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INSTITUT PERGURUAN KAMPUS SULTAN ABDUL HALIM 08000 SUNGAI PETANI, KEDAH

PROGRAM DIPLOMA PENDIDIKAN LEPASAN IJAZAH AMBILAN KHAS DISEMBER 2011

KERJA KURSUS PROJEK

NAMA PELAJAR NO.KAD PENGENALAN KUMPULAN UNIT KOD KURSUS NAMA PENSYARAH TARIKH HANTAR :

: : : : :

REVATHI A/P MOTOKANDAR 850211-10-6114 D1A- MATEMATIK (SR) MTM 2103- Pendekatan Pedagogi Matematik I DR NG KOK FU 15 APRIL 2012

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CONTENT

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Project Introduction

Topic

Page 2 2-8 8-10 10-11 12-16 17-19 20 21-22 23-24 25

Concept and Procedural Knowledge Teaching Steps According CPA Approach Misconception Daily Lesson Plan Skrip Pengajaran Mikro Maklum Balas dan Cadangan Penambahbaikan Conclusion and Reflection Attachment Reference

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Project Introduction I have chosen Introduction of Fractions topic as my micro teaching presentation. These lessons are designed to guide young children through an introduction to fractions. Children learn to recognize parts of a whole and divide a whole into equal parts. Students use fractions to make connections to fruit or common objects. Students learn to represent simple fractions such as 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, and 3/4. So they able to identify the components of fractions, compare and order fractions with like denominators and compare and order fractions with like numerators. According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), at this level it is more important for students to recognize when things are divided into equal parts than to focus on fraction notation. Second graders should be able to identify three parts out of four equal parts, or three-fourths of a folded paper that has been shaded, and should understand that fourths means four equal parts. Activities are aligned has been designed to include four types of activities such as interactive, manipulative-based projects, technology, paper or pencil practice and literature connections. Concept and Procedural Knowledge Basic concept of fractions - A fraction is a rational number which is not an

integer. It is usually expressed in the form of

, where x and y are integers and y is

not equal to 0 or cannot be 0. So x is the numerator and y is the denominator of the fraction. Fraction is usually considered as part of an object or object or any plane figure. Fraction is also used to represent a part of a group of objects. In the British system, the denominators are not multiples of 10. This kind of fractions is known as common fractions. There are several kinds of common fractions such as proper and improper fractions, equal or equivalent fractions and also mixed numbers. Proper

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fraction is a fraction which its numerator is less than the denominator. Improper fraction is a fraction where its numerator is equal to or greater than the denominator.

The concept of fraction is first developed as fractional parts of a unit whole among children. This concept of fractions is commonly known as the region model for fractions. In this model, areas of parts are compared. When exploring the ideas of addition and subtraction involving fractions, the concept of fractions as parts of a unit whole is extended to include the measurement model for fractions. In this model, lengths are compared instead of areas. At a later stage, the concept of fractions is extended to be parts of a collection of object, which is commonly known as the set model for fractions. In this model, quantities of discrete objects are compared. Most students' first introduction to fractions in the classroom as a part-whole comparison is with unit fractions such as half, quarter, third (1/2, 1/4, and 1/3). A unit fraction is one part of a whole. That whole may be partitioned into many parts, but as long as it is only one of these parts of interest it is called a unit fraction. n-th which is written 1/n. Most fractions are non-unit fractions. It is important to introduce simple nonunit fractions such as 2/3 and 3/4 at the same time as unit fractions to avoid students developing misunderstanding about all fractions from their limited experience with unit fractions. Similarly, it is important to encourage students to explore fractions with different numbers such as 11/23, and 9/13 improper fractions like 7/6 and 4/3 also mixed fractions 2 1/3. Students beginning to understand fractions should be encouraged to use words to describe the parts, and delay the fractional notation until they have developed some understanding of what fractions represent. For example if a shape is partitioned equally into n parts then each unit part is called one

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For all fractions, the notation convention is the bottom number (denominator) tells you how many equal parts make up the whole. The top number (numerator) tells you how many of these parts are of interest.

or

Using part-whole understanding of fractions we can say the rectangle is onefifth (1/5) shaded because there are five equal-sized parts and one of them is shaded. In the fraction "one-fifth", the one shaded part is described by the numerator and that four of these equal-sized parts make up the whole shape is described by the denominator. The equal-sized parts could be called "fifths". Students who have had limited experiences with fractions and partitioning may rely on the methods of cutting up they are familiar with. If they have only ever divided up circles (pizza) they may think this is the only way to divide shapes up. Using different shapes such as squares or rectangles which can be cut in many different ways or square pizzas can be used to challenge the students' concept of circular representations of fractions. Hexagons, for example, can be easier to partition accurately into 3 or 6 equally-sized parts than circles. The number of partitions can relate to the shape to be partitioned. Some shapes are more difficult to partition into different numbers, for an example a square into 3 parts, a circle into 5 parts. It is important that students build up many experiences of partitioning shapes starting with basic shapes. Look at shapes below.

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Partitioning a variety of shapes such as squares, rectangles, circles and triangle. Look at shapes below.

Unequal-sized pieces or other similar questions, where the shapes are not evenly partitioned (as in the shapes below) can identify important misunderstandings.

A part-whole understanding of fractions involves identifying what fraction of a shape (or region) is shaded. This context is usually continuous, when a part of the shape is shaded as below. However if the shape has already been partitioned into equal parts it is essentially countable and therefore a discrete problem.

For an example: What fraction of this rectangle is shaded? Half- because there are two parts? Quarter because four of those parts would make up the whole shape?
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This problem is different from the 1/5 above because the pieces cannot simply be counted to construct a fraction. Students here must use the shaded part and work out what fraction of the whole it represents (how many times the parts "goes into the whole"). They could be encouraged to draw lines to create equal-sized partitions to help them work out or explain their strategy. Although some students may feel they are not supposed to draw lines on to the shapes, encouraging them to do so can help eliminate misunderstandings. Asking students to explain or show their working can provide useful information about the strategies they use and their understanding behind their answer. It is important to be aware of the strategies students employ to solve partwhole fraction problems and to ensure students are not developing a "narrow" solution method for solving without understanding the part-whole nature of fractions. On the whole, the conceptual development of fractions among children includes the following basic stages: a) Building fraction number sense by eliciting ideas of fractions existence among children. b) Extending understanding of fractions as parts to whole relationship based on the region model. c) Consolidating the concepts of fractions through understanding the relationships between various types of fractions. d) Understanding basic operations (addition and subtraction) involving fractions. e) Extending the concepts of fractions using the set model for fractions. f) Solving daily problems involving fractions. Context can be important for students to begin to relate to their own experiences, but being aware of the meanings that underlie the contexts is important. Circular pizzas are often used as a context for fractions, they tend to be cut into quarters and eights, but if students are asked a pizza question involving
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thirds or sixths they may find it difficult. The context is meant to be realistic and one that students can relate to, and should therefore supports the understanding rather than hinder it. Students need to be introduced to a variety of shapes illustrating fractions as part-whole relationships - squares, rectangles, and hexagons are good starting shapes rather than using just circles. This variety encourages students to use different strategies to solve the problems and develop their understanding about fractional representations rather than simply memorising common iconic fractions shapes without understanding. Teaching Steps according CPA Approach As I have chosen Introduction of Fraction as my micro teaching presentation, the approach of CPA (conceptual, pictorial & abstract) is important in teaching and learning process to make the students to understand the topic. For setting an induction to recognize the concept of fraction like one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarter, teacher shows a short video clip about fraction to give an idea about the topic. Teacher will asks the students about information that they have seen in the video clip to stimulate them. So, in setting an induction teacher uses pictorial approach. Laptop, LCD projector, a short video clip which related to introduction of fraction had been used as a teaching material. Next to develop a lesson, in step 1 to say fractions parts, one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarters context, teacher displays flash card (pizza) to show one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarter by folding the flash cards to show the fraction parts. Students also will be given flash card (pizza). Students will follow teacher to say the fraction in proper manner and they will follow teachers instruction to fold a flash card. Here, conceptual approach had been used to make the students to understand the concept of fraction as they can hold and fold the flash card, and also they follow to say the fraction in proper manner. Flash cards had been used as teaching material.

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Now lets take a look step 2, students must be able to read fraction parts, one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarters in context. Teacher will be showing slide show presentation to ask a question, students will answer teachers questions. Teacher will be check out the answer immediately. This will be more to question and answer session to enhance students understandings. Pictorial approach had been used in this lesson. Laptop, LCD projector, power point presentation had been used as a teaching material. Example: a)

b)

c)

d)
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To develop a lesson in step 3 to write

1 1 3 , and in context and recognise 2 4 4

fractions as equal shares of a whole. Teacher will be teaching about numerator and

denominator. Fraction usually expressed in the form of

. Teacher will give an

explanation about What is numerator? and What is denominator?. x is numerator which represent one part of fraction and y is denominator which represent whole part of fraction which is divided by y parts. Teacher will be test students understanding by having Quick Quiz. Teacher will show flash cards which shows pictures of fraction and students are expected to answer it correctly as they just learn it. Teacher used conceptual and pictorial approach to make to the students understand fraction as an equal shares of a whole. In this lesson laptop, LCD projector, power point presentation and flash cards as a teaching material. Next is step 4, students will be doing exercises to evaluate the students individual performance and understanding in introduction of fraction. Teacher gives instructions to students and each student is provided with a worksheet and they are required to complete the 10 questions in the time allotted. Students submit their worksheet at the end of 10 minutes. Worksheet has been set up to integrate the value of being conscientious and being accurate in their (students) understanding in fraction as thought by their teacher. Here teacher prepared the worksheet by using pictorial and abstract approach so that students can look at the pictures and answer it with their imagination as they already learn about the fraction. Finally to conclude the lesson, teacher summarizes the main ideas of the lesson which are the use of fraction in our daily life, either directly or indirectly and to be a fair and square to avoid misunderstanding or arguments. Enrichment activities will enhance students knowledge in understanding the topic, so that teacher shows some samples of fractions from television programme. In the end of lesson, teacher wrap up the lesson by encouraging students to always be fair and square in all
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activities as now that they have learned to relate in their daily life. Besides that, teacher integrates the moral value of being fair and square to avoid any misunderstandings and arguments. In conclusion part, teacher uses pictorial approach by showing samples of fractions and abstract approach to sum up the lesson with moral values. Misconceptions Fractions have often been considered as one of the least popular areas of mathematics. Many children consider the concept of fractions as difficult and too often children have had difficulty understanding why they are carrying out a particular procedure to solve a calculation involving fractions. This is probably due to confusion caused by introducing calculations involving fraction too early, when certain children still require more experience with the visual and practical aspect of creating simple fractions of shapes in order to gain a more secure understanding of what a fraction actually is. In the topic, Introduction of Fraction, students may confuse with the unit whole is divided into parts of equal size. Students must understand that every part must divide in equal size. Example:

Diagram 1

Diagram 2 ,

Most of the time, students will mention both diagram 1 and 2 is one half or

if teacher ask for the fraction for shaded region. Here misconception happen because students are tend to confuse since both diagram are divided into two parts and they forgot to notice that diagram 2 is not divided equally.

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Daily Lesson Plan Subject Class/Year Date Time Class size Topic Learning area Learning objectives : Mathematics : 3 Brilliant : 11 April 2012 : 7.20am-8.20am (1 hour) : 35 students : Fractions : Understanding fractions : Students will be taught to understand the fraction and use the vocabulary related to fractions. Learning outcomes : By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to i. ii. iii. iv. Previous knowledge Will be able to understand the fractions. Will be able to say the fractions. Will be able to read the fractions. Will able to write the fractions.

: i) Students indirectly applied fractions in their daily life such as in cutting cakes and pizzas. ii) Students know that they can always share something like (food) equal parts.

Integration of knowledge

: i. English Language answering questions in complete

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sentences ii. Reading and understanding fractions in daily life. Integration of thinking skills : i. able to imagine the quantity of one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarter. ii. able to understand and read the fractions in daily life usage. Integration of Moral values : i. to strive for conscientiousness and accuracy ii. to be a fair and square iii. to share and cooperate in group work Teaching Resources : i. power point presentation ii. flash cards iii. worksheets

Steps (duration) Set Induction (5 mins.)

Content 1. Recognise: a) one whole b) one half c) one quarter d) three quarter

Teaching and Learning Activities 1.Teacher shows a short video clip about fraction to give an idea about the topic. 2.Teacher will asks the students above information.

Remarks / Notes Laptop, LCD projector, A short video clip

Lesson Development Step 1 (15 mins.)

1. Say fractions parts, one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarters context.

1.Teacher introduces the topic which students are going to learn today i) To say fractions parts and identify fraction parts. 2.Teacher displays flash card (pizza) to show one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarter by folding the flash cards to show the fraction parts. Students will be given flash card (pizza). Students will

Flash cards.

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follow teacher to say the fraction in proper manner and they will follow teachers instruction to fold a flash card. a) One whole pizza

b) One half pizza

c) One quarter pizza

d) Three quarter pizza

Lesson Development Step 2 (10 mins.)

1. Read fraction parts, one whole, one half, one quarter and three quarters in context.

1. Teacher will be showing slide show presentation to ask a question, students will answer teachers questions. (This will be more to question and answer session to enhance students understandings). a)

Laptop, LCD projector, Power Point Presentation

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b)

c)

d)

Lesson Development Step 3 (15 mins.)

1. Write
1 1 3 , and 2 4 4

1. Teacher will be teaching

in context. 2. Recognise
2 1 4 = and =1 4 2 4

about numerator and denominator. Fraction usually expressed in the form of . Will give an

Laptop, LCD projector, Power Point Presentation and Flash Cards.

explanation: a) What is numerator? b) What is denominator?

3. Recognise fractions as equal shares of a whole.

x is numerator which represent one part of fraction. y is denominator which represent whole part of fraction which is divided by y parts.
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2. Teacher will be test students understanding by having Quick Quiz. Teacher will show a flash cards which shows pictures of fraction and students are expected to answer it correctly. Example:

Closure (5 mins.)

To summarize the main ideas of the lesson. 1. Use of fraction in our daily life, either directly or indirectly. 2. Can be a fair and square to avoid misunderstanding or arguments.

1. Teacher shows some samples of fractions from television programme. 2. Teacher wrap up the lesson by encouraging students to always be fair and square in all activities as now that they have learned to relate in their daily life.

Integrate the value of being fair and square to avoid any misunderstandings and arguments.

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SKRIP PENGAJARAN MIKRO Saya menggunakan Kemahiran Menerang, Mengguna Bahan Sumber, Alat Bantu Mengajar, Contoh dan Ilustrasi bagi topik Pengenalan Kepada Pecahan. Maka akan memperkenalkan pecahan menggunakan objek (concrete pictorial) dan juga melalui power point presentation. Oleh kerana saya ingin menggunakan kemahiran ini, maka saya akan mengajar murid-murid cara-cara menyebut pecahan dengan cara yang betul dan mengenalpasti bahawa pecahan haruslah mempunyai saiz yang sama besar. Guru : Selamat pagi murid-murid. Murid : Selamat pagi Cikgu. Guru : Hari ini, Cikgu nak tunjukkan pizza kepada kamu semua. Suka makan pizza tak? Murid : Suka.
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Guru : Sedap? Murid : Hmmm sedap. Guru : Mari kita lihat Pizza ini. Ini pizza betul ke? Boleh makan ke? Murid : Pizza kertas, tak boleh makan. Guru : bagus. Ada berapa pizza pada tangan Cikgu ini? Murid : Satu.. Guru : Ini adalah satu pizza yang penuh. Sekarang Cikgu akan melipat pizza ini kepada dua bahagian. Sekarang berapa bahagian pizza yang ada pada saya? Murid : Separuh, Cikgu. Guru : Selain separuh, kita juga sebut sebagai satu perdua. Sebut satu perdua. Murid : satu perdua. Guru : Sekarang cikgu akan membahagikan pada empat bahagian yang sama besar. Maka sekarang ada berapa bahagian pizza? Murid : Suku Guru : Selain suku, kita juga boleh sebut sebagai satu perempat. Cuba sebut satu perempat. Murid : Satu perempat. Guru : Baik, sekarang Cikgu akan tunjukkan tiga per empat bahagian dari seluruh pizza. Pizza ini mempunyai empat bahagian yang sama besar. Ada berapa bahagian disini? Murid : Satu, dua, tiga dan empat. Ada empat bahagian pizza, Cikgu. Guru : Sekarang Cikgu akan mengambil satu bahagian daripada pizza ini, maka
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sekarang ada berapa bahagian daripada keseluruhan pizza? Murid : Satu, dua dan tiga. Tiga suku pizza, Cikgu Guru : Dalam pecahan, kita menyebut sebagai tiga perempat. Semua murid sebut tiga perempat. Murid : Tiga perempat. Guru : Murid-murid semua dah pandai menyebut pecahan dengan betul. Cikgu hendak menguji kamu semua sama ada, kamu semua betul-betul faham ataupun tidak. Guru : Cuba sebutkan pecahan bagi pizza ini? Murid : Satu pizza yang penuh. Guru : Cuba lihat gambar kedua pula. Meyyammai sebutkan pecahan bagi pizza ini? Murid : Satu per dua, Cikgu. Guru : Adelyne cuba kamu sebutkan pecahan bagi pizza ini? Murid : Satu per empat, Cikgu. Guru : Gambar yang akhir ini pula, Eunice cuba kamu sebutkan jawapan yang betul bagi pecahan ini? Murid : tiga per empat, Cikgu. Guru : Bagus semua murid-murid saya dapat menjawab dengan betul. Guru : Sekarang Cikgu hendak menguji kamu. Jika Cikgu lipatkan pizza seperti ini, berapakah pecahan bagi pizza ini? Murid : Satu per dua. Guru : Salah. Bukan satu per dua kerana Cikgu lipat pizza ini kepada dua tetapi
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kalau anda perhatikan disini, Cikgu tidak melipat pizza ini kepada bahagian yang sama besar. Maka ini bukan satu per dua. Murid-murid jangan keliru apabila menyebut pecahan, pastikan setiap bahagian dibahagikan secara sama besar. Guru : Sekian, terima kasih.

Maklum Balas dan Cadangan Penambahbaikan Pensyarah memberikan beberapa cadangan penambaikan iaitu pertamanya, mengehadkan perkataan semasa bertutur kerana proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran ini sasarannya murid-murid sekolah yang rendah. Mereka mungkin keliru atau tidak faham jika menggunakan ayat yang panjang. Cadangan yang kedua ialah, semasa mengajar atau menerangkan sesuatu konsep, pastikan tunggu sebentar atau berhenti sebelum memulakan idea baru atau ayat yang baru. Jika terdapat aktiviti dalam kumpulan semasa menjalankan proses

pengajaran dan pembelajaran, pastikan memberikan arahan yang sesuai supaya murid-murid dapat menjalankan kerja kumpulan dengan bekerjasama antara satu sama lain. Maka ini memudahkan bagi guru untuk mengawal kelas dan juga kepada murid-murid bagi menjalankan aktiviti dalam kumpulan dengan senang.

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Pengetahuan sedia ada sangat penting dan syarat bagi memulakan pengajaran baru supaya murid-murid dapat memahami perkara yang guru mengajar. Kadang kala pengalaman juga boleh dianggap sebagai pengetahuan sedia ada. Sebenarnya pengetahuan sedia ada ialah pra syarat bagi memulakan atau menyambung subtopik atau topik yang baru. Pastikan pengetahuan yang sedia ada mempunyai kaitan yang rapat dengan topik atau subtopik yang diajar. Jangan menulis pengetahuan sedia ada yang tidak berkait rapat atau yang tidak berkaitan langsung dengan topik atau subtopik yang diajar. Kejituan adalah penting untuk menilai pengetahuan murid-murid.

Conclusion and Reflection

Teaching mathematics is completely something new for me because previously was teaching English and Bahasa Melayu. Numbers and letters are two different things. So to adopt something new will take time and I am still in learning process. Furthermore I have never been taught to primary school students this mathematic subject. I felt teaching secondary school students much easier as they are grown one. It is hard to teach primary school students because we teachers going to introduce each and every topic for the first time and we must make sure that we give the correct input so that they can apply it anywhere. Lets say when we teachers gave the wrong input or never deliver the knowledge properly, students might having trouble to catch the following the topic or subtopic. For an example, Introduction to Fraction is the topic where the students learn in primary school as the basic fraction, and they still learn fraction in secondary school. So here I can make a pretty clear
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conclusion that primary school teachers need more knowledge to mould a student to prepare to the next level. This is what I really learn while I did the research and finding information for furthering my project and micro teaching presentation. It is so useful to me as I am preparing to be a teacher soon. As I mentioned earlier, I had chose Introduction to Fraction as my micro teaching presentation. When I select this topic, I felt it is easy to teach and explain to students. When I went through the conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge then I have learnt a lot of issues need to take in account before a teacher starts a lesson or topic. Without proper knowledge, it is very hard to convey or deliver proper message to students. At times, teachers could make mistakes in a certain places where we know how to do it but it doesnt mean student also can do the same thing like us. So that, I need to know the proper mathematic knowledge in order to teach the students. I am going to teach primary school students where they are small kids so must use suitable approach to deliver the content knowledge. Teaching and learning process tend to be complicated if we never follow the correct sequences. For an example, in the topic of Introduction to Fraction, I must teach the basic concept of fraction in order to teach further about other subtopics under Fractions. Teachers must understand the concept and procedural knowledge of the topic, so that we know where to concentrate more when we teach to avoid any misunderstandings or misconceptions among students. This will help teachers to teach in more efficient way. Basically as a teacher we must know all the knowledge in the subject we going to teach. So that we can answer all the questions which popped up by students as the knowledge is in our finger tips. As teacher, we should be like a thesaurus. Besides that, now I really can understand how to use the conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge to plan a daily lesson plan by using CPA (conceptual, pictorial and abstract) approach. I guess by reading the theories only I cant understand the usage of this concept. By doing all the processes while I am
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doing this project, I can really understand and use the knowledge that I gain in future. I went through few difficulties when I was doing this project but somehow I have managed to finish it with the guidance by my lecturer Dr Ng Kok Fu. I also bear in my mind about the reflection which gave by my lecturer right after everyone presented our micro teaching presentation, it will be very useful to be applied when we start to teach later. Here I would to thank him. Besides that, not forgotten my friends because they support me a lot and we helped each other. We went through the same dilemma while doing this project as all of us came up with our own theory in doing or complete this project. Overall, so many things I have learnt while I am completing this project where I can apply all the time.

Attachment Worksheet for evaluation exercises. Circle the correct answers.


1. Which of the following shaded parts shows

A.

B.

C.

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D.

2. Which of the following fractions has 4 as a numerator? C.

A.

B.

D.

3. Which of the following fractions represent one whole? C.

A.

B.

D.

4.

written in words is

A. One four B. One quarter

C. One half D. One whole

5.

written in words is

A. Three four

C. Three quarter

Solve the following problems


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1. Shade

of the diagram.

2. Shade

of the diagram.

3. Write the numerator and the denominator for the fraction

Numerator

: __________

Denominator : __________

4. Write the numerator and the denominator for the fraction

Numerator

: __________

Denominator : __________

5. Write the following fractions in words.

a.

____________________
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b.

_____________________

Reference 1. Mok Soon Sang (2003)A Mathematics Courses for Diploma of Education Semester 2 & 3 , Kumpulan Budiman Sdn. Bhd. Subang Jaya.

2. Mok Soon Sang & Siew Fook Cheong (1986) Pengajaran Dan Pembelajaran Matematik Untuk Peringkat Sekolah Rendah, Longman Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. Selangor.

3. http://blogmaribelajar.blogspot.com/p/abm.html

4. http://www.scribd.com/doc/33062146/DAILY-LESSON-PLAN-Proper-Fraction

5. http://cikgumazirawahab.blogspot.com/p/rph.html

6. http://arb.nzcer.org.nz/supportmaterials/maths/concept_map_fractions.php

7. http://www.merga.net.au/documents/MERGA33_Forrester&Chinnappan.pdf

8. http://www.umich.edu/~icls/proceedings/pdf/Star2.pdf

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9. http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/106008/chapters/ConceptualUnderstanding.aspx

10. http://www.akademikpahang.edu.my/v3/phocadownload/userupload/Kefaham an%20Konsep%20dalam%20Matematik.pdf

11. http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_9_2_03.pdf

12. http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/r-jhnsn-etal-01.pdf

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