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# Chapter 1

## Saturday, June 23, 2012 2:53 PM

1.1 Using Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is important and very present in our lives 1.2 Defining Systems System: the object/objects that are being studied Surroundings: Everything external to the system Boundary: The split between the system and surroundings Note: this boundary does not have to be a physical boundary Types of systems Closed System: a system with a fixed quantity of matter Note: the term control mass can be used interchangeably with closed system Open System: A region of space through which mass may flow Note: the term control volume can be used interchangeably with open system Control surface: A fancy way of saying "system boundary" (This is what I gleaned from the book. Is this correct?) 1.2.1 Closed Systems Closed System: As stated above, a closed system is a system of constant matter/mass Isolated System: A type of closed system that does not interact in any way with its surroundings. This means no energy/mass transfer. 1.2.2 Control Volumes Control Volume: A system of which mass may cross its boundaries 1.2.3 Selecting the System Boundary Keep two things in mind when selecting system boundaries What is happening at the system boundaries Why is the system being studied 1.3 Describing Systems and Their Behavior 1.3.1 Macroscopic and Microscopic Views of Thermodynamics Macroscopic perspective: concerned with the overall behavior of a system Also known as classical thermodynamics Microscopic perspective: concerned with the structure of the matter of the system Also known as statistical thermodynamics This perspective is used to study internal energy and entropy 1.3.2 Property, State, and Process Property: a macroscopic characteristic of a system to which a numerical value can be assigned without knowledge of previous behavior of the system. ex: mass, volume, energy, pressure, and temperature State: condition of a system as describe by it properties Process: when a system's state changes as a result of a change in the properties of a system. So a process is a transformation from one state to another. Steady State: A type of state in which none of a system's properties change with time. 1.3.3 Extensive and Intensive Properties Extensive Property: A properties is extensive if it is an overall value for a system that is dependent on the size of a system ex: mass, volume, and energy Intensive Properties: A properties that is independent of the size/extent of a system ex: pressure and temperature 1.3.4 Equilibrium Equilibrium: A balance of forces and other influences There are multiple types of equilibrium: mechanical, thermal, phase, and chemical
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There are multiple types of equilibrium: mechanical, thermal, phase, and chemical Equilibrium State: If a system in question does not change with time. 1.4 Measuring Mass, Length, Time and Force Base Units: a primary set of dimensions Quantity SI Mass Length Time m (Meter) English ft (Foot) kg (Kilogram) lb (Pound) sec (Second) sec (Second)

Force

N (Newton)

## lbf (pound force)

1.5 Specific Volume Specific Volume: Reciprocal of density (Volume per unit mass) Molar basis: A fancy way of saying "express a number in terms of moles" Notation for molar basis: a bar over the variable 1.6 Pressure Absolute Pressure: Pressure with respect to the zero pressure of a vacuum Buoyant Force: The resulting pressure force acting on a body as a result from submerging a body-completely or partially-- in a liquid Absolute Pressure: Pressure as related to the zero pressure of a vacuum Gage/Vacuum Pressure: Pressure as related to the pressure of the surroundings 1.7 Temperature Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third object if they are in thermal equilibrium with onanother. Thermometric Property: any object that has at least one measureable property that changes as its temperature changes. The object that has this property is called a thermometric substance Kelvin (SI) vs Rankine(English) Scale Celsius vs Kelvin Fahrenheit vs Rankine Fahrenheit vs Celcius Equations 1) 2) 3) 4) a. b. c. d. 5) : density : acceleration constant : Difference in height : Choose this accordingly depending on the relation of the two pressure exerting substances

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Chapter 2
Monday, June 25, 2012 1:41 PM

2.1 Reviewing Mechanical Concepts of Energy 2.1.1 Work and Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy: Kinetic Energy is a property. We can determine KE just by looking determining the mass and velocity of the object. How the object obtained the mass and velocity is insignificant to determining KE. Furthermore, KE is an extensive property as it depends on mass, and is thus dependent on the size of the system. Work:
: Force : displacement 2.1.2 Potential Energy Potential Energy: : mass of object : gravitational constant : height of object Potential energy is also an extensive property. The rational is very much like the explanation for KE. 2.1.3 Units for Energy Energy has the SI unit , or also known as the Joule The English system unit is foot-pound force: 2.1.4 Conservation of Energy in Mechanics Ideally, energy is conserved such that 2.2 Broadening Our Understanding of Work Thermodynamic Definition of Work: Work is done by a system on its surroundings if the sole effect on everything external to the system could have been the raising of a weight. (Still don't understand this) 2.2.1 Sign Convention and Notation Work If , work is done by the system on its surroundings If , work is done on the system by its surroundings Note: work is not a property. Rather, it is a process of energy transfer. System states do not have a "work property" The differential of work is inexact because it cannot be evaluated without knowing specific details of the process between two states. Thus work is preceded with a delta : (Why again is this inexact?: this embodies the idea that there are a lot of different ways to get from one state to the other) Contrast this with the difference in properties of two states. We can find the exact value of the difference, and thus (for the case of mass) 2.2.2 Power Power: The rate of energy transfer Power is the product of force and velocity. The dot appearing above the indicates that the variable is a time rate Also note that total work can be calculated from the above equation: The SI unit for power is , also known as the watt
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The SI unit for power is , also known as the watt 2.2.3 Modeling Expansion or Compression of Work Work From Compressing a Piston: Ultimately, we can conclude that (Here, are we allowed to remove the delta because we are now integrating over a property?) 2.2.5 Expansion or Compression Work in Quasiequilibrium Processes Quasiequilibrium/quasistatic Process: All states are equilibrium states (Is this correct?) This idealization is like the idea of a point mass, it makes our lives easier as we study thermodynamics. This allows us to make predictions such as changing the volume of a closed system of gas will predictably change pressure as determined by the equation Polytropic Process: A quasiequilibrium process described by an equation similar to , where is a constant 2.2.6 Further Examples of Work Extension of a Solid Bar: : normal stress acting at the end of the bar : cross sectional area of bar : Initial length of bar : Final length of bar

Streching of a Liquid Film: : Surface tension (Is this calculated or a given?) : change in area Power Transmitted by a Shaft: : Torque on shaft : angular velocity Electric Power: : potential difference : current On a similar note, work can be expressed as : amount of electrical charge that flows into the system 2.3 Broadening Our Understanding of Energy Internal Energy : All kinds of energy aside from kinetic and potential energy Total change in energy: Microscopic interpretation of internal energy: this is the energy stored in the configuration and motion of molecules. Contributors to internal energy: translational kinetic energy, rotational kinetic energy, vibrational kinetic energy 2.4 Energy Transfer by Heat 2.4.1 Sign Convention, Notation, and Heat Transfer Rate Sign notation If , heat is transferred into the system If , heat is transferred out of the system Note: this sign notation is the opposite of the system used for work Heat, like work is not a property. It is a means of energy transfer Rate of Heat Transfer : the rate of energy transfer through heat Total amount of energy transferred through heat: Heat Flux : rate of heat transfer per unit area. Related to rate of heat transfer via following equation: Is this a surface integral? Adiabatic Process: A process without heat transfer. 2.4.2 Heat Transfer Modes
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2.4.2 Heat Transfer Modes Conduction: Transfer of energy from more energetic particles of a substance to adjacent particles that are less energetic Rate of heat transfer: : proportionality constant : Area : Temperature gradient (If linear gradient, can be as simple as ) Radiation: Energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves. This mode of heat transfer does not require a medium-- unlike conduction Rate of heat transfer: : emissivity (A measure of how efficiently the surface radiates : Stefan-Boltzman Constant : Surface Area : absolute temperature of the surface Convection: Energy transfer between a solid surface at temperature and an adjacent gas or liquid Rate of heat transfer from surface to gas/liquid (Newton's law of cooling): : Temperature of solid surface : Temperature of adjacent gas/liquid : heat transfer coefficient : surface area of solid surface 2.5 Energy Accounting: Energy Balance for Closed Systems First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy is conserved Change in amount of energy contained within a system during a time interval = net amount of energy transferred in across system boundary by heat during the time interval - net amount of energy transferred out across the system boundary by work during the time interval In other words, 2.5.1 Important Aspects of the Energy Balance Time rate form of Energy Balance: 2.6 Energy Analysis of Cycles Thermodynamic Cycle: sequence of processes that begin and end at the same state. So at the end of a cycle, all properties return to their original values 2.6.1 Cycle Energy Balance Consider an energy cycle that works with a hot and cold body 2.6.2 Power Cycles Power Cycle: A thermodynamic cycle that does net work onto its surroundings with each cycle This means that less heat is output than the total heat put in because some of the input heat is changed into work Heat from hot body into cycle then out of cycle into cold body Thermal Efficiency: or 2.6.3 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Work is done on the system so that more heat is output than the amount of heat input into the system. Heat from cold body into cycle the out into hot body Refrigeration cycle: the purpose is to cool a body and pump heat into surroundings (hot body) Coefficient of performance : or Heat Pump Cycles: The purpose is to heat a body by using work and drawing from a colder body
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Heat Pump Cycles: The purpose is to heat a body by using work and drawing from a colder body Coefficient of Performance : or It is desirable to have large coefficients of performance 2.7 Energy Storage 2.7.2 Storage Technologies Batteries: very popular method of energy storage, yet they are heavy, take long to recharge, have short lifetimes, and can't hold very much charge-- relatively speaking Ultra Capacitors: Have a longer lifetime than batteries and can be charged and discharged very rapidly. Superconducting Magnetic Systems: Store energy in a magnetic field in a cold superconducting material. Instantaneous and efficient energy delivery. Fly Wheels: Store energy as kinetic energy. Also a very efficient way of storing energy Hydrogen: not a very efficient way of storing energy. Energy is stored by breaking apart water and storing the hydrogen. Then by allowing the hydrogen to combine with oxygen to form water, energy is released. Miscellaneous Equations Aerodynamic drag: : Drag force : drag coefficient : Frontal Area : air density : velocity Equations 1) a. represent position such that 2) Power: a. F: Force b. V: Velocity 3) Work from changing volume a. displacement

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Chapter 3
Thursday, June 28, 2012 7:40 PM

3.1 Getting Started Phase: A quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout both chemical composition and physical structure Pure Substance: A substance that is uniform and invariable in chemical composition State Principle: A guide that determines the number of independent states required to fix a state Simple Compressible Systems: This is a type of system that requires two independent thermodynamics to have fixed a state. 3.2 p-v-T Relation P-V-T Surface: This surface relates the three elements pressure volume and temperature to one another Two-Phase Regions: located between single-phase regions. These are areas where two phases can exist in equilibrium Triple line: A line on the p-v-t surface on which all three phase can exist simultaneously Saturation State: state at which a phase change begins or ends Vapor Dome: a dome shaped region enclosing liquid-vapor states (Is this correct?) Critical Point: The point where vapor and liquid become indistinguishable Projections of the p-v-t Surface Pressure-Temperature Phase Diagram: the p-v-t surface projected onto the p-v plane Saturation Temperature: The temperature at which a phase change takes place for a given pressure. Saturation Pressure: The pressure at which a phase change takes place for a given temperature. Triple Point: The triple line projected onto the pv plane, which results in a point. Pressure-Volume:(For these figures, are the lines temperature gradients?) Temperature-Volume: Relate temperature to volume 3.3 Studying Phase Change

Subcooled liquid (Also Compressed Liquid): a state in which a substance is at a temperature cooler
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Subcooled liquid (Also Compressed Liquid): a state in which a substance is at a temperature cooler than the saturation temperature of a given pressure. On the above graph, this is line . This is a state of pure water Two-phase liquid-vapor mixture Quality: ratio of mass of vapor to total mass of the mixture (mixture is composed of vapor and fluid)

Extension: We can also find the ratio of mass of liquid to total mass of mixture . This is line . This is the portion that represents phase change (Correct?) Also note that for a higher the pressure, a higher temp is required to enter the vapor dome. This is so because it takes more energy to boil at a higher pressure. Superheated vapor: a state in which a substance is at a temperature greater than the saturation temperature of a given pressure This is line . This represents the vapor phase of a liquid. (Correct?) 3.4 Retrieving Thermodynamic Properties Steam Tables: table that gives properties of water in the vapor phase 3.5 Evaluating Pressure, Specific Volume, and Temperature When looking at a p-t graph, how can we relate pressure and density? I am having trouble grasping the relationship Linear Interpolation: Method used to approximate values not present in given tables Using slope, approximate the value of the unknown value 3.5.2 Saturation Tables Average specific volume 3.6 Evaluating Specific Internal energy and Enthalpy Enthalpy(H): : Internal Energy : Pressure : Volume Finding the specific enthalpy/internal energy of a two phase liquid-vapor mixture 3.6.3 Reference States and Reference Values Reference States/Reference Values: The state/value that the numbers on a table are compared to. 3.9 Introducing Specific Heats Specific Heats: Intensive properties defined as follows Constant Volume: Constant Pressure: Specific Heat Ratio: 3.10 Evaluating Properties of Liquids and Solids Specific volume and specific internal energy change very little with changing pressure at a fixed temperature. Thus, we can approximate that Thus, enthalpy can be expressed as follows This can finally be approximated to

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So just like specific volume and specific internal energy, specific enthalpy can be approximated to only depend on temperature 3.10.2 Incompressible Substance Model Incompressible Substance Model: Can be applied to all solids and liquids. This model is the idea that the specific volumes of these phases varies little and the specific internal energy mainly varies with temperature This ultimately simplifies calculations involving liquids and solids as internal energy only depends on temperature. So for incompressible substances, specific heat does not depend on pressure. Just temperature. Furthermore, However, enthalpy depends on both temperature and pressure So for incompressible substances, 3.11 Generalized compressibility Chart Compressibility Factor: Or, where What is the significance of the generalized compressibility chart? 3.13 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heats of Ideal Gases Change in specific internal energy IF specific heat is constant, Change in specific enthalpy IF specific heat is constant, Relationship between specific heats (Is this always true?) or Also recall that

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Chapter 4
Sunday, July 08, 2012 4:48 PM

4.1 Conservation of Mass for a Control Volume 4.1.1 Developing the Mass Rate Balance Conservation of Mass:
: Rate of mass change in control volume : Rate of mass entering : Rate of mass exiting are mass flow rates Mass Rate Balance: this is just a more general version of the conservation of mass principle that accounts for multiple inlets and outlets

Mass Rate Flow Integral : density : Velocity component normal to surface of inlet/exit (This is ) A: Area of inlet : Product known as mass flux So this should be a double integral 4.2 Forms of the Mass Rate Balance 4.2.1 One-Dimensional Flow Form of the Mass Rate Balance Flow can be considered to be One-Dimensional Flow if it meets the following requirements: Flow is normal to the boundary at locations were mass enters or exits the control volume All intensive properties are uniform with position over each inlet/exit area When flow is one-dimensional, we can use the following equations to find mass flow rate : mass flow rate : density : Area : Velocity : specific volume : This product is the volumetric flow rate Updated Mass Rate Balance Equation 4.2.2 Steady-State Form of the Mass Rate Balance 4.3 Applications of the Mass Rate Balance Look here for practice problems 4.4 Conservation of Energy for a Control Volume Energy Rate Balance: 4.5 Analyzing Control Volumes at Steady State 4.5.1 Steady-State Forms of the Mass and Energy Rate Balances
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4.5.1 Steady-State Forms of the Mass and Energy Rate Balances Steady State Equation Also, rate of mass entering control volume is equal to rate of mass exiting the control volume, thus Ultimately, we can simplify our steady state equation to For our ease, we will make assumptions which will allow us to use the steady state equation 4.6 Nozzles and Diffusers Nozzle: a flow passage of varying cross sectional area in which the velocity of a gas or liquid increases in the direction of flow Diffuser: a flow passage of varying cross sectional area in which the velocity of a gas or liquid decreases in the direction of flow Steady State Analysis

## No heat lost No work done No change in potential energy Result:

Interpretation: Enthalpy is exchanged with kinetic energy 4.7 Turbines Turbine: A device in which power is developed as a result of gas or liquid passing through a set of blades attached to a shaft free to rotate. Steady State Analysis No heat lost Work is done No change in velocity No change in potential

4.8 Compressors and Pumps Compressors/Pumps: Devices in which work is done on the substance flowing through them in order to change the state of the substance (such as pressure or elevation) Steady State Analysis Assume no heat loss Assume no change in velocity Assume no change in potential Note: Same equation as turbines, except for compressors/pumps, work is negative, while for turbines, work is positive. 4.9 Heat Exchangers Heat Exchanger: A device that exchanges heat Steady State analysis
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Steady State analysis No work done No change in velocity No change in potential No change in heat as all heat exchange occurs within the control volume (Do we need mass flow rate here?) Note: heat exchanges just facilitate change in enthalpy 4.10 Throttling Devices Throttling Device: A device that controls rate of flow Steady State Analysis No heat exchange No work done No change in velocity No change in potential

Note: throttling devices just control the rate of flow. 4.11 System Integration These types of components can often be combined to form systems, which then need to be analyzed. 4.12 Transient Analysis Transient: a period of time during which the state of a device changes. 4.12.1 The Mass Balance in Transient Analysis are the total amounts of mass that have, respectively, entered and exited the control volume between time and . The integral form is below 4.12.2 The Energy Balance in Transient Analysis Change in internal energy is equal to any heat/work transfer and amount of entropy that entered/exited the system Like the case for mass balance

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Chapter 5
Thursday, July 12, 2012 2:03 PM

5.1 Introducing the Second Law We can use spontaneous processes to develop work Clausius Statement of the Second Law: It is impossible for any system to operate in such a way that the sole result would be an energy transfer by heat from a cooler to a hotter body Kelvin-Planck Statement of the Second Law: It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic cycle and deliver a new amount of energy by work to its surroundings while receiving energy be heat transfer from a single thermal reservoir Analytical Version: I'm don't quite understand the Kelvin-Planck Statement Entropy Statement of the Second Law: It is impossible for any system to operate in a way that entropy is destroyed. 5.3 Irreversible and Reversible Processes Irreversible Processes: A type of process for which the system and all parts of its surroundings cannot be exactly restored to their respective initial states after the process has occurred Processes that are spontaneous are irreversible (ie: expansion of a gas/liquid) Reversible Processes: A type of process for which the system and its surroundings can be returned to their initial states Irreversible Processes Such processes generally include one or more of the following irreversibilities Heat transfer through a finite temperature difference Unrestrained expansion of a gas or liquid to a lower pressure Spontaneous chemical reaction Spontaneous mixing of matter at different compositions or states Friction Electric current through a resistance Magnetization/polarization with hysteresis Inelastic deformation When analyzing a system for irreversibilities, it is good to divide the irreversibilities into internal irreversibilities and external irreversibilities Internal irreversibilities: irreversibilites that occur within the system External irreversibilities: irreversibilities that occur within the surroundings Note: Internal and external irreversibilities are arbitrarily defined, just as the boundary is arbitrarily defined. Reversible Processes Reversible processes are idealized-- they do not occur 5.3.4 Internally Reversible Processes Internally Reversible Process: a process for which there are no irreversibilities within the system 5.4 Interpreting the Kelvin-Planck Statement We can modify the Kelvin-Planck statement for internally reversible processes
5.6 Second Law Aspects of Power Cycles Interacting with Two Reservoirs 5.6.1 Limit on Thermal Efficiency Consider the thermal efficiency equation: If were zero, then we would have perfect thermal efficiency. However, this is impossible (Why is this the case?) 5.6.2 Corollaries of the Second Law for Power Cycles Carnot Corollaries
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Carnot Corollaries 1) The thermal efficiency of a irreversible power cycle is always less than the thermal efficiency of a reversible power cycle when each operates between the same two thermal reservoirs 2) All reversible power cycles operating between the same two thermal reservoirs have the same thermal efficiency 5.7 Second Law Aspects of Refrigeration and Heat Pump cycles Interacting With Two Reservoirs 5.7.1 Limits on Coefficients of Performance Consider the following coefficients of performance Refrigeration Cycle: Heat Pump Cycle: Remember that both these cycles draw heat from a cold reservoir and put it into a hot reservoir. Keeping this in mind, if were zero, then that would imply that heat transfer from cold to hot would be occurring spontaneously-- which is impossible. This would also result in a infinite coefficient of performance. Thus, the coefficient of performance needs to be finite. 5.7.2 Corollaries of the Second Law for Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles 1) The coefficient of performace of an irreversible refrigeration cycle is always less than the coefficient of performance of a reversible refrigeration cycle when each operates between the same two thermal reservoirs 2) All reversible refrigeration cycles operating between the same two thermal reservoirs have the same coefficient of performance 5.9 Maximum Performance Measures for Cycles Operating Between Two Reservoirs 5.9.1 Power Cycles Carnot Efficiency: A measure of the thermal efficiency of a reversible cycle operating between two thermal reservoirs

Note: because all processes are irreversible, the no process will actually work at the carnot efficiency 5.9.2 Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles Refrigeration Cycle
Heat Pump Cycle 5.10 Carnot Cycle 5.10.1 Carnot Power Cycle

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: Adiabatic compression : Isothermal expansion while receiving energy from the hot reservoir by heat transfer : Adiabatic expansion : Isothermal compression while discharging energy to the cold reservoir Note: Shaded area represents net work produced per unit mass 5.10.2 Carnot Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles

: Isothermal expansion while receiving energy from the cold reservoir via heat transfer : Adiabatic compression : Isothermal compression while discharging energy to the hot reservoir : Adiabatic expansion Note: Shaded area represents net work input per unit mass 5.10.3 Carnot Cycle Summary 1) Carnot cycle always has 4 internally reversible processes: two adiabatic processes and two isothermal processes . 2) Thermal efficiency of the Carnot power cycle is always given by the equation Don't forget temperature units are to be in Rankine or Kelvin 3) Coefficients of performance are determined by either

or

. Again,

temperature is in units of Rakine or Kelvin 5.11 Clausius Inequality Clausius inequality: A statement that applies to any thermodynamic cycle Version 1:
Version 2: : heat transfer at a part of the system boundary : absolute temperature : : no irreversabilities within system : irreversibiliteis present within system (Because heat is exiting the system boundary, right?) : impossible

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Chapter 6
Friday, July 13, 2012 2:28 PM

6.1 Entropy- A System Property 6.1.1 Defining Entropy Change Entropy is an extensive property. This means entropy depends on the "extent" of the system and only depends on the initial and final states. Path independent. Units: SI:
English: 6.1.2 Evaluating Entropy To obtain a value of entropy, we use the following equation 6.2 Retrieving Entropy Data Vapor: Use the vapor/superheated tables Saturation Data: Use 2 state tables along with either of the following equations Liquid Data: We apply the incompressibility rule here to make the following approximation 6.3 Introducing the T ds Equations The Tds equations are used for pure, simple compressibility systems undergoing internally reversible processes. Equations Mass basis Mole basis 6.4 Entropy Change of an Incompressible Substance For an incompressible substance with a constant specific heat 6.5 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas Remember, 6.5.1 Using Ideal Gas Tables

6.5.2 Assuming Constant Specific Heats When specific heats are constants, the entropy change equations become the following

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6.6 Entropy Change in Internally Reversible Processes of Closed Systems When energy is removed from a system, the entropy of the system decreases. When energy is transferred into a system, the entropy of the system increases. Isentropic Process: A constant-entropy process 6.6.1 Area Representation of Heat Transfer The area under a temperature, entropy graph is equal to the change in heat 6.7 Entropy Balance for Closed Systems Entropy change equals entropy transfer plus entropy production Recall, However, change in entropy can be positive, negative, or zero Positive: System becomes more disorderly Negative: System becomes more orderly Zero: System is in same amount of disorder Entropy Rate Balance 6.8 Directionality of a Process Increase of Entropy Principle: 6.9 Entropy rate Balance for Control Volumes

Rate of Energy Transfer equals rate of entropy transfer via mass flowing in plus rate of entropy transfer via mass flowing out plus rate of entropy production 6.10 Rate Balances for Control Volumes at Steady State Steady State Entropy Rate Balance: One Inlet/Outlet: 6.11 Isentropic Processes Isentropic: A process with constant entropy For an isentropic process, For isentropic (no change in entropy) processes involving air, the following equations can be applied

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If the gas constant is constant for the two states of an idea gases, the following equations apply 6.12 Isentropic Efficiencies of Turbines, Nozzles, Compressors, and Pumps Turbines Isentropic Turbine Efficiency:

## Nozzles Isentropic Nozzle Efficiency:

Compressors/Pumps
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Compressors/Pumps Isentropic Compressor/Pump Efficiency 6.13 Heat Transfer and Work in Internally reversible, Steady-State Flow Processes For an isothermal and internally reversible process, Heat Work

Constant
Steady state For polytropic processes, obtain value from

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Chapter 7
Sunday, July 29, 2012 9:18 AM

7.1 Introducing Exergy Exergy is a quantity that quantifies potential for use. Exergy is not conserved, but rather destroyed by irreversibilities. Exergy can be transferred to and from a system 7.2 Conceptualizing Exergy Two important concepts: Work can be harvested when two systems at different states are brought together Work can be harvested as two systems approach equilibrium Environment: The surroundings of the system of inquiry The book considers the environment to be a compressible system that is large and at a uniform temperature ( ) and pressure ( ) Dead State: When a system is in equilibrium with the environment; temperature and pressure Exergy: Exergy is the maximum theoretical work obtainable from an overall system consisting of a system and the environment as the system comes into equilibrium with the environment (passes to the dead state) 7.3 Exergy of a System The exergy of a system is given by the following equation Units of exergy are the same as units of energy 5 Important aspects of exergy 1) Exergy is a measure of the departure of the state of a system from that of the environment. It is therefore an attribute of the system and environment together. However, once the environment is specified, a value can be assigned to exergy in terms of property values for the system only, so exergy can be regarded as a property of the system. Exergy is an extensive property 2) The value of exergy cannot be negative. The minimum value of exergy is zero, which corresponds to a system being at the dead state. 3) Exergy is not conserved, but it is destroyed by irreversibilities. A limiting case is when exergy is completely destroyed, as would occur if a system were permitted to undergo a spontaneous change to the dead state with no provision to obtain work 4) Exergy has been viewed thus far as the maximum theoretial work obtainable from an overall system of system plu senvironment as the system passes from a given state to the dead state. Alternatively, exergy can be regarded as the magnitude of the minimum thoeretical work input required to bring the system from the dead state to the given state. 5) When a system is at the dead state, it is in thermal and mechanical equilibrium with the environment, and the value of exergy is zero. More precisely , the thermomechanical contribution to exergy is zero. Specific Exergy
Exergy Change Note: Dead states are not required to calculate exergy change 7.4 Closed System Exergy Balance Closed System Exergy Balance

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Exergy change = Exergy transfers - Exergy Destruction Exergy transfer accompanying heat transfer Exergy transfer accompanying work Destruction of Exergy Alternative form of Closed System Exergy Balance Exergy change can be positive, negative, or zero The change in exergy for an isolated system can only be negative, as exergy can only be destroyed Closed System Exergy Rate Balance Steady State form: Rate of exergy transfer accompanying heat transfer 7.5 Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volumes at Steady State Steady State Exergy Rate Balance Specific Flow Exergy Alternative, more compact form

One inlet/outlet
I dont understand the term 7.6 Exergetic Efficiency Exergetic Efficiency: An evaluation of the effectiveness of energy resource utilization

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Source temperature : Use Temperature : Dead State Temperature Exergetic efficiency of specific components Refer to page 393 & 394

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Chapter 8
Sunday, August 12, 2012 10:47 PM

8.2 The Rankine Cycle Modeling the Rankine Cycle through Power Plant Analysis

## Turbine: Condenser: Pump:

Boiler:

Thermal Efficiency: Note: Careful how the term is defined. The book has it such that this is a

positive value, when according to accepted sign notation, would be negative Heat rate: The amount of energy added by heat transfer to the cycle Back Work Ratio (bwr): ratio of the pump work input to the work developed by the turbine
The Ideal Rankine Cycle

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Processes: : Isentropic expansion of working fluid through turbine from saturated vapor at state 1 to the condenser pressure : Heat transfer from the working fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the condenser with saturated liquid at state 3 : Isentropic compression in the pump to state 4 in the compressed liquid region : Heat transfer to the working fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the boiler to complete the cycle Note: represent the process that results from superheating state Area represented by represents the heat transfer to the working fluid passing through the boiler Area represents the heat transfer from the working fluid passing through the condenser Area represents the net work output Work done by the pump

The subscript s denotes that the process is isentropic (internally reversible and adiabatic) Effects of Boiler and Condenser Pressures on the Rankine Cycle Increasing boiler pressure of the ideal Rankine cycle increases thermal efficiency Decreasing condenser pressure of the ideal Rankine cycle increases thermal efficiency Carnot vs Rankine While the Carnot cycle has greater thermal efficiency, the Carnot cycle deals with two phase liquids. These are not practical to work with in a power plant Irreversibilities and Losses of the Carnot Cycle Internal effects Turbine When the working fluid travels through the turbine, it expands. This is the principle loss of turbines. An efficiency variable is used to describe the isentropic turbine efficiency

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Pump Similarly, there is an isentropic efficiency for the pump Alternatively, Miscellaneous Effects Friction reduces pressure External Effects A major source of irreversibility is combustion and heat loss to the surroundings Stray heat transfers also contribute to irreversibility 8.3 Improving Performance- Superheat, Reheat, and Supercritical While altering boiler and condenser pressure will improve thermal efficiency, it decreases the quality of the working fluid. This can have a detrimental effect on the turbine/other working parts. Generally, power plants try to keep the quality above 90% Superheat This process involves heating the saturated vapor at the turbine inlet to a supercritical state. This process allows power plants to avoid problems with low quality Reheat There are two turbine stages. After the steam exits the first stage, it is reheated before entering a second stage Supercritical This process involves heating water above its critical pressure This means that water can be converted to steam without a pronounced phase change(Is this correct?) Supercritical power plants have higher upfront costs, but cheaper to fuel because they are more thermally efficient 8.4 Improving Performance -- Regenerative Vapor Power Cycle Regeneration: Has the effect of increasing the average temperature of heat addition, thus increasing thermal efficiency Open Feedwater Heaters Streams of different temperatures mix to for a single stream at an intermediate temperature

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After steam enters the first turbine, some of the steam is bled out to the open feedwater heater Now, heat addition from fossil fuels is only necessary from While open feedwater heating produces less work, the reduction in heat added offsets the decrease in net work, thus making these power plants more effective Mass flow rate of working fluid into open feedwater heater from turbine Where is the fraction of the total mass flow rate flowing into the open feedwater heater Closed Feedwater Heaters

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Shell-and-tube-type recuperators in which the feedwater temperature increases as the extracted steam condenses o the outside of the tubes carying the feedwater. Because fluids are isolated, they can be at different pressures Condensate within the closed feedwater heater can be removed via pump or trap Fraction of mass flow rate of working fluid that is bled into the closed feedwater heater Multiple Feedwater Heaters Power plants often have multiple combinations of open and closed feedwater heaters. Generally, these plans have atleast one open feedwater heater operating at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. This allows for dissolved gasses to be vented fro the cycle. This process of venting dissolved gasses is known as deaeration 8.5 Other Vapor Power Cycle Aspects Working Fluids The most popular is demineralized water because it is plentiful, cheap, nontoxic, chemically stable, and relatively noncorrosive A difficulty with water is its high critical pressure. This makes it difficult to design supercritical power plants that rely on water Organic Rankine Cycles These usehydrogarbosn and common refrigerants such as ammonia and silicon oil Binary Vapor Cycle Couples two vapor cycles so the energy discharged by heat transfer from one cycle is the input for the other There are usually two working fluids in such cycles to maximize usage of the heat discharge Cogeneration Cogeneration: Power plants that yield both electricity and steam District Heating: Heating plants within communities that serve to provide steam for heating and electricity for appliance use

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Chapter 9
Saturday, August 18, 2012 11:15 AM

## 9.1 Introducing Engine Diagram of a piston in an engine

Compression Ratio: The volume of the piston at bottom dead center divided yb the volume of the piston at top dead center. General Engine cycle on a P-V graph

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Engine cycle for a 4 stroke engine 1) Intake Stroke: The intake valve is open and the piston draws a fresh charge into the cylinder. For spark-ignition engines, this charge is a combustible mixture of air and fuel. For compression-ignition engines, this charge is air. 2) Compression Stroke: This stroke requires work. Both valves are closed and the piston decreases the volume of the chamber to create a high pressure, high temperature gas mixture. For spark-ignition engines, combustion is induced near the end of the compression stroke by the spark plug. In compression-ignition engines, the combustion is initiated by injecting fuel into the hot compressed air 3) Power Stroke: With combustion, the gas mixture expands and the engine produces work as the piston returns to bottom dead center 4) Exhaust Stroke: The burned gasses are purged form the cylinder through the open exhaust valve Note: Engines undergo mechanical cycles, not thermodynamic cycles. Matter is injected and also flushed out. Mean Effective Pressure: The theoretical constant pressure, that if acted on the piston during a power stroke, would produce the same net work as actually developed in one cycle Air-Standard Analysis: A simplified analysis of internal combustion engines that involves the following elements Fixed amount of air modeled as an ideal gas is the working fluid The combustion process is replaced by a heat transfer from an external source There are no exhaust and intake processes. The cycle is completed by a constant-volume heat transfer process taking place while the piston is at the bottom head center position All processes are internally reversible Cold Air-Standard Analysis: The specific heats are assumed to be the same as their ambient
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Cold Air-Standard Analysis: The specific heats are assumed to be the same as their ambient temperature values 9.2 Air-Standard Otto Cycle P-v & T-S diagrams

Processes :Isentropic compression of air as piston moves from bottom to top dead center : Constant volume heat transfer to the air from an external heat source while the piston is at top dead center. (This is an easier way to analyze the process of combustion : Isentropic expansion : Constant volume process in which heat is rejected from the air while the piston is at bottom dead center. Graph Interpretation: T-s Graph : Heat added per unit mass : Heat rejected per unit mass P-v Graph : Work input per unit mass during compression : Work output per unit mass during expansion Cycle Analysis In the Otto cycle, there are two processes that only involve work and two that only involve heat transfer CycleValue Computations (Note: this is not typical sign convention) The work cycle can also be expressed as net heat added Thermal Efficiency

Isentropic processes

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Compression Ratio: When the Otto cycle is analyzed using the Cold Air Standard Analysis, the following equations can be used instead of the above two and equations Specific Heat Ratio: Thermal efficiency for a cold-air standard basis

This shows that it is advantageous for engines to have high compression ratios. But engine knock/auto ignition places an upper limit on compression ratios 9.3 Air-Standard Diesel Cycle

Processes : Isentropic compression; heat is transferred into the working fluid at constant pressure : First part of the power stroke : Remainder of power stroke : heat is rejected from the air while piston is at dead center (Shortcut to having to deal with air intake and exhaust output) P-v and T-s Graph interpretation T-s Diagram : Heat added per unit mass : Heat rejected per unit of mass P-v Diagram : Work input per unit of mass : Work done per unit of mass Cycle Analysis Thermal Efficiency

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Compiled Information
Thursday, July 26, 2012 11:10 AM

Chapter 1
Temperature Conversions Kelvin (SI) vs Rankine(English) Scale Celsius vs Kelvin Fahrenheit vs Rankine Fahrenheit vs Celcius Pressure Calculations : Density of substance : Choose accordingly. Remember pressure increases as height decreases Force equals the product of pressure and area Sign Notation Work : system is doing work to surroundings : surroundings are doing work on system Heat : Heat is entering the system : Heat is leaving the system Power Power is the product of force and velocity, or the rate at which work is being done. Work via Compression

Chapter 2
Total Energy / Total Energy Change Modes of Heat Transfer (Conduction, Radiation, Convection) Page 56 Conservation of Energy / Energy Rate Balance After a full rotation of a cyclic process, the substance returns to its original state. thus . Therefore, Closed System Energy Balance
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Internally Reversible Cycles Power Cycles Thermal Efficiency Refrigeration & Heat Pump Cycles Coefficients of Performance (Bigger is better) Refrigeration Cycle:

## Heat Pump Cycles:

Chapter 3
Quality Average Specific Volume

Enthalpy Incompressible Substances (Liquids and Solids) Approximating specific volume, internal energy, and enthalpy u Liquid/Metal Specific heats Change in specific internal energy and enthalpy Unit-less Compressibility Factor Ideal Gasses Specific Heats Change in specific internal energy; Varying specific heat
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Change in specific internal energy; Varying specific heat Change in specific internal energy; Constant specific heat Change in specific enthalpy; Varying specific heat

Change in specific enthalpy; Constant specific heat Helpful Ideal Gas Equations
: molar volume

## : Mass of gas : Volume

: specific volume
, where is the same as above and is the molar mass

Chapter 4
Mass Flow Rate : Density of substance : Cross sectional area : Velocity of substance : Specific volume Conservation of Mass Flow in a Control Volume General Equation Steady State Conservation of Energy in a Control Volume General equation Steady State Different Types of Control Volume Systems Turbine (Produces Work) Compressors & Pumps (Receives Work) Heat Exchangers (Generally involves two substances)

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Throttling Devices: Do nothing. Just control mass flow rate Transient Analysis Mass Balance Energy Balance

Chapter 5
Entropy Production (Exchange of heat over a boundary : Impossible : No irreversibilities : Irreversibilities present Carnot Power Cycles Refer to Chapter 5 Detailed Notes at temp )

Chapter 6
Tds Equations General equations (Can be rewritten with specific internal energies, enthalpies, and entropies) Incompressible Substances Ideal Gasses; Varying specific heats Ideal Gasses; Constant specific heats Reference Values (Only applies to a handful of gasses) Heat Transfer & Entropy Change Entropy Balance / Rate Balance Closed Systems

## : Entropy transfer across system boundary

values are restricted to positive (Irreversibilities present) and (Reversible process) can be positive (more disorder), negative (more order), 0 (no change in disorder) Principle of Increasing Entropy Entropy Rate Balance For Control Volumes General Equation Steady State Isentropic Processes Involving Air

Ideal Gas with Constant Specific heat Isentropic Efficiencies See Chapter 6 Notes Isothermal & Internally Reversible Processes Heat

Work

Chapter 7
Exergy of a System Relative to Dead State are properties of the dead state Specific Exergy of a System Relative to Dead State Change in Exergy between Two States Closed System Exergy Balance : Change in exergy between two states
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: Change in exergy between two states : Change in exergy as a result of heat transfer

: Change in exergy as a result of work done on/by system : Destruction of exergy There are two possible values of Positive: irreversibilities are present within system Zero: No irreversibilities are present within system Closed System Exergy Rate Balance General Equation (NOT STEADY STATE) Steady State Form Exergy Rate Balance for Control Volume at Steady State Rate Balance : Work on/by system : Exergy Flow into system L Exergy flow out of system : Exergy destruction Specific flow exergy Exergetic Efficiency : Rate of heat use : Use temperature : Rate of heat delivery from source : Source temperature : Heat transferred into system

Chapter 8
Rankine Cycle

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Turbine: Condenser: Pump: Boiler: Thermal Efficiency: Isentropic Efficiencies Turbines: Pump:

Chapter 9
Air-Standard Analysis of The Otto Cycle

## values for CASA)

Thermal Efficiency Shortcut for CASA: Compression Ratio: Specific Heat Ratio:

Cycle Analysis (DON'T STRAY FROM SIGN CONVENTION) Work: Work In:

## Heat Out: Thermal Efficiency

Air-Standard Diesel Cycle

## Fixing States for Air Standard Analysis

Compression Ratio: Cuttoff Ratio: Fixing States with Cold Air Standard Analysis (Note: Can't use Thermal Efficiency: Cycle Analysis values for CASA)

Thermal Efficiency:

Important Terms 1) First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy is conserved 2) Second Law of Thermodynamics: Systems tend to naturally approach equilibrium; Heat is naturally transferred from a hot to a cold reservoir 3) Carnot Corollaries
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3) Carnot Corollaries a. The thermal efficiency of an irreversible cycle is always less than the thermal efficiency of a reversible power cycle b. All reversible power cycles operating between the same two thermal reservoirs have the same thermal efficiency 4) Isometric: Constant Volume 5) Isentropic: Constant Entropy 6) Isothermal: No temperature change 7) Isobaric: No pressure change 8) Adiabatic: No heat exchange (Synonymous to isentropic)

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Important Theory
Friday, August 24, 2012 2:12 PM

First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is conserved: Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy cannot be destroyed Entropy Increases If something happens spontaneously, entropy increases Energy runs downhill

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1 Page Analysis
Sunday, July 29, 2012 9:14 PM

How In-wheel Motors Work NOTHING How Fuel Cells Work 1. Fuel Cells operate 60-80 degrees Celcius 2. Fuel cells can be, at best, 80% efficient if working with pure hydrogen a. This is rarely the case as the hydrogen is usually not so pure. So bump off another 65% 3. Generous approximation for motor to wheel power transmission: 80% a. Passing power through gears, axles, etc. 4. Hydrogen generation requires input of energy from other power sources 5. Efficiency of a gasoline car: 20% 6. Fuel Cells are expensive because the contain rare earth metals such as platinum 7. Car operation in different temperatures is yet to be stable Hydrogen Cars 1) Electrolysis: Process of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen a. Process is estimated to be 50% efficient 2) Problems with hydrogen cars a. Cars would need large storage tanks holding potentially explosive and thus dangers gases (hydrogen and oxygen) b. Fuel cells cannot rapidly deliver electrical energy to the motor c. Makes no sense to use fossil fuels to generate energy for the production of fuel cells. Efficiency of Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Diesel-SOFC-Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles 1) Process of electrolysis requires 1.23 Volts per cell 2) On average, fuel cells that are produced have returns of .75 volts/cell a. This means 50% efficiency in the creation of fuel cells 3) Immediately, some of the energy is lost to powering onboard electronics/pumps/etc that are not related to driving: 10% 4) Process of creating hydrogen: Transportation via fuel lines and truck transport: take away an estimated 10%

Topics: Efficiency Process of creating hydrogen Using hydrogen to power carsPollution reduction Does producing hydrogen cells really reduce pollution? Feasability