. This is uswally the chimpanzees not by being taught, like human children, but by case with the first draft. Ina summary copying them, and in this way they understand which plants of 50-70 words you can only afford to will cure them when they are ill, Recent studies have shown ‘include details that are absolutely that chimpanzees behave differenty in different areas in recs. Bat mak ulus ofthe response to local needs, in the same way’ as human beings ‘maxon allowenceof words (7). hhave different customs and religous bel. (177 words) Stage 3 1a) Remove any words or phrases that can be taken out without important information being lost. Choose three of these phrases that can be taken out: 1. we have almost the same genes. ‘At a much lower level They eat meat . for pleasure as well as for food not by being taught, like human children ) Look for phrases or sentences that are correct but could be expressed in a much shorter form. Try to express these two examples in about half the number of words. 1 But they also learn from older chimpanzees by copying them and in this way undérstand which plants will Cure them when they are il. (24 words) They, learn, how to, cure. ther, ilinsses by copying older chimpanzees. 2... chimpanzees behave differently in diferent areas in response to local needs, inthe same way as human beings have different customs and religious beliefs. (23 words) sa,thele behaviour, has, developed according to, local needs, ike human customs. and, beliefs ] In rting your final version you wil be given marks for good organisation. The summary must have a beginning and on ‘end. You must imagine that tis being read by someone who has not read the original tes. Ths is why itis essential to ‘begin with he fst pase in introduction and not sy immediately We have the same genes. Inthe same way, the last sentence shoul refer to recent studies Stage 4 Copy out the final version of the summary. It should now consist of about 70 words.. Chimpanzees have a lot in. common with human beings because we have almost. the same genes, ‘They. have. developed similar. skills and. share. some of our unpleasant. characteristics, They, eat meat, kill other, monkevs_and make war on, each. other. They. learn, how. to, cure, their illnesses, by. copyit older. chimpanzees. 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A Rembrandt painting is of incalculable value while a copy of a Shakespeare play is (1) osu MOCtH__. Tess than what was originally paid for it, Only an authentic manuscript in ‘Shakespeare's handwriting would fetch a simiarly high (2) wo PFiE uuu « This explains 8) Mon people are prepared to pay enormons sms for famous paintings but indicates (4) oo Abinnune the same time (5) ~!1OW,..n important it is that they should not be fakes. ‘The attention of the art world has again been drawn to this question (6) ....&CQUSE.... of an argument between experts about a Van Gogh painting which was soko a Japanese company for 24 million pounds a few years (7) 19D nne« (8) nn AGEOLMING... to one critic, the i Paintings a fake, while (2)... ARNE... claims itis genuine, The argument tums on the fact that Van Gogh is said to have painted ten pictures of sunflowers OF, (10) sonnll sens the Japanese version is really his work, eleven, Letters from art collectors who bought and sold sunflower paintings after Van Gogh’s death suggest a solution but even here it depends (11) -2%ernn HOW ‘one interprets the correspondence. The question ‘that comes to mind in this situation is this: ifthe in decide (12)... oF ‘wo paintings is genuine is by means of letters (13) ...MEiten.... by former owners, (14) nos €an one version be worth ‘only way we millions of pounds and the other nothing at (a ‘pure waxoosta saws aonnant assas ‘yp out say 2819 POM e LLIO} OD nn -yuods a foun vey wey as0u 13 29 Hm ed 02 ai" (OW) Ko eq eu SOU ONT oF 9p UH A ‘aq 0} SiouTo}SND 1UBM saruEdUIOD Tey PPA} OY (6) 1200, ppouageyp 2g 01 ~~" () 51 Ke oy Aya 5 amoI09 xn 9PM tus0q aang yasuinber* (L) aya am Pe porues® uB9q SEY UP219 SOO -popyaoxd sei atn xpoyp 0 stouadie apsino uo Aureus sas ng yIuOM Yoee predau aq snus gop au jo uorzodoud ious » suo rey Buses £9 19403309 spsaeora™ (0) ene on Yo9s septa ‘soursng annadto9 Aeoso4 © UL ngop a uo soso 3507 Seu wy Burp ty ap PU ‘somo 24 583896 ur Yomul se 24a Sed uo Hip got w RUPOM MoU SEL -soooud au pan pub 24 30 "~sSeAS""™ GS) SzaMOW SH AUD sPUNOE penn esas Jo npeio paises se pur Ssouezsutau pu ae st NOG Su Ueq uaoU- yam 8 1 LEIS “FESTA CH) we wpa PIO LA & «prea ypatoe sessod 1 1 sopun auosue 1} foo 11 ogy “08 OP Or HEN 10} S89 001A S11 3849 SONS Stadedsmou 24 ut poron ast 149008 V ~ sgn" (@) souse sousonag wato Tom J0 900 osEMboe OF “ (2) aq eqn ‘spuea ypas> Bursn synpe a2s Komp rays ‘Suwstadans ‘iso you 5111 0-318 Aanrtesedwoo s ouatadxs amp ‘swamed “~—ua5;ApU"* CD) ron ane Koy ssayun ine “a9 246 0 ued so soto es Bum Kg SPUD, ~ (g) 94 Kos 1080901 SOW. in 40h 2? UT syoq) Jo 3004) UE yo Buumoys Jo -(o) Buuuitaq ovp 2e ajdurexo ue 51 soy “ou oures up ut azeds ‘s0uy a1p Jo auios Jo pus a4 3e Uan pom aif 957) MO}Ag IxoD AIA PEERY Put a circle around the letter (AA, B, C or D) next to the only word that can be used appropr all three sentences. ‘This decoration will adda Title .ennnon 10 YOUE tOOm. ‘You're looking pale. You need fresh air to bring some nnn €0 Your cheeks, Tm going to the doctor's because I've been feeling alittle off lately. 2 de assount © pa pac) I never expected you t0 ta wwnnnsnn ithe discussion, ‘The people who live here are recent arrivals, for the most twas a bad miscalculation on the Prime Ministers. 3A teat information!“ site (By faet Unfortunately, broken marriages are (9) -c0nnmn of moder life tsa good plan but you can’t ignore the oennmun that it will cast money. Fve known him for years. As a matter of Twas at school with him, 4A attence ——B) maice — nfrmation 1) warning ‘You shouldn't take any ‘of what she says, She's just jealous, ‘This shop will main closed until further ‘The firm wouldn't raise my salary so T gave in my She hasnt said anything definite but I. it for granted that she'll be there. ‘The Vice-President will... contol during the President's absence. was unkind of her to say that, but don’t itto heart! uuojt20p ysis 247 ape a8 “wo “yng 4899 14st UOH} Jo a8In0D INE) 3m 9) OTM 19} PUP st 380] 94 “109 24) o1U0 paddans 24 sy eee ee woneeppms 9 eG Vs +» fue e woNa9[9 au) WN 01 pauNULsayOp 24,604, {a8es0d a4 30. ‘4p 12400 01 yBnous st ST “au 30 aq) au 401 eno fous sostod waa. 2 [SaaS ST “wou 1 01 panos a4 faq TBI SSO & aye AeA AT “ava ayn o “ern Buquods yueysodus sou op 30 2U0 SSH ss yo asanos a4 paroaye Apargnopun WoHD9}9 SIH | ssmuinase qsuanneduen 9 susteG@)_ studded V9 word formation inding vocabulary: Cost and value ‘There are structural differences as well as differences in meaning between a number of words dealing with the ‘cost and value of things, so the same sentences can be rewritten in different ways, ‘Compare the structures used in the examples before completing the exercise. (@) Charge (for), cost, pay (for) was charged ten pounds forthe Ucket The ticket cost me ten pounds. | paid ten pounds forthe ticket (b) Worth and value The pointing sof great valuelis worth a great deal What's the value of te paining?/How much isthe pointing worth? (©) Cost, price and value, real worth The price of something is what it costs, how much people will pay for ie. The value of something is ‘what itis really worth (which may not be the sime as the price and can refer to things thae cannot be bought, like happiness). The price they are asking forthe sculpture is £1,000 but don't think tis worth os much as thet. ‘Monthy payments towards a pension may seem to cst alt of money ot your age but you cannot underestimate the value ofthe peace of mind it wl give you when you are old. For each of the sentences below, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the frst sentence, using the word given. 1 How much did they charge you to go into the gallery? cost How much Aid I8. £058. YOU. ononnnnsenen 0 0 into the gallery? 2 Think they charged me too much for my ticket. paid Tehink La. too much for my ticket, 3 How much do you have to pay an artis o paint your portrait? charge How mich nnn GOS. 90 AUB, NOG, (OM. paint your portrait? 4 Lean’ ell you the value of a painting like that worth Tcan’t tell you ew. much, ..nainting lke, that. is, worth 5 You could charge any amount of money for an authentic Shakespearean manuscript. pay People OMY. ny amount of money for an authentic Shakespearean manuscript. 6 It would be of enormous value. worth Tewould be th, AMOUR. un MONEY. 7 Ifitisa fake, they paid alot more for it than it is worth, it cost them a lot more than its worth, 8 However good an imitation may be, its never worth very much. value However good an imitation may be, it nnnl8 PAVE. of WEY. ae. vale

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