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PARASPERSE Paraffin Cleaner

1995 (Updated August 2003) Confidential--Halliburton Use Only

Concentration range: 1 to 10% PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner was designed primarily as a water-dispersible paraffin-cleaning agent. Because of its water dispersibility, PARASPERSE has other applications described in this chapter. When PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner is added to any aqueous fluid, a milky, waterexternal dispersion is formed.

Wellbore and Tubing Cleanout PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner can be dispersed in water or acid to clean tubular goods before other stimulation treatments. Thus, removing paraffin and/or inorganic scale that can slough off the tubing during treatment could eliminate damage to the formation during the stimulation treatment. The concentrations in Table 1 are recommended for optimum cleaning. Table 1Recommended Concentrations of PARASPERSE Paraffin Cleaner Cold Water (below 70F) Use 8 to 10% by volume

Warm water (70F to 100F) Use 5% by volume Hot water (100F to 150F) Hot water (150F to 200F) Use 2% by volume Use 1% by volume

The required concentration of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner in any instance can vary with the amount of paraffin present, how well the paraffin adheres to pipe surfaces, and the temperature at which the paraffin deposits. Cleaning Flow Lines Because of the distances and amounts of paraffin, flowline cleaning requires the following steps.

Heat the water as high as practical. Increase the concentration of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner.

These precautions are especially necessary in offshore applications where the flowline may travel several miles under water because the temperature decreases to that of the surrounding water before it reaches the storage tanks. Use a minimum of 5% PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner when cleaning long flowlines.

Aiding Placement of Paraffin Inhibitors Up to, but not exceeding, 40% by volume of PARACHEK 160 paraffin inhibitor or any other oil-soluble paraffin inhibitor can be added to PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner, which in turn can be added to any aqueous treating fluid. Using this method, acid- or water-based fracturing fluids can be used to squeeze paraffin inhibitors into the formation during other stimulation treatments. For example, if it was determined previously that one drum of paraffin inhibitor is needed, this volume is diluted with 80 gal of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner to make a 40% inhibitor solution. This inhibitor solution is then added to the aqueous treating solution. Such a system provides a greater versatility in the use of paraffin inhibitors and helps stimulate their use in the field. The benefit of such a system is providing long-term paraffin inhibition in conjunction with paraffin cleanup and other stimulation treatments. Preflush for Fracturing In areas in which winter temperatures are extremely cold, the use of cold treating fluids (particularly when fracturing) could cause paraffin precipitation in the formation, causing damage to production or slow well cleanup. Disperse PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner in an aqueous spearhead and use to place a solventrich boundary between the formation fluids and cold treating fluids. This process helps alleviate the problem of paraffin precipitation. For example, since the area of the fracture face with the greatest temperature drop is adjacent to the wellbore, 50 to 100 gal of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner is sufficient in the first 2,000 gal of aqueous preflush. This fluid should be on the formation before fluid-loss additives are added to the treating solution. Deposit Removal The aqueous dispersion of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner does not actually dissolve all the paraffin contacted. It actually breaks the paraffin up into small particles that are dispersed along with the PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner. Consequently, there is no way of knowing exactly how much paraffin can be removed with varying concentrations of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner. Under laboratory conditions, 1.3 lb of paraffin was removed over 24 hours at room temperature in each gallon of 10% PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner prepared with water. The amount of paraffin removed depends on agitation, contact time, temperature, and how well paraffin adheres to the pipe surfaces.

Mixing Procedures
Read the "Safety Precautions" section of this document before attempting to blend PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner. PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner, at any concentration, can be blended directly into any aqueous fluid. With a small amount of agitation, a uniform dispersion is achieved. However, like most water-external emulsions, PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner tends to "cream out" after standing static for about an hour. A uniform dispersion can be ensured if the tanks are "rolled" just before pumping the fluid. PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner can be used in acids and in fracturing fluids. It may be possible to eliminate both nonemulsifying and anti-sludging agents when using PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner in acid, but testing should be performed to determine its applicability. Table 2 lists the properties of PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner.

The preferred method to mix the PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner would be to circulate two container volumes. Air should not be used to initially disperse the PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner into the fluid as an explosive air/solvent mixture could be evolved. Once the PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner has been fully blended into the mixture, air can be used to disperse any solvent that has creamed to the top of the blend. Table 2Properties of PARASPERSE SAP Numbers 100012782 (55-gal drum) 100064045 (bulk) Specific Gravity @ 68F Boiling Point (F) Flash Point (F) (TOC) 0.89 237 44

Flash Point 10% Aqueous Solution (F) 105 Flash Point 5% Aqueous Solution (F) 195

Safety Precautions
Keep PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner away from flames. PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner is a highly flammable material with a low flash point. Treat it with the same respect as gasoline and other materials with low flash points. Once it is dispersed in water, the flash point is no longer critical unless separation occurs. Exercise caution with regard to open flames. Adding PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner to hot water or acid for injection into a well can be dangerous unless done correctly. The safest method to add the PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner would be to inject it into the heated water or acid downstream from any open blender tubs or tanks. PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner, with its low flash point, could evolve a dangerous amount of fumes if added directly to heated water or acid in an open container or blender tub without immediate proper agitation. Treat the open container or blender tub as when handling other highly flammable substances and cover with either a CO 2 or nitrogen blanket. The "Hydrocarbon Pumping Guidelines" document provides information for the safe handling of highly flammable hydrocarbon liquids during either blending or pumping operations. WARNING: Containers must be properly grounded when transferring PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner from one container to another. Failure to do so can result in an explosion. Avoid skin or clothing contamination with PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner. Do not take internally. Precaution NOTE: When treating oil wells, do not heat water above the melting point of the paraffin in the well. If the temperature of the water is too hot, it can flow down the tubing or annulus and again solidify on or in the formation, causing a decrease in productivity. When pumping hot fluids down the annulus, pump the well to remove melted paraffin from the tubing. Scrape the tubing before pumping hot fluid down the well. Because PARASPERSE paraffin cleaner does not actually dissolve all the paraffin it contacts but rather disperses most of it, special precautions should be observed. This dispersed paraffin

could plug small orifices, such as chokes or pump valves. This problem exists when the temperature of the solution is less than the melting point of the wax.

For more information, contact PE Tech Services Support.

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