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SPED Reading Standard

Articulated by Year Level


INTRODUCTION Reading is a complex skill that involves learning language and using it effectively in the active process of constructing meaning embedded in text. It requires students to fluently decode the words on a page, understand the vocabulary of the writer, and use strategies to build comprehension of the text. It is a vital form of communication in the 21 st century and a critical skill for students of this information age as they learn to synthesize a vast array of texts. The Reading Standard Articulated by Year Level will provide a clear delineation of what students need to know and be able to do at each year level. This allows teachers to better plan instructional goals for students at any year.

BACKGROUND The adopted Academic Standards define what SPEDs students need to know and be able to do by the end of Fourth Year. Developed by committees comprised of teachers, principals, SPED educators, these standards were written in Year-level clusters with benchmarks at grades 6, and high school. RATIONALE Requirements in the Basic Education and the standard practice of conducting periodic review of the academic standards prompted the decision by the Department of Education to refine and articulate the academic standards for writing and reading by year level. This refinement and articulation project was started in June 2009, and will be completed in March 2011. METHODOLOGY Work teams for reading consisted of a representative sample of educators from Metro Manila designed to include large and small SPED schools. National reading consultants, university professors, and practitioners from private sectors advised the teams. The goal was to articulate, or align, the current academic standards by year level. The articulation process included a restructuring of the Secondary Academic Content Standards to better facilitate the alignment of performance objectives by year level, while maintaining the content integrity of the existing standards. Over a period of months, the articulation team and smaller sub-committees of the teams refined the documents. Reasonableness, usefulness, and appropriateness were the guidelines for the articulation process. External reviews by nationally recognized consultants brought a broad perspective to the articulation process. Internal reviews by university and local experts provided additional

validation. feedback.

Consultative conferences were conducted with all stakeholders to gather their

After all the public comments were collected and organized by topic, the articulated teams met one last time to determine what modifications to the standards documents would be appropriate, based on this information. All public comments were given equal consideration. The completion of the standards articulation process was followed by the development of rationales, glossaries, and crosswalks. ORGANIZATION OF THE READING STANDARD The Reading Standard is divided into three strands: Reading Process, Comprehending Literary Text, and Comprehending Informational Text. Each strand is divided into concepts that broadly define the skills and knowledge that students are expected to know and be able to do. Under each concept are performance objectives that more specifically delineate the tasks to be taught and learned. The way the Reading Standard is organized does not imply that teaching and learning of reading should be fragmented or compartmentalized. The order of the strands, concepts, and performance objectives are not intended to be a progression or hierarchy of literacy instruction. Reading develops with a spiraling of skills that are interconnected and dependent on each other, which is reflected in the standard. Effective instruction often incorporates several performance objectives into an integrated experience of learning for the student. Due to the nature of the content, some performance objectives are repeated in subsequent grade levels. It is understood that the complexity, depth, and difficulty of the performance objectives content will increase from one grade level to the next. It is recommended that SPED teachers view the Reading Standard as a continuum across all year levels. Therefore, the Reading Standard format is designed to allow SPED teachers easy access to the performance objectives of preceding and proceeding year levels in addition to the level at which they are instructing. Strand One: Reading Process Recent research has established the major components of effective reading instruction. They are identified in the six concepts of this strand, each supported with specific performance objectives. While different skills will be emphasized at different stages of a students reading development, all components are needed and used by fluent readers as they interact with text. Concept 1: Print Concepts These skills establish an awareness of the organization of our written language as students learn to access print in the early stages of reading development. Specific skills include demonstrating

correct directional behavior, from opening a book to following the text, recognizing distinguishing features of a sentence, such as end punctuation and alphabetizing a list of words.

Concept 2: Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness is the knowledge of the individual speech sounds in spoken words and the ability to manipulate those sounds. Instructional time spent isolating the sounds in spoken language, and then putting them back together into a complete word, enables students to work from the familiar, (sounds) to the unknown, (letters). Concept 3: Phonics Phonics is the understanding of the symbol-sound relationship in written language. Students learn that there are predictable connections between the sounds or phonemes that are spoken, and the letters or graphemes that are written. This knowledge is important as students begin to decode unfamiliar words in text. Concept 4: Vocabulary Readers who develop a rich and varied repertoire of word meanings have a greater capacity for understanding the text they read. Reading vocabulary refers specifically to words readers recognize or use in print. Students learn vocabulary by direct instruction, and also indirectly through experiences in listening to read aloud and in reading on their own. Concept 5: Fluency Fluency is the ability to read a text with accuracy, and expression to support comprehension. Fluency is a critical bridge between decoding and comprehension. Once a reader is able to access the printed words with confidence, he or she can better concentrate on reading for understanding. Concept 6: Comprehension Understanding the meaning embedded in text is the fundamental reason for reading. Good readers establish a purpose for reading and actively monitor their comprehension to accomplish their goal. They adjust the speed of their reading to accommodate challenging text, resolve comprehension problems while theyre reading, and check for understanding when they are finished. Good readers consciously use comprehension strategies to make sense of what they have read.

Strand Two: Comprehending Literary Text

This strand focuses on comprehension of fiction, including literature, poetry, and drama, and their historical and cultural contexts.

Concept 1: Elements of Literature Comprehension elements in this concept address higher level thinking skills. This concept addresses the structure and elements of text such as plot, characters and theme, but also analyzes, interpret, conclude and draw inferences. In this strand, students are expected to identify, analyze and interpret a variety of genres, relating them to their own experience and knowledge.

Concept 2: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature This concept recognizes that comprehension of literary text is enhanced by an informed awareness of global issues and cultures. Literature that crosses cultural and national boundaries offers an excellent experience for students to broaden their horizons and understanding. Learning about the historical impact of an issue or incident allows todays students to make connections to the past and understand the present. Stand Three: Comprehending Informational Text The comprehension skills particular to informational text can be taught across all content areas. Students need the opportunity to learn and practice these skills with the reading material they are required to read in various subject areas. It is important that students have the opportunity to read and understand real-world text in order to apply these skills to their personal or workplace tasks. Concept 1: Expository Text Expository text, such as encyclopedias, articles, textbooks and reference sources, provides organized information and explanations. Students need to be able to use, interpret, and analyze expository text to locate information for school or personal use. Concept 2: Functional Text. Functional text, such as maps, schedules, forms and workplace manuals conveys information. Students need to be able to use, interpret, and analyze functional text in order to perform everyday practical tasks. Concept 3: Persuasive Text Persuasive text, such as in editorial essays, reviews or critiques is written to sway or impress the reader. Students need to carefully read and analyze persuasive text in order to determine that the information in the text is accurate and unbiased.

Strand 1: Reading Process Reading Process consists of the five critical components of reading, which are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary and Comprehension of connected text. These elements support each other and are woven together to build a solid foundation of linguistic understanding for the reader. Concept 1: Print Concepts Concept 2: Phonemic Awareness Concept 3: Phonics Concept 4: Vocabulary contexts. Concept 5: Fluency Concept 6: Comprehension Demonstrate understanding of print concepts. Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech. Decode words, using knowledge of phonics, syllabication, and word parts. Acquire and use new vocabulary in relevant Read fluently. Employ strategies to comprehend text.

Strand 2: Comprehending Literary Text Comprehending Literary Text identifies the comprehension strategies that are specific in the study of a variety of literature. Concept 1: Elements of Literature Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the structure and elements of literature. Recognize and apply knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of American, British, and world literature.

Concept 2: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature

Strand 3: Comprehending Informational Text Comprehending Informational Text delineates specific and unique skills that are required to understand the wide array of informational text that is a part of our day to day experiences. Concept 1: Expository Text Identify, analyze and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository text.

Concept 2: Functional Text

Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity and relevancy of functional text. Explain basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the authors purpose and use of persuasive strategies. Strand 1: Reading Process

Concept 3: Persuasive Text

Reading Process consists of the five critical components of reading, which are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary and Comprehension of connected text. These elements support each other and are woven together to build a solid foundation of linguistic understanding for the reader. Concept 1. Print Concepts Demonstrate understanding of print concepts. Grade Six PO 1. Describe ideas by grouping pictures based on similar ideas. PO 2. Know appropriate heading for set of related pictures, words/phrases and set of sentences. PO 3. Know the sequence of natural events ( e.g. plant growth, life stages of some animals) PO 4. Describe relationships as source (e.g.eggchicken; function (e.g. table-trees' First Year PO 1. Recognize ideas by grouping pictures based on similar ideas. PO 2. Select appropriate heading for set of related pictures, words/phrases and set of sentences. PO 3. Tell the sequence of natural events ( e.g. plant growth, life stages of some animals) PO 4. Identify relationships as source (e.g.eggchicken; function (e.g. Second Year PO 1. Distinguish ideas by grouping pictures based on similar ideas. Third Year PO 1. Demonstrate ideas by grouping pictures based on similar ideas. PO 2. Identify PO 2. Recognize appropriate appropriate heading for set of heading for set of related pictures, related pictures, words/phrases words/phrases and set of and set of sentences. sentences. PO 3. Identify the sequence of natural events ( e.g. plant growth, life stages of some animals) PO 4. Perceive relationships as source (e.g.eggchicken; function (e.g. table-trees' Fourth Year PO 1. Synthesize ideas by grouping pictures based on similar ideas.

PO 2. Analyze appropriate heading for set of related pictures, words/phrases and set of sentences. PO 3. Recognize PO 3. the sequence of Distinguish the natural events sequence of ( e.g. plant natural events growth, life stages ( e.g. plant of some animals) growth, life stages of some animals) PO 4. Distinguish PO 4. Explain relationships as relationships as source (e.g.eggsource (e.g.eggchicken; function chicken; (e.g. table-trees' function (e.g. 6

part-whole(e.g. eyes-face) PO 5. Tell outcomes by giving possible ending of a series of pictures/events given. PO 6. Observe what a person or animal does and what happened before/after an event.

table-trees' partwhole(e.g. eyesface) PO 5. Guess outcomes by giving possible ending of a series of pictures/events given. PO 6. Infer what a person or animal does and what happened before/after an event.

part-whole(e.g. eyes-face) PO 5. Predict outcomes by giving possible ending of a series of pictures/events given. PO 6. Predict what a person or animal does and what happened before/after an event.

part-whole(e.g. eyes-face) PO 5. Recognize outcomes by giving possible ending of a series of pictures/events given. PO 6. Recognize what a person or animal does and what happened before/after an event.

table-trees' partwhole(e.g. eyesface) PO 5. Explain outcomes by giving possible ending of a series of pictures/events given. PO 6. Explain what a person or animal does and what happened before/after an event.

Concept 2. Phonemic Awareness Identify and manipulate the sounds of speech. Grade Six First Year PO 1. Tell words PO 1. Describe with final words with final consonant sounds consonant sounds PO 2. Tell words PO 2. Describe with initial and words with final consonant initial and final blends and consonant clusters blends and clusters PO 3.Read words PO 3.Read orally that rhyme words orally in phrases heard that rhyme in verses heard PO 4. Read PO 4. Read orally few orally short sentences verses observing proper observing intonation and proper stress intonation and stress Second Year PO 1. Identify words with final consonant sounds PO 2. Identify words with initial and final consonant blends and clusters PO 3.Read words orally that rhyme in sentences heard PO 4. Read orally conversations observing proper intonation and stress Third Year PO 1. Recognize words with final consonant sounds PO 2. Recognize words with initial and final consonant blends and clusters PO 3.Read words orally that rhyme in poems heard PO 4. Read orally dialogs observing proper intonation and stress Fourth Year PO 1. Determine words with final consonant sounds PO 2. Determine words with initial and final consonant blends and clusters PO 3.Read words orally that rhyme in stories heard PO 4. Read orally conversations and dialogs observing proper intonation and stress

Concept 3 . Phonics Decode words using knowledge phonics, syllabication and word parts. Grade Six PO 1. Describe words in stories read using phonetic analysis PO 2. Identify stressed and unstressed syllables (eg. Stress on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd syllables) PO 3.Use the dictionary to identify stress marks for correct accent, select appropriate meaning from several meanings given and to locate words using guide words PO 4. Tell meaning of unfamiliar words through structural analysis (eg. Words with affixes and inflectional endings, compound words written as one, two words and hyphenated words First Year PO 1. Identify words in stories read using phonetic analysis PO 2. Recognize stressed and unstressed syllables (eg. Stress on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd syllables) PO 3.Use the dictionary to describe stress marks for correct accent, select appropriate meaning from several meanings given and to locate words using guide words PO 4. Know meaning of unfamiliar words through structural analysis (eg. Words with affixes and inflectional endings, compound words written as one, two words and hyphenated words Second Year PO 1. Recognize words in stories read using phonetic analysis PO 2. Distinguish stressed and unstressed syllables (eg. Stress on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd syllables) PO 3.Use the dictionary to recognize stress marks for correct accent, select appropriate meaning from several meanings given and to locate words using guide words PO 4. Describe meaning of unfamiliar words through structural analysis (eg. Words with affixes and inflectional endings, compound words written as one, two words and hyphenated words Third Year PO 1. Decode words in stories read using phonetic analysis Fourth Year PO 1. Convert words in stories read using phonetic analysis PO 2. Clarify PO 2. Illustrate stressed and stressed and unstressed unstressed syllables (eg. syllables (eg. Stress on the 1st, Stress on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd syllables) 2nd, 3rd syllables) PO 3.Use the dictionary to illustrate stress marks for correct accent, select appropriate meaning from several meanings given and to locate words using guide words PO 4. Identify meaning of unfamiliar words through structural analysis (eg. Words with affixes and inflectional endings, compound words written as one, two words and hyphenated words PO 3.Use the dictionary to interpret stress marks for correct accent, select appropriate meaning from several meanings given and to locate words using guide words PO 4. Recognize meaning of unfamiliar words through structural analysis (eg. Words with affixes and inflectional endings, compound words written as one, two words and hyphenated words

Concept 4 . Vocabulary Use and acquire new vocabulary in relevant contexts. Grade Six First Year Second Year Third Year PO 1. Give the PO 1. Identify PO 1. Identify PO 1. Determine the meaning of the meaning of the meaning of meaning of vocabulary vocabulary, vocabulary vocabulary, using using linguistic using linguistic using linguistic linguistic roots and roots and roots and roots and affixes (e.g., Latin, affixes (e.g., affixes (e.g., affixes (e.g., Greek, AngloGreek, Anglo- Latin, Greek, Greek, Anglo- Saxon). Saxon, Latin). Anglo-Saxon). Saxon, Latin). PO 2. Use PO 2. Use PO 2. Use PO 2. Infer word context to context to context to meanings from identify the identify the identify the context (e.g., meaning of meaning of meaning of definition, example, unfamiliar unfamiliar unfamiliar restatement, words (e.g., words (e.g., words (e.g., comparison/contrast, definition, definition, definition, cause/effect). example, example, example, restatement, restatement, restatement, synonym, synonym, synonym, contrast) . contrast). contrast). PO 3. Use PO 3. Use PO 3. Use PO 3. Explain the context to context to context to denotative and identify the identify the distinguish the connotative intended intended meaning of meanings of words. meaning of meaning of words with words with words with multiple multiple multiple meanings (e.g., meanings (e.g., meanings (e.g., definition, definition, definition, example, example, example, restatement, or restatement, or restatement, or contrast contrast). contrast). PO 4. Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, PO 4. Determine the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, PO 4. Explain the meaning of figurative language, including similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, PO 4. Explain the meaning of metaphors based on common literary allusions.

Fourth Year PO 1. Analyze the meaning of vocabulary using linguistic roots and affixes (e.g., Greek, Anglo-Saxon, Latin). PO 2. Infer word meanings from context (e.g., definition, example, restatement, comparison/contrast, cause/effect).

PO 3. Cite examples the denotative and connotative meanings of words.

PO 4. Explain the meaning of metaphors based on common literary allusions.

and idioms in prose and poetry. PO 5. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.

and idioms in prose and poetry. PO 5. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available.

hyperbole, and technical language. PO 5. Identify the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words, by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available. PO 5. Determine the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and correct spellings by using resources such as general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-ROM and the Internet when available. PO 5. Determine the meanings, pronunciations, contextually appropriate synonyms and antonyms, replacement words and phrases, etymologies, and correct spellings of words by using resources such as general and specialized dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CDROM and the Internet when available.

Concept 5 . Fluency Read fluently. Grade Six PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy and automaticity (immediate recognition). First Year PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy and automaticity (immediate recognition). Second Year PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression). Third Year PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), and prosody (expression). Fourth Year PO 1. Read from a variety of genres with accuracy, automaticity (immediate recognition), prosody (expression), and correct pronounciation.

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Concept 6 . Comprehension Strategies Employ strategies to comprehend text. Grade Six PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words). PO 2. Confirm predictions about text for accuracy. PO 3. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text. First Year PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words). PO 2. Confirm predictions about text for accuracy. Second Year PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words). PO 2. Confirm predictions about text for accuracy. Third Year PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, prefixes). PO 2. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text PO 3. Generate PO 3. Use clarifying graphic questions in organizers in order to order to clarify comprehend text. the meaning of the text. PO 4. Use PO 4. Connect graphic information and organizers in events in text to order to clarify experience and to the meaning of related text and the text. sources. PO 5. Connect PO 5. Apply information and knowledge of events in text to organizational experience and structures (e.g., to related text chronological and sources. order, sequencetime order, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification, problem-solution) of text to aid comprehension Fourth Year PO 1. Predict text content using prior knowledge and text features (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words, prefixes). PO 2. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text PO 3. Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. PO 4. Connect information and events in text to experience and to related text and sources. PO 5. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, sequencetime order, cause and effect relationships, logical order, by classification, problem-solution) of text to aid comprehension

PO 3. Generate clarifying questions in order to comprehend text. PO 4. Use PO 4. Use graphic graphic organizers in organizers in order to clarify order to clarify the meaning of the meaning of the text. the text. PO 5. Connect PO 5. Connect information and information and events in text to events in text to experience and to experience and related text and to related text sources. and sources.

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PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect relationships) of text to aid comprehension.

PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect relationships) of text to aid comprehension. PO 7. Use PO 7. Use reading strategies reading (e.g., drawing strategies (e.g., conclusions, drawing determining conclusions, cause and effect, determining making cause and effect, inferences, making sequencing) to inferences, comprehend text. sequencing) to comprehend text.

PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect relationships) of text to aid comprehension. PO 7. Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect relationships) of text to aid comprehension

PO 6. Apply knowledge of the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, cause and effect relationships) of text to aid comprehension

PO 7. Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text

PO 7. Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text

Strand Two: Comprehending Literary Text This strand focuses on comprehension of fiction, including literature, poetry, and drama, and their historical and cultural contexts. Comprehending Literary Text identifies the comprehension strategies that are specific in the study of a variety of literature. Concept 1: Elements of Literature Use the applied knowledge in reading different literary genre creatively and proficiently. Grade Six PO 1. Distinguish kinds of literature ( e.g., fiction and nonfiction) First Year PO 1. Identify various form/genre of fiction and describe each form (e.g., short stories, novel, drama, fable, parable and myths) Second Year PO 1. Identify various form/genre of non- fiction and describe each form (e.g., news, biography, autobiography ). Third Year PO 1. Compare and contrast various forms of fiction and nonfiction. Fourth Year PO 1. Analyze various genres of fiction and nonfiction.

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PO 2. Describe the major and minor characters of different forms of literature.

PO 2. Describe the different qualities of the major and minor characters ( e.g., courage, or cowardice, industriousness) PO 3. Describe the setting in the different literary forms.

PO 3. Describe the setting in the different literary forms.

PO 2. Describe a character based upon the thoughts, words, and actions of the character, the narrators description, and other characters. PO 3. Compare the setting of the literary selection to the present time .

PO 2.Analyze the antagonist and protagonist of the character in the different form of literature. PO 3. Determine the influence of the setting (e.g., time element and place, situation) on the problem and its resolution. PO 4 Generate an alternative ending to plots and identify the reason/s for the impact and alternatives. PO 5. Explain the theme that refers to the meaning and moral of the literary selection. PO 6 Explain the authors use of his/her point of view on the aesthetic quality of the literary selection. PO 7. Infer the style of the author in different literary genre.

PO 2. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the characters and how these can help in resolving the conflicts in different forms of literature. PO 3. Analyze the relevance of the setting (e.g., time, place, situation) to the mood and tone of the text. PO 4. Justify the authors use of literary elements, theme, point of view, characterization, setting, and plot. PO 5. Analyze the features of themes conveyed through characters, actions and images. PO 6. Compare interactions among major/minor characters in a literary text with emphasis on how the plot is revealed. PO 7. Analyze the style, mood and symbolism being used by the author in different literary

PO 4. Describe the plot and its development.

PO 5. Identify the theme in the different literary works.

PO 4. Identify the plot development (e.g., conflict, subplots, parallel episodes) to determine how conflicts are resolved. PO 5. Recognize multiple themes in the different literary selections. PO 6. Contrast points of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient) in a literary text. PO 7. Tell the author's style, mood, and meaning of literary text

PO 4. Analyze setting to determine how conflicts are resolved.

PO 5. Compare and contrast themes across literary selections. PO 6.Compare and contrast points of view (e.g., first vs. third, limited vs. omniscient) in a literary text. PO 7. Describe the style of the author in the different literary genre.

PO 6. Identify the point of view (e.g., first person, third person, omniscient) in a literary selection. PO 7 Draw conclusions about the different styles of the

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author in writing based on the different literary authors word forms. choice. PO 8. Identify the elements in poetry. PO 8. Define figurative language (e.g., simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification and identify its use in poetry. PO 8 Recognize the similarities of sound in words and rhythmic patterns ( e.g. alliteration, onomatopoeia in poetry. PO 8 Describe the function and effect of common literary devices ( e.g., imagery, metaphor, symbolism) in poetry.

selections.

PO 8. Identify the characteristics and structural elements of poetry (e.g., stanza, verse, rhyme scheme, line breaks, alliteration, consonance, assonance, rhythm, repetition, figurative language).

Concept 2: Historical and Cultural Aspects of Literature Apply the knowledge of the historical and cultural aspects of Philippine Literature, Afro-Asian Literature, British-American Literature and World Literature in reading . Grade Six First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth Year PO 1. Describe PO 1. Describe PO 1. Describe PO 1. Describe PO 1. Describe the cultural the historical the historical the historical and the historical and aspect found in and cultural and cultural cultural aspects cultural aspects Childrens aspects of aspects of Afro- of Britishfound in the literature. Philippine Asian literature. American World literature. literature. literature . PO 2. Identify PO 2. PO 2. Describe PO 2. Describe PO 2. Describe common Distinguish the the different the different the different structures and structures and structures and structure and structure and stylistic elements stylistic stylistic stylistic element stylistic element in literature, elements in elements of of British and of World folklore, and Philippine Afro-Asian American literature. myths . literature. literature. literature.

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PO 3. Recognize the different forms and styles of Childrens literature.

PO 3. Recognize ways that forms and styles of Philippine literature. (including poetry, novel and/or short story) present similar themes differently across genres.

PO 3. Recognize ways that forms and styles of AfroAsian literature. (including poetry, novel and/or short story) present similar themes differently across genres.

PO 3. Recognize the ways that forms and styles of British and American literature. (including poetry, novel and/or short story) present similar themes differently across genres.

PO 3. Recognize the ways that forms and styles of World literature. (including poetry, novel and/or short story) present similar themes differently across genres.

Strand 3: Comprehending Informational Text Comprehending Informational Text delineates specific and unique skills that are required to understand the wide array of informational text that is a part of our day to day experiences. Concept 1: Expository Text Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, and elements of expository texts. Grade Six PO 1. Cite the main idea (explicit or implicit) and supporting details in expository texts. First Year PO 1. Restate the main idea (explicit or implicit) and supporting details in expository texts. Second Year PO 1. Give and explain the main idea (explicit or implicit) and supporting details in expository texts. Third Year PO 1. Critique the consistency and clarity of the texts purposes. Fourth Year PO 1. Critique the effectiveness of the organizational pattern (e.g., logic, focus, consistency, coherence, visual appeal) of expository texts. PO 2. Determine the accuracy and truthfulness of one source of information by examining evidence offered

PO 2. State the main idea and critical details of expository texts, maintaining chronological or

PO 2. Differentiate the kinds of evidences used to support conclusions (e.g., logical,

PO 2. Demonstrate comprehension on the different kinds of evidences used to support

PO 2. Distinguish the different kinds of evidence used to support conclusions (e.g., logical,

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logical order.

empirical, anecdotal).

conclusions (e.g., empirical, logical, anecdotal). empirical, anecdotal).

PO 3. Give the meaning of fact and opinion in expository texts, providing supporting evidence from the text.

PO 3. Distinguish fact from opinion in expository texts, providing supporting evidence from text.

PO 3. Distinguish fact from opinion in expository texts, providing supporting evidence from text.

PO 3. Make relevant inferences of concepts and ideas from a single reading selection.

PO 4. Give the author's stated or implied purpose(s) for writing expository texts. PO 5. Locate specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences) of expository texts.

PO 4. Identify the author's stated or implied purpose(s) for writing expository texts. PO 5 Identify the specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences, end

PO 4. Determine the underlying theme or authors implied purpose(s) for writing expository texts. PO 5 Arrange the specific information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences, concluding sentences, end

PO 4. Compare and contrast readings on the same topic, by explaining how authors reach the same or different conclusions. PO 5 Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences,

in the material itself and by referencing and comparing the evidence with information available from multiple sources. PO 3. Evaluate the evidence used to support the author's perspective contained within both primary and secondary sources. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 4. Evaluate the authors use of various techniques on the topic, by explaining how authors reach the same or different conclusions. PO 5 Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the information by using organizational features (e.g., table of contents, headings, captions, bold print, italics, glossaries, indices, key/guide words, topic sentences,

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(Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in expository texts. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in expository texts. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

concluding sentences, end notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in expository texts. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 6. Evaluate the appropriate print and electronic reference sources for a specific purpose. (E.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CDROM, website) Connected to Research Strand in Writing PO 7. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order) of expository text to aid comprehension

concluding sentences, end notes, footnotes, bibliographic references) in expository texts. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 6. Use appropriate print and electronic reference sources for a specific purpose. (E.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CDROM, website). *Connected to Research Strand in Writing PO 7. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order) of expository text to aid comprehension

PO 6. Locate appropriate print and electronic reference sources for a specific purpose. (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CDROM, website) *Connected to Research Strand in Writing PO7 Identify the organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order) of

PO 6. Organize the appropriate print and electronic reference sources for a specific purpose. (E.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CDROM, website) *Connected to Research Strand in Writing PO 7. Analyze the knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order) of expository text to aid comprehension

PO 6. Identify the appropriate print and electronic reference sources for a specific purpose. (E.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, CDROM, website) *Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 7. Apply knowledge of organizational structures (e.g., chronological order, comparison and contrast, cause and effect relationships, logical order) of expository text to aid comprehension

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PO 8. Interpret graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

PO 8. Demonstrate understanding of how graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text be made accessible and usable. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 9. Differentiate between primary and secondary source material. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

PO 8. Interpret features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing)

PO 8. Analyze graphic features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research

PO 8. Generate relevant features (e.g., charts, maps, diagrams, illustrations, tables, timelines, graphs) of expository text. (Connected to Research

PO 9 Formulate simple conclusions about expository text, supported by text evidence

PO 9. Describe the different function and effect between primary and secondary source material. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 10. Make relevant inferences about expository texts, supported by text evidence. PO 11. Compare and contrast the central ideas of a specific topic from selected readings.

PO 9. Evaluate the different function and effect between primary and secondary source material. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 10.Analyze relevant inferences about expository texts, supported by text evidence. PO 11. Interpret the central ideas of a specific topic from selected readings.

PO 9.Articulate the different function and effect between primary and secondary source material. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) PO 10. Evaluate relevant inferences about expository texts, supported by text evidence. PO 11. Analyze the central ideas of a specific topic from selected readings.

PO 10. Give the relevant inferences about expository texts, supported by text evidence. PO 11. Identify the central ideas of a specific topic PO 11. Explain the central ideas of a specific topic.

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PO 12. Describe how authors use elements of expository texts to achieve their purposes (e.g. language choice, organization).

PO12. Point out how authors use elements of expository texts to achieve their purposes (e.g. language choice, organization).

PO12. Explain how authors use elements of expository texts to achieve their purposes (e.g. language choice, organization).

PO 12. Analyze how authors use elements of expository texts to achieve their purposes (e.g. language choice, organization).

PO 12. Evaluate how authors use elements of expository texts to achieve their purposes (e.g. language choice, organization).

Concept 2: Functional Text Identify, analyze, and apply knowledge of the purpose, structures, clarity, and relevance of functional text. Grade Six First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth Year PO 1. PO 1. PO 1. PO 1. Synthesize PO 1. Synthesize Use Use Use information information from the information information information from text and multiple sources from multiple from text and from text and text features to (e.g., texts, maps, sources (e.g., texts, text features to text features to determine the illustrations, maps, illustrations, determine the determine the sequence of workplace workplace sequence of sequence of activities documents, documents, activities activities needed to carry schematic schematic needed to carry needed to carry out a diagrams) to solve diagrams) to solve out a out a procedure. a problem. a problem. procedure. procedure. PO 2. PO 2. PO2 PO 2 PO 2. Synthesize Identify the Determine what Determine Synthesize information from text features information what information from multiple sources (e.g., (e.g., steps in information multiple sources (e.g., texts, maps, directions, directions, (e.g., steps in (e.g., texts, maps, illustrations, legend, legend, supplies directions, illustrations, workplace illustrations, needed, legend, supplies workplace documents, diagram, illustrations, needed, documents, schematic sequence, bold diagram, illustrations, schematic diagrams) to draw face print, sequence) is diagram, diagrams) to draw conclusions. headings) of missing in sequence) is conclusions. functional text. functional text. extraneous in functional text. PO 3. Interpret PO 3. Interpret PO 3. Interpret PO 3. Identify the PO 3. Analyze the details from details from a details from a objective(s) of effectiveness of functional text variety of variety of functional text functional text

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for a specific purpose (e.g., to follow directions, to solve a problem, to perform a procedure, to answer questions).

functional text (e.g., warranties, products, informations, technical manuals, consumer safety publication) for a specific purpose (e.g to follow directions, to solve problems, to performs procedure, to answer questions).

functional text (e.g., warranties, products, informations, technical manuals, consumer safety publication) for a specific purpose (e.g to follow directions, to solve problems, to performs procedure, to answer questions).

(e.g., warranties, product information, technical manuals, consumer publications, workplace documents).

(e.g., warranties, product information, technical manuals, consumer publications, workplace documents) to achieve its stated purpose(s).

Concept 3: Persuasive Text Explain the basic elements of argument in text and their relationship to the authors purpose and use of persuasive strategies. Grade Six First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth Year PO 1. PO 1. PO 1. PO1 PO1 Determine the Determine the Determine the Identify the Describe the authors authors authors writing central argument central argument specific specific purpose the persuasive and its elements and its elements purpose for for writing the text. (e.g., argument by (e.g., argument by writing the persuasive text cause and effect, cause and effect, persuasive text. analogy, analogy, Authority, Authority, emotion, logic) emotion, logic) In persuasive In persuasive texts. texts. PO 2. Identify PO 2. Identify PO 2. Evaluate PO 2. Evaluate PO 2. Describe the facts and the facts and the the how persuasive details that details that effectiveness of appropriateness of techniques (e.g., support the support the the facts used to an authors word repetition, authors authors support an choice for an sentence variety, argument argument authors intended audience. understatement, regarding a regarding a argument overstatement) particular idea, particular idea, regarding a contribute to the

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subject, concept, or object. PO 3. Describe the intended effects of persuasive strategies and propaganda techniques (e.g., bandwagon, peer pressure, repetition, testimonial, transfer, loaded words) that an author uses. PO 4. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.

subject, concept, or object. PO 3. Describe the intended effect of persuasive strategies and propaganda techniques (e.g., bandwagon, peer pressure, repetition, testimonial, transfer, loaded words) that an author uses. PO 4. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.

particular idea, subject, concept, or object. PO 3Describe the intended effect of persuasive strategies and propaganda techniques (e.g., bandwagon, peer pressure, repetition, testimonial, transfer, loaded words) that an author uses. PO 4. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.

power of persuasive text. PO 3. Identify unsupported inferences or fallacious reasoning (e.g., circular reasoning, false causality, overgeneralization, oversimplification, self-contradiction) in the arguments advanced in persuasive text. PO 4. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text. PO 3. Identify unsupported inferences or fallacious reasoning (e.g., circular reasoning, false causality, overgeneralization, oversimplification, self-contradiction) in the arguments advanced in persuasive text. PO 4. Identify specific instances of bias in persuasive text.

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Glossary
The purpose of this glossary is to help the user better understand and implement the Reading Standard. It is not intended to be a study guide for the SPED students and is not a comprehensive list of all literacy terms. adage affix allegory a saying that conveys a common experience or general truth and has gained credit through extended use (e.g., a stitch in time saves nine) a non-word letter or group of letters attached to a root or stem to change its meaning or function, as the prefix ad- and the suffix ing in adjoining a literary work with two or more levels of meaning: one literal level and one or more symbolic or figurative levels; events, settings, objects, or characters that stand for ideas or qualities beyond themselves the repetition of consonant sounds, usually at the beginning of words a reference to a well-known work of literature, famous person, or historical event with which the reader is assumed to be familiar a partial similarity between two things that are otherwise dissimilar; a pairing of words designed to elicit associations between concepts and background knowledge evidence based on a brief story told to make a point or to entertain a word opposite in meaning to another (e.g., wet and dry) a type of writing that develops a topic in a logical and persuasive manner a statement delivered by an actor to an audience in such a way that other characters on stage are presumed not to hear what is said; the character reveals his or her private thoughts, reactions, or motivations the repetition of vowel sounds in stressed syllables or words without repeating consonant sounds the ability to read silently or orally without stopping to use decoding strategies on unknown words a narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung; consists of simple stanzas, usually with a refrain a persuasive technique that attempts to get people to follow the crowd using the logical fallacy that, since everyone else likes it, it must be good a word to which affixes may be added to change its meaning, tense, or part of speech the writers outlook or prejudice; the writers leaning or belief about a topic a strategy for analyzing a subject by examining the reasons for specific

alliteration allusion analogy

anecdotal evidence antonym argument aside

assonance automaticity ballad bandwagon

base word bias cause and effect

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actions or events (cause) and the consequences or results of certain causes (effect) central argument character foil characterization the main point or purpose of a piece of writing, often stated in a thesis statement or topic sentence a character that provides a contrast to another character, thus intensifying the impact of that other character the manner in which an author presents a character by using the character's actions, dialogue, description, or how other characters react to that character a five line stanza with successive lines of two, four, six, eight, and two syllables supporting a position by merely restating it to use examples to show how things are similar and different, with the greater emphasis on similarities a strategy for thinking or writing that involves explaining, defining, or evaluating subjects by showing how they resemble and differ from each other or from some standard for evaluation an elaborate and extended metaphor, especially in poetic images the problem(s) or struggle(s) between or among opposing forces that trigger(s) the action in literature (e.g., person vs. person, person vs. self, person vs. nature, person vs. society) an association that a word calls to mind in addition to its dictionary or literal meaning

cinquain circular reasoning compare compare (contrast)

Conceit Conflict

connotation/ connotative consonance

the repetition of consonant sounds within and at the end of words (e.g., stroke of luck) consumer publications publications for the use of the general public (e.g., periodicals, pamphlets, advertisements) contrast to use examples to show how things are different in one or more important ways credibility denotation/denotative digraph dipthong e.g. elegy quality or power of inspiring belief; capacity for believability the literal or standard dictionary meaning of a word two letters representing a single speech sound (e.g., ph in phone) a speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another vowel sound within the same syllable (e.g., oi in oil) (abbreviation for example) precedes a non-exhaustive list of examples provided as options; other examples may be appropriate but not included[compare to i.e.] a song or poem written as a lament for the dead

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epic equivocation etymology euphemism evidence

a narrative poem, usually about the adventures and heroic deeds of a folk hero (e.g., Homer's llliad) language that is open to interpretation; often deliberately misleading the history of words; the study of the history of words A mild or indirect term that is used in place of one considered harsh or blunt (e.g., passed away instead of died) statements or information that help in making a conclusion or judgment: logical evidence - based on earlier known or well-known information presented in a clear organized pattern empirical evidence- information or facts gained by observation or experiment based on scientific analysis anecdotal evidence - information gained from casual observation, usually presented in a narrative style writing that explains or informs through the use of facts, reasons, or examples a short narrative that teaches a moral or lesson; main characters are usually animals that speak and act like humans a statement that can be verified as true a fanciful tale about real life problems, usually with imaginary characters such as fairies, trolls, or leprechauns reasoning that is deceptive or liable to mislead the error of concluding that an event is caused by another event simply because it follows it a highly imaginative story characterized by fanciful or supernatural elements the use of words to create vivid pictures and ideas in the mind of the reader; not meant to be literally true (e.g., similes, metaphors, idioms, personification) an account of a conversation, episode, or event that happened before the beginning of a story, told for the purpose of clarifying something in the present; often interrupts the chronological flow of the story read with ease, expression, and automaticity to support comprehension a narrative piece (e.g., epic, legend, myth, fable) that is part of the oral or written tradition of a culture passed from generation to generation the numbered notes or comments at the bottom or side of a page that comments on a designated part of the text writers use of hints or clues to indicate events that will occur later in a text a style of poetry that has an irregular rhyme or line pattern; verse that is developed according to author's own style printed material that is specifically intended to convey information (e.g., instructions, technical manuals, labels, signs, recipes) 24

expository text fable fact fairy tale fallacious reasoning false causality fantasy figurative language flashback fluency folktale footnotes foreshadowing free verse functional text

genre grapheme graphic features

a category or type of literature based on its style, form, and content (e.g., mystery, adventure, romance, science fiction) written representation of a phoneme (e.g., b for /b/, ck for /k/)

features within or accompanying text, that help to clarify or explain the text (e.g., labels, illustrations, captions, headings, diagrams, charts, tables, titles) a visual representation of information in an organized manner that is graphic organizer intended to enhance understanding (e.g., Venn diagram, T-graph, word web, KWL chart) a style of Japanese poetry consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, haiku seven, and five syllables, traditionally about nature or the seasons a long narrative that recreates an historical period or event based on fact, historical fiction but embellished with imagined conversation and details words with the same spelling but with different pronunciations and homographs meanings (e.g., wind, read, bow) homonyms/homophones words with the same pronunciation but with different meanings, different parts of speech, and usually different spelling figure of speech in which the truth is exaggerated for emphasis or humor hyperbole i.e. idiom imagery incongruities inflectional endings inference intonation irony (abbreviation for that is) precedes a specific list of items in which all of the items should be used [compare to e.g.] phrase or expression that means something different from what the words actually say; usually understandable to a particular culture, language, or group of people (e.g., let the cat out of the bag) descriptive language used in literature to recreate sensory experiences, enrich writing, and to make the writing more vivid; sensory details text or portions of text having inconsistent or inharmonious parts or elements see suffix a conclusion derived from facts or premises the distinctive patterns of rising and falling pitch that enhances the meaning of spoken words using a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal meaning: dramatic irony - where the reader or the audience sees a characters mistakes, but the character does not verbal irony - where the writer says one thing and means another irony of situation - where there is a great difference between the purpose of an action and the result a student's record of his/her own learning activities, intended to help evaluate his/her own learning and to plan future learning a traditional, historical story of a culture passed from generation to generation

learning log legend

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limerick linguistic roots literal language literal meaning loaded words logic/logical evidence lyric main idea

a light, humorous, five-line verse with an aabba rhyme pattern the origin of a word based on the nature, structure, and history of the word language that is true to fact, avoiding exaggeration or metaphor the actual or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase; language that means exactly what it appears to mean words that are slanted for or against a topic; words with strong positive or negative connotations the science of correct reasoning; correctly using facts, examples, and reasons to support one's view a short poem that expresses personal feelings or emotions, often in a songlike style or form the concept, thought, notion, or impression that is of greatest importance or influence: literal adhering to fact or to the primary meaning or intent implied a suggested meaning or intent (as opposed to explicit) explicit fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity; leaving no question as to the meaning or intent a character that plays a prominent role in a literary work

main character

Meta cognitive strategy the technique or strategy of examining ones own thinking process; awareness of ones own thinking process in order to monitor and direct the process to a desired end a figure of speech that compares two unlike things in which no word of metaphor comparison is used the arrangement of words in a rhythmical pattern, with stressed and meter unstressed syllables a character that plays a role of lesser importance to the plot than the main minor character character(s) the feeling(s) the text arouses in the reader (e.g., happiness, sadness, mood sorrow, peacefulness) the particular value or lesson the author attempts to convey to the reader moral myth narrative/narration onomatopoeia onsets opinion a traditional or legendary story that deals with supernatural beings, ancestors, or heroes; intended to explain the mysteries of the natural world, or the customs or ideals of a society a type of fiction or nonfiction that tells a story or series of events the use of a word whose pronunciation suggests its meaning (e.g., meow, buzz) consonant(s) before the vowel(s) in a syllable, including consonant blends and digraphs (e.g., /s/ in sit, /spl/ in split) a belief or conclusion not supported by evidence or facts

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organization of text

overgeneralization oversimplification overstatement pacing paradox parody peer pressure personification persuasive techniques

format or structure; often varies with type of text, but common patterns exist: chronological order - details are arranged in the order in which they happen order of importance - details are arranged in order of importance: least important to most important or most important to least important cause-effect - details are arranged to show connections between a result and the events that preceded it comparison-contrast - details are arranged to show similarities and differences between two or more subjects listing - details are arranged in a simple list classification - details are placed into categories problem-solution - details are arranged to show a problem and then a way to solve the problem spatial - details are arranged geographically from left to right, right to left, top to bottom, and so on mixed - some details are arranged one way, and other details are arranged in another way an assumption that all members of a group, nationality, race, or gender have the characteristics observed in some members the use of language which makes something far simpler than it is, to the point of distorting the meaning (e.g., Its not so bad ) a statement that represents something as more than it actually is (e.g., I have a million things to do today.) the reading speed or rate at which text is read a statement that seems to be contradictory but that actually presents a truth a form of literature that intentionally uses a comic effect to mock a literary work or style a persuasive technique in which the reader is pressured to think or act a particular way so as to be accepted by ones peers a figure of speech in which something non-human is given human characteristics or powers devices of persuasion used for the purpose of changing ones mind, making one take action, or both; usually accomplished by a combination of emotional appeals and logical reasoning (see bandwagon, peer pressure, circular reasoning, oversimplification, transfer, loaded words, testimonial, false causality, overgeneralization, oversimplification) the smallest unit of sound within a word that distinguishes one word from another (e.g., cat = /c/ /a/ /t/)

phoneme

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phonemic awareness phonogram plot

the awareness of and the ability to manipulate sounds in the spoken word a spelling pattern, word family, or rime (e.g., ame, -ack, -ay, -in) the action or sequence of related events that make up a story, consisting of five basic elements: exposition the opening of a short story up to the point that the conflict is introduced to the reader rising action the chain of events in which the conflicts intensify climax the point of highest interest; point at which the reader makes his greatest emotional response; the point in the story in which rising action is about to turn into falling action falling action takes place after the climax when the action begins to wind down or conflicts begin to lessen resolution tells how the story conflict is resolved and ties up loose ends from the story the expression of traditionally rhythmic compositions (sometimes rhymed, expressing ideas, experiences, or emotions) in a style more concentrated, imaginative, and powerful than that of ordinary speech or prose; generally categorized into specific forms based on purpose (e.g., elegies, ballads, parodies) and/or meter or rhyme scheme (e.g., sonnets, limericks, cinquains, free verse, haikus) the perspective from which the story is told: first person the narrator is a character who tells the story as he or she experienced, saw, heard, and understood it; identified by the first person pronouns I or we third person omniscient the narrator is all-knowing, with the ability to see into the minds of more than one character third person limited - the narrator has the ability to see into the mind of only one character a linguistic unit added to the beginning of a word which changes its meaning (i.e., re-, mis-, un-) an original source that informs directly, not through another persons explanation or interpretation (e.g., firsthand reports, diaries, letters, journals, original documents) the prerequisite skills students need about print as they learn how to read: book handling ( e.g., front of book, print contains meaning, left page before right) directional behavior (e.g., where to start, left to right, return sweep) visual scanning and analysis language concepts (e.g., meaning of punctuation marks, capital letters) hierarchal concepts (e.g., word by word matching, difference between letter and word)

poetry

point of view

prefix primary source print concepts

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prior knowledge prose prosody r-controlled vowels redundancy repetition rhetorical device rhyme rhythm rimes root root word satire search engine secondary source

knowledge gained from previous experience(s) written or spoken language that is not poetry (verse) the rhythmic and inflectional aspect of language; expression a vowel whose sound is influenced by an r that directly follows it (e.g., farm, her, first, torn, nurse) repetition that is needless or distracting repeating a word, phrase, sentence, or the like for impact and effect literary device that is intended to emphasize a point, not to obtain a response identical or very similar recurring final sounds in words within, or more frequently, at the ends of lines of verse a pattern of repeated cadence or accent in speech or text the vowel(s) and any following consonant(s) in a syllable (e.g., /it/ in sit, /oat in float) in a complex word, the meaningful base form after all affixes are removed meaningful base form after all affixes are removed a literary technique that combines a critical attitude with humor, often with the intent of correcting or changing the subject of the satire computer software used to search data for specified information a source that contains information others have gathered and interpreted; indirect or secondhand information (e.g., newspaper and magazine accounts, encyclopedia articles, research studies, web sites, documentaries) the arrangement or ordering of subject matter to aid understanding: developmental chronological easy to difficult (difficult to easy) part to whole (whole to part) the time of day or year; historical period, place, situation figure of speech comparing two things that are unlike; uses the words like and as (e.g., as strong as an ox, flies like an eagle) lines in a drama in which a character reveals his or her thoughts to the audience, but not to the other characters, by speaking as if to himself or herself a poem consisting of 14 lines with a formal rhyme scheme, which expresses a thought or feeling in a unified way components of a distinctive manner of expression; elements that comprise a literary style

sequencing

setting simile soliloquy sonnet stylistic elements

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suffix symbol symbolism synonym syntax testimonial text features theme tone transfer understatement workplace documents

a linguistic unit added to the end of a base word which changes the words meaning or grammatical function (e.g., -ed, -ly, -ness) person, place, or thing that represents something beyond itself (e.g., sword can stand for war, a desert might represent loneliness or solitude, a dove as a symbol of peace) a literary technique in which an author uses symbols to represent concrete ideas, events, or relationships one of two or more words that have a highly similar meaning (e.g., grip and grasp) the study of sentence structure with emphasis on the grammatical relationships of the words and other elements a persuasive technique in which a personal success story is used to influence others components that support and clarify text (e.g., illustrations, titles, topic sentences, key words) the underlying idea or statement that the author is trying to convey the overall feeling or effect created by a writers use of words (e.g., playful, serious, bitter, angry, sarcastic) a persuasive technique that attempts to transfer positive feelings associated with images not necessarily related to the issue (e.g., a fabric softener advertisement set in beautiful, clear mountain scenery, implying freshness) a statement that represents something as less than it actually is (e.g., The hurricane was a little windy.) text, forms, or documents specifically used in the workplace or for business purposes (e.g., memos, business letters, applications, resumes, e-mails)

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Selected References
Criscoe, Betty L. Award Winning Books for Children and Young Adults: An Annual Guide, Metuchen, NJ: Scarercrow Press, 1990. Friedbert, Joan Brest, June B. Mullins, and Adelaide Werir Sukeinnik. Portraying the Disabled: A Guide to Juvenile Non-Fiction. New York: Bowker, 1991. The Literary Dictionary: The Vocabulary of Reading and Writing. Edited by Theodore L. Harris and Richard E. Hodges. Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1995. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary (Tenth edition). Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1993.

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