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Overview of Notes for Science and Technology: 1 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.

9 2.10 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6 7 Essential Questions about Science Bioethics/Biotechnology Euthanasia Stem-cell Research Cord blood harvesting Abortion Pro-life Human Cloning Animal Testing Genetic Engineering GM Food/crops Xenotransplantation Health Care Germ theory, antibiotics drugs Foundations of modern surgery Breakthrough Surgical Methods Assisted Reproductive technology Science and Religion Big Bang vs creation Evolution vs creation Rationale/evidence and reason vs faith Tangible vs intangible God Theories and hypotheses vs oracles and prophecies Scientific method Science and Technology Biotechnology(all the above and others e.g invention of biofuels) Nuclear technology Information technology Space Technology Effects of Science and Technology Past Years Questions

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. How has science & technology affected our lives? What are some of the ethical issues that result from scientific advancements? How might the problems brought by Science & technology be addressed? How are the Arts and the Sciences similar and different?

1. Science 1.1 Definition1 a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method 1.2 Activities of Science2 noticing a phenomenon casual manipulation of empirical variables specification of functional relationships specification of coherent explanatory system application of a general or integrated mechanism of prediction (law) 1.3 Types of Sciences The basic sciences (Hard sciences) biology, chemistry, physics The earth sciences (Applied sciences) astronomy, archaeology, aeronautics, engineering, geology, hydrology, meteorology The medical sciences surgery, immunology, neurology, psychiatry, dentistry, gerontology, gynaecology, pediatric The social sciences (Soft sciences) anthropology, sociology, economics, geography, political science, psychology, linguistics 2. Technology 2.1 Definition3 the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area (e.g. engineering) a capability given by the practical application of knowledge (e.g. a car's fuelsaving technology) the specialized aspects of a particular field of endeavor (e.g. educational technology) What is included in Life Sciences? Life Sciences: traditionally known as Biology a) c) e) g) i) k) m)
1 2

Taxonomy Zoology Botany Microbiology Virology Biochemistry Physiology

b) d) f) h) j) l)

Embryology Cytology (cell biology) Molecular biology Genetics Ethology Ecology

Merriam-Webster Online. Available: < http://www.m-w.com >. Cited 7 July 2007. Jacksonville State University: Department of Psychology. Available: < http://www.jsu.edu/depart/psychology/sebac/fac-sch/rm/pdfs/Ch2v4.pdf >. Cited 7 July 2007. 3 Merriam-Webster Online.

Match the definitions provided below with the above terms. 1. The branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of cells. 2. The scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment 3. A classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc 4. The study of minute organisms, or microbes, as the bacteria. 5. The branch of biology that deals with the manipulation of DNA so that it can be sequenced or mutated. If mutated, the DNA is often inserted into the genome of an organism to study the biological effects of the mutation. 6. The science of the relationships between organisms and their environments. 7. The study of the chemical substances and vital processes occurring in living organisms; biological chemistry; physiological chemistry. 8. The branch of biology that deals with the formation, early growth, and development of living organisms 9. The science or study of plants. 10. The branch of biology that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms. 11. The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts. 12. The study of viruses and viral diseases. 13. The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals Answer: 1(d)2(j)3(a)4(g)5(f)6(l)7(k)8(b)9(e)10(h)11(m)12(i)13(c) Life Sciences - without boundaries now a) c) e) g) i) k) bioinformatics biochip Bioengineering Biophysics Biomechanics Biomaterials b) d) f) h) j) l) Biomimetics cryobiology Cybernetics Biosensors Biotechnology Bioethics

Match the definitions provided below with the above terms.

1. A branch of biology that uses biological systems as a model to develop synthetic


systems. 2. The study of the effects of very low temperatures on living organisms 3. The field of science concerned with processes of communication and control (especially the comparison of these processes in biological and artificial systems) 4. A device that detects, records, and transmits information regarding a physiological change or process. 5. The study of the mechanics of a living body, especially of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure.

6. The use of computers in solving information problems in the life sciences, mainly, it
involves the creation of extensive electronic databases on genomes, protein sequences, etc. Secondarily, it involves techniques such as the three-dimensional modeling of biomolecules and biologic systems. 7. A biocompatible material that is used to construct artificial organs, rehabilitation devices, or prostheses and replace natural body tissues 8. The application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and medicine, as in the development of aids or replacements for defective or missing body organs. Also called biomedical engineering 9. A computer chip made from organic molecules rather than silicon or germanium. 10. The study of the ethical and moral implications of new biological discoveries and biomedical advances, as in the fields of genetic engineering and drug research 11. The science that deals with the application of physics to biological processes and phenomena. 12. The use of microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances, such as enzymes, to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. Applications include the production of certain drugs, synthetic hormones, and bulk foodstuffs as well as the bioconversion of organic waste and the use of genetically altered bacteria in the cleanup of oil spills. Answer: 1(b)2(d)3(f)4(h)5(i)6(a)7(k)8(e)9(c)10(l)11(g)12(j) Some benefits of research into life sciences 1. Genetic diversity could be used to increase the chances of survival of a dying species 2. Genetically manipulated plants can produce their own pesticides 3. Reprogramming the nucleus of other cells, such as nerve cells, could lead to procedures to stimulate degenerating nerve cells to be replaced by newly growing nerve cells 4. Genetic engineering can help treat human and animal diseases that are genetically based 5. Genetic engineering can increase food production from crops and animals 6. Genetic engineering can improve food-processing techniques 7. By transgenics, we can get a micro-organism to produce human insulin for diabetics or a sheep to produce a human blood-clotting protein in her milk 8. Gene testing helps prenatal diagnostic testing 9. DNA tests help newborn screening 10. DNA testing is used in forensic/identity testing 11. Researchers will be able to identify individuals predisposed to particular diseases 12. Genetic engineering builds the economy 13. Learning about non-human organisms DNA can help us Environment/Ecology Agriculture/Biotech Health/Medical

Health/Medical Agriculture/Biotech Agriculture/Biotech Health/Medical

Health/Medical Health/Medical Crime Health/Medical Economy Wealth of knowledge

learn about human DNA 14. In genome engineering, it is possible for a microbes entire DNA to be manipulated to create a new species that could eat and eliminate pollution in soil 15. Harvests are protected against losses from pest (resistance to harmful insects), resulting in higher yield (agriculture) 16. Screening for unwanted genetic diseases 17. Development of new genetic cures for cancer and inherited genetic diseases 18. Better understanding of evolution and human migration (social anthropology) 19. More accurate risk assessment (eg. insurance premiums) Environment/Ecology

Agriculture/Biotech

Health/Medical Health/Medical Wealth of knowledge Wealth of knowledge Health/Medical

Impact of application of life sciences Growth of biotech industry Improvements to the quality of agriculture and livestock Improvements in medicine Alternative energy sources Emergence of issues regarding patents Increased political and military status (countries seen as more advanced and more powerful, others fear and respect these nations) Redefinition of moral and ethical boundaries Impact of Life Sciences in Singapore Life Sciences industries is the 4th pillar of our economy (the other 3 pillars are manufacturing, service and finance) Revamp of curriculum in education to include Life Sciences Realignment of infrastructure and support for life sciences research and development Promote life sciences business initiatives 2. Bioethics/Biotechnology 1. Study of moral problems connected with such issues as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, genetic engineering, etc. 2. The study of ethical problems involved in biological research; such as, in genetics, organ transplants, and artificial insemination; especially when the application of advanced technology is involved. 2.1 Euthanasia (mercy killing) Assisting in the death of a person suffering from an incurable disease Euthanasia By Action Intentionally causing a person's death by performing an action such as by giving a lethal injection Euthanasia By Omission Intentionally causing death by not providing necessary and ordinary (usual and customary) care or food and water.

Euthanasia in the Netherlands In 2002, `the Netherlands legalized euthanasia`. Euthanasia is still a criminal offence but the law codified a twenty year old convention of not prosecuting doctors who have committed euthanasia in very specific cases, under very specific circumstances. Euthanasia in the United States Euthanasia is illegal in all states of the United States. Physician aid-in-dying (PAD) is legal in the states of Washington, Oregon, and Montana. The key difference between euthanasia and PAD is who administers the lethal dose of medication. Euthanasia entails the physician or another third party administering the medication, whereas PAD requires the patient to self-administer the medication and to determine whether and when to do this. 2.2. Stem-cell research Research on stem cells and their use in medicine Stem cell: One of the human body's master cells, with the ability to grow into any one of the body's more than 200 cell types. All stem cells are unspecialized (undifferentiated) cells that are characteristically of the same family type (lineage). They retain the ability to divide throughout life http://www.encyclo.co.uk/define/Science%20and%20Religion Creation of embryonic stem cells from adult cells4 (human health) marks the beginning of a new era for stem cell biology and may spell the end of cloning as a way to produce stem cells. Adult skin cells are able to be rewound back to their original embryonic state Which provide stocks of stem cells that can potentially be turned into any of the 200 types of tissue in the human body This debunks the earlier idea that the only way to convert adult cells into embryonic ones was to clone them and involve the use of an embryo This new technique does not require that and hence does not invoke moral debates over the use of embryos Since these new cells are able to do all the things that the previous embryonic cells could do Neurological damage caused by multiple sclerosis could be reversed by encouraging the brain's own stem cells to repair themselves, according to a new study. The report's lead scientist Robin Franklin explains the process. From http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/ukfs_news/ Stem cell controversy Stem cell controversy` is the ethical debate centered around research involving the creation, usage and destruction of human embryonic stem cells. Some opponents of the research argue that this practice is a slippery slope to reproductive cloning and fundamentally devalues the worth of a human being. Another Bush policy overturned By Jonathan Beale Mr Obama repeated the claims of some scientists that embryonic stem cell research could lead to a cure for a whole host of diseases like Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and diabetes and that it could even help someone who is paralysed to walk again. But he was careful not to overstate the case: "The full promise of stem cell research remains unknown, and it should not be overstated" he said.
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Guardian.co.uk. Available: < http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/nov/20/embryonic.stem.cells >. Cited 25 November 2007.

Barack Obama is clearly at odds with many conservatives, who oppose stem cell research on ethical grounds. But what is most striking about this decision is his attempt not to alienate conservatives or to sidestep the moral debate. "Many thoughtful and decent people are conflicted about, or strongly oppose this research," he acknowledged. His description of himself as "a person of faith" made it harder for his critics to attack his decision. Embryonic stem cell research, he argued, is the right, moral thing to do because it aims to relieve "human suffering". He promised strict guidelines and controls on new research. Mr Obama presented the debate as a clash between political ideology and scientific progress. And he claimed that the majority of Americans - from across the political spectrum, and of all backgrounds and beliefs - were in agreement that this research should be pursued. This time he may have won the argument. But every time he encroaches into an area that concerns what used to be called the "moral majority" he risks sparking the cultural war he is desperate to avoid. adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7933932.stm Stem cell research policy `Stem cell research policy`, a controversial topic, varies significantly throughout the world. There are overlapping jurisdictions of international organizations, nations, and states or provinces. Some government policies determine what is allowed versus prohibited, whereas others outline what what research can be publicly financed. Of course, all practices not prohibited are implicitly permitted. Some organizations have issued recommended guidelines for how stem cell research is to be conducted. 2.3 Cord Blood Harvesting Collection of umbiical cord blood from the umbilical cord of the baby after the baby`s birth. Harvesting of umbilical cord blood is performed after the umbilical cord has been clamped and cut and does not cause pain to the baby. The blood from the cord can then be used for a variety of medical conditions, including stem cell transplants. Found on http://www.pregnology.com/AZ/C/9 2.4 Abortion debate The `abortion debate` refers to discussion and controversy surrounding the moral and legal status of abortion. The two main groups involved in the abortion debate are the pro-choice movement, which generally supports access to abortion and regards it as morally permissible, and the pro-life movement. Each movement has, with varying results, sought to influence public opinion and to attain legal support for its position. 2.5 Pro-life `Pro-life` is a term representing a variety of perspectives and activist movements in bioethics. It can be used to indicate opposition to practices such as euthanasia, human cloning, research involving human embryonic stem cells, and the death penalty. Found on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro-life 2.6 Human Cloning Human reproductive cloning Human reproductive cloning: Human cloning for the purposes of creating a human being. As opposed to what has been termed therapeutic cloning Therapeutic cloning Cloning of stem cells, e.g. from embryos, cord blood, etc. to provide cells for treating disorders such as diabetes, Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s Found on http://www.makingsenseofhealth.org.uk/de 2.7 Animal experimentation

Animal experiments are widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products.Many of these experiments cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways.If it is morally wrong to cause animals to suffer then experimenting on animals produces serious moral problems.Animal experimenters are very aware of this ethical problem and acknowledge that experiments should be made as humane as possible.They also agree that it's wrong to use animals if alternative testing methods would produce equally valid results. Two positions on animal experiments In favour of animal experiments: Experimenting on animals is acceptable if (and only if): suffering is minimised in all experiments human benefits are gained which could not be obtained by using other methods Against animal experiments: Experimenting on animals is always unacceptable because: it causes suffering to animals the benefits to human beings are not proven any benefits to human beings that animal testing does provide could be produced in other ways Harm versus benefit The case for animal experiments is that they will produce such great benefits for humanity that it is morally acceptable to harm a few animals. The equivalent case against is that the level of suffering and the number of animals involved are both so high that the benefits to humanity don't provide moral justification. The three Rs The three Rs are a set of principles that scientists are encouraged to follow in order to reduce the impact of research on animals. The three Rs are: Reduction, Refinement, Replacement. Reduction: Reducing the number of animals used in experiments by: Improving experimental techniques Improving techniques of data analysis Sharing information with other researchers Adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiment 2.8 Genetic engineering The manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or eliminating specific genes through modern molecular biology techniques. A broad definition of genetic engineering also includes selective breeding and other means of artificial selection. Found on http://filebox.vt.edu/cals/cses/chagedor 2.9 Genetically modified foods Foods produced using genetic engineering technology. Individual genes can be copied or transferred from one living organism to another, to incorporate particular characteristics into the organism or remove undesirable characteristics. The technology, developed in the 1980s, may be used, for example, to produce crops with higher yields, improved taste, resistance to pests, or a longer growing season. The first genetically modified (GM) food, the Flavr Savr tomato, went on sale in the USA in 1994. GM ingredients appearing in foods on the market today include tomatoes, soya, and maize. However, there remain some doubts and reservations about GM products, and some companies and countries, including the UK, have

taken steps to delay the growing of GM crops until risks have been assessed, and to introduce legislation forcing GM products to be declared as such. The higher yields and increased nutritional content produced by the new technology may help in feeding the world's rapidly-increasing population, and it may be possible in future to produce health foods such as oil seeds that produce oils with lower saturated fat content. Other advantages are that higher yields mean less land will need to be given over to farmland in order to produce more food, and that reliance on pesticides will be reduced by creating crops that are themselves resistant to pests.... Found on http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/ency 2.10 Xenotransplantation: Transplantation from one species to a foreign one. The rationale for xenotransplantation has included the short supply of human organs for transplantation. The first surgeon to do an animal-to-human heart transplant was Dr. James D. Hardy. After doing the first human lung transplant in 1963, Hardy did the first animalto-human heart transplant in 1964 at the University of Mississippi. The transplant involving a chimpanzee heart was done three years before the first human-heart transplant (by Christiaan Barnard). Perhaps the most famous case of cross-species transplantation was that of a heart from a baboon to Baby Fae in 1984, performed by Dr. Leonard Bailey at Loma Linda University, California. Baby Fae lived for 20 days after the operation. The first to show that nonhuman organs could be transplanted to humans and function for a significant period of time was Dr. Keith Reemtsma (1925-2000). At Tulane University in New Orleans Dr. Reemtsma in 1963 and 1964 gave chimpanzee kidneys to 5 patients in the first chimpanzee-to-human transplants. The recipients died (of infection) from 8 to 63 days after receiving a chimpanzee kidney. Then, in 1964 Reemtsma transplanted a kidney from a chimpanzee to a 23-year-old teacher. She lived with it for 9 months until succumbing to overwhelming infection. From http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10727 3. Healthcare 3.1 Germ theory, Antibiotics and New Drugs Germ theory The theory that living organisms can be produced only by the development of living germs. The theory attributes contagious and infectious diseases, suppurative lesions, etc., to the agency of germs. The science of bacteriology was developed after this theory had been established. Found on http://thinkexist.com/dictionary/meaning Brief History of antibiotics Antibiotics have revolutionised medical care in the 20th century, but in recent years bugs have been winning the battle against the medical profession. Penicillin was the first antibiotic, discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929, but it was not until the early 1940s that its true potential was acknowledged and large scale fermentation processes were developed for the production of antibiotics. They have been used to treat a wide variety of often dangerous illnesses caused by bacteria. In the early years, new antibiotics were developed faster than bacteria developed resistance to them. But the bugs have fast caught up. In the 1950s and 60s, many new classes of antibiotics were discovered. But in the 1980s and 1990s, scientists have only managed to make improvements within classes. The Standing Medical Advisory Committee's report, The Path of Least Resistance, published this week, says: "In the closing years of the century, there is an uneasy sense that micro-organisms are 'getting ahead' and that therapeutic options are narrowing."

Breeding Some low-grade hospital bugs are now resistant to all antibiotics and several more dangerous ones can only be effectively treated by one or two antibiotics or antibacterial agents. And hospitals are not the only breeding ground for these superbugs. Community homes and other places which are home to vulnerable groups of people have noted a marked rise in drug-resistant bugs. Worldwide, a new drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis is causing concern, particularly as the disease is enjoying a resurgence. Even if resistance to some antibiotics does not prevent treatment because others are available, it still costs money. Patients may have to try several treatments to see which works and they may have to stay in hospital longer as a result. Moreover, alternative drugs may be more expensive and have greater side effects. Cystic Fibrosis drug offers fresh hope to sufferers An international team co-led by scientists at Queen's University, Belfast, has developed a new drug for Cystic Fibrosis sufferers.The drug specifically targets the so-called Celtic gene which is common in Ireland. But the researchers believe the breakthrough will have significant implications for all CF sufferers.They found significant improvement in lung function, quality of life and a reduction in disease flare ups for those receiving the new treatment."The development of this drug is significant because it is the first to show that treating the underlying cause of Cystic Fibrosis may have profound effects on the disease, even among people who have been living with it for decades. Dr Judy Bradley, from the University of Ulster said: "This is a ground breaking treatment because it treats the basic defect caused by the gene mutation in patients. "Not only will this breakthrough help patients in Ireland and the UK but it has the potential to change the lives for those with Cystic Fibrosis around the world." Adapted from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland 3.2. Foundations of modern surgery: To make the transition to the modern era, the art of surgery had to solve three major problems bleeding, infection, and pain that effectively prevented surgery from progressing into modern science. Developments in surgical methods: Cauterization to close wounds after surgery and invention of ligatures to tie closed the end of a severed blood vessel to prevent further bleeding and research into blood groups allowed the first effective blood transfusions British surgeon Joseph Lister began experimenting with using carbolic acid during surgery to prevent infections further helped by his subsequent introduction of techniques to sterilize equipment, have rigorous hand washing and a later implementation of rubber gloves. The gradual development of germ theory has allowed the final step to be taken to create the highest quality of aseptic conditions in modern hospitals, allowing modern surgeons to perform nearly infection-free surgery. Beginning in the 1840s, surgery began to change dramatically in character with the discovery of effective and practical anaesthetic chemicals such as ether and chloroform. In Britain, John Snow pioneered the use of these two anaesthetics. In addition to relieving patient suffering, anaesthesia allowed more intricate operations in the internal regions of the human body. The further discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare also facilitated safer applications.
adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_surgery#Timeline_of_surgical_procedures 2.2

3.3. Breakthrough Surgical Methods Robotic surgery Robotic surgery is the use of robots in performing surgery. Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and

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unmanned surgery. Major potential advantages of robotic surgery are precision and miniaturization. Found on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_sur Keyhole surgery Operations that do not involve cutting into the body in the traditional way. These procedures are performed either by using an operating laparoscope or other endoscope passed through a tiny incision. Laser surgery Use of intense light sources to cut, coagulate, or vaporize tissue. Less invasive than normal surgery, it destroys diseased tissue gently and allows quicker, more natural healing. `Laser surgery` may refer to: *The use of a laser scalpel in surgery *Laser resurfacing, a technique in which molecular bonds of a material are dissolved by a laser *LASIK, a form of refractive laser eye surgery procedure performed by ophthalmologists to correct near- and far-sightedness in vision Transplant In medicine, the transfer of a tissue or organ from one human being to another or from one part of the body to another (skin grafting). In most organ transplants, the operation is for life-saving 3.4 Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a general term referring to methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. It is reproductive technology used primarily in infertility treatments e.g invitro fertilization. Some forms of ART are also used in fertile couples for genetic reasons. ART is also used in couples who are discordant for certain communicable diseases, e.g. AIDS, to reduce the risk of infection when a pregnancy is desired. The term includes any reproductive technique involving a third party e.g. a sperm donor. There is yet no strict definition of the term. Usage of the ART mainly belongs. Sex selection is the attempt to control the sex of offspring to achieve a desired sex. It can be accomplished in several ways, both pre- and post-implantation of an embryo, as well as at birth. Pre-implantation techniques include PGD, but also sperm sorting. Artificial insemination (AI) is when sperm is placed into a female's uterus (intrauterine) or cervix (intracervical) using artificial means rather than by natural copulation. N.B. This can be a very low-tech process, performed at home by the woman alone or with her partner. o Conception devices, such as a conception cap are used to aid conception by enhancing the natural process. Conception caps are used by placing semen into a small conception cap, then placing the cap onto the cervix. This holds the semen at the cervical os, protecting the semen from the acidic vaginal secretions and keeping it in contact with the cervical mucus. o Artificial insemination by donor is used in situations where the woman doesn't have a partner with functional sperm. Instead, a sperm donor supplies the sperm. Surrogacy, where a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for a contracted party. It may be her own genetic child, or a child conceived through in vitro fertilization or embryo transfer using another woman's ova. Reproductive surgery, treating e.g. fallopian tube obstruction and vas deferens obstruction, or reversing a vasectomy by a reverse vasectomy adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assisted_reproductive_technologyin the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility Moral issues raised by Artificial Insemination Un-natural? Not the way God intended people to procreate, must not replace sex

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Takes the beauty and love out of creating a child Donor sperm Attack on sanctity of marriage. Donors sperm can only be used a limited number of times. Donor must remain anonymous Child Who are the childs parents? What if he wants to contact the biological father? There may be tensions between child through AID and any previous/subsequent child Availability Should lesbian couples be allowed to have children? Should single women be allowed to have children? Should people with disabilities or people over a certain age be allowed to us AI? Cost Is it appropriate to buy sperm over the internet? Is it right to pay more to get sperm from an athletic genius? Should AID be freely available on the NHS? Husband Husband may feel jealous/inadequate. Husband may find it more difficult to bond with the baby. Moral issues raised by IVF Sanctity of the marriage If egg and/or sperm are donated, is this akin to adultery? Will IVF replace sex? Un-natural? Not the way God intended. May lead to weaker sperm fertilising eggs Eugenics Allows pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Allows you to choose eggs/sperm from fitter, more intelligent people. Cost Only wealthy people can afford multiple attempts. Availability on the NHS means money not spent on saving lives Success rate Only 20% effective, costing time and money. IVF pregnancies have a lower success rate, meaning that more implanted. Embryos die, can give couples false hope. Can prolong and intensify the pain of childlessness. May leave couples too old to adopt. Availability Should it be available to lesbian couples? Under what conditions should it be available on the NHS? Should there be age restrictions? Rights of the child Should the child be told how it was born? What ties are there with egg or sperm donors? Spare embryos How many spare embryos should you produce? Can spare embryos be frozen? Can spare embryos be experimented on? Is killing a spare embryo murder? Consent? Can sperm be taken from a dead partner and used to produce a child? What happens if an embryo is frozen and the husband changes his mind? Mistakes What happens if embryos get mixed up? What happens if embryos get lost, stolen or accidentally destroyed? Commercialisation Eggs/sperm are sold on the internet 4. Science and Religion 4.1 Big Bang vs creation/intelligent design Big Bang : the cosmic explosion that is hypothesized to have marked the origin of the universe Found on http://www.webdictionary.co.uk/definition The main points of creationism are these: All life was created by the actions of God All the forms of life existing today were created by the actions of God The organisms created by God can't produce new forms of organism - only God can do this The most common theory follows the accounts in the Biblical Book of Genesis, but most religions have their own creation story Modern creationism uses scientific evidence to support scripture Most scientists say the creationism theory is false and unscientific

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Intelligent design (also called neo-Creationism) The current state of life on Earth has come about through the actions of an intelligent Designer .This is because Some living things contain certain types of complexity that are best explained as the result of an intelligent cause.Some aspects of the universe show positive evidence of having been designed by some form of intelligence This designer need not be God but most proponents of intelligent design seem to have God in mind This theory has been accused of being creationism in disguise Although a few scientists have supported intelligent design, the majority of those working in the field regard the theory as false and unscientific 4.2 evolution vs creation Evolution Natural selection, the survival of the fittest, is the driving force behind evolution and is measured by a species viability and fecundity. Governed by Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection Found on http://www.fisicx.com/quickreference/sci 4.3 reason /evidence vs faith Reason In western philosophy, `reason` has had a twofold history. On the one hand, it has been taken to be objective and so to be fixed and discoverable by dialectic, analysis or study. Such objectivity is the case in the thinking of Plato, Aristotle, Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Aquinas and H... Found on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reason Faith In religion, trust and belief in God's provision; the `assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen` (St Paul). It can also mean a particular religion or set of beliefs. The idea of faithfulness, in the sense of commitment or steadfastness, can be applied to both human beings and God. Faith includes moral or liturgical obedience, although in Christianity the Protestant reformers made a sharp distinction between faith (belief in Jesus as the only way to salvation) and works (practical actions), which they taught did not bring salvation. In Hinduism, faith is defined as dependence on God in devotion. In Buddhism, faith is one of the five cardinal virtues, and is an essential part of the search for enlightenment Found on http://www.encyclo.co.uk/local/20688 4.4 tangible vs intangible God 4.5 hypothesis vs oracles and prophecies A concept or idea that can be falsified by various scientific methods. Found on http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gl Oracles and prophecies Foretelling/prediction of the future 4.6 Scientific Method Body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on observable, empirical, measurable evidence, and subject to laws of reasoning. All such evidence

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is collectively called scientific evidence. Found on http://www.researchautism.net/glossary.i 5. Science and Technology 5.1 Biotechnology: cloning, Genetic Engineering, , development of biofuels etc. Cloning Four clones of Dolly the sheep, the world's first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, are alive and well and living in Nottinghamshire. University of Nottingham researchers created the quads three-and-a-half years ago from the same genetic material used to make Dolly. The sheep are being used carry out further research into cloned animals' longevity and susceptibility to disease. Professor Keith Campbell, leading the research into animal development, was part of the team that created Dolly. Dolly was "euthanised" at the age of six after suffering from arthritis and contracting lung disease, but Prof Campbell said the new clones showed "no signs" of similar health problems. As sheep can live up to 12 years of age, her relatively early death sparked debate about the ethics of cloning. The existence of the clones, known to researchers as "the Dollys", came to light earlier this month after Prof Campbell took part in a discussion on cloning at the European Parliament in Strasbourg. He has been working on animal improvement, and cloning in particular, at the University of Nottingham since 1999. He said a lot had been learnt about the cloning process since the creation of Dolly. "For several years we worked on ways of improving technology and understanding it," he said. "Using that information we've been able to modify techniques. "[We created] the clones from Dolly when we thought we'd made improvements." Prof Campbell said the aims of his work are numerous. "[Cloning] has great implications for human development, animal development and for stem cells," he said. "Agriculture is only one of the options. We can preserve genetics of farm animals especially rare breeds that we are losing." But Professor Campbell added he believes "we would never be eating cloned animals". adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/nottingham/hi/people_and_places/newsid Biofuel Technology First Generation biofuels are produced directly from food crops by abstracting the oils for use in biodiesel or producing bioethanol through fermentation. Crops such as wheat and sugar are the most widely used feedstock for bioethanol while oil seed rape has proved a very effective crop for use in biodiesel. However, first generation biofuels have a number of associated problems. There is much debate over their actual benefit in reducing green house gas and co2 emissions due to the fact that some biofuels can produce negative Net energy gains, releasing more carbon in their production than their feedstocks capture in their growth. However, the most contentious issue with first generation biofuels is fuel vs food. As the majority of biofuels are produced directly from food crops the rise in demand for biofuels has lead to an increase in the volumes of crops being diverted away from the global food market. This has been blamed for the global increase in food prices over the last couple of years. Second Generation biofuels have been developed to overcome the limitations of first generation biofuels. They are produced from non-food crops such as wood, organic waste, food crop waste and specific biomass crops, therefore eliminating the main problem with first generation biofuels. Second Generation biofuels are also aimed at being more cost competitive in relation to existing fossil fuels. Life cycle assessments of second-generation biofuels have also indicated that they will increase net energy gains overcoming another of the main limitations of first generation biofuels.

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The Third Generation of biofuels is based on improvements in the production of biomass. It takes advantage of specially engineered energy crops such as algae as its energy source.The algae are cultured to act as a low-cost, high-energy and entirely renewable feedstock. It is predicted that algae will have the potential to produce more energy per acre than conventional crops. Algae can also be grown using land and water unsuitable for food production, therefore reducing the strain on already depleted water sources. A further benefit of algae based biofuels is that the fuel can be manufactured into a wide range of fuels such as diesel, petrol and jet fuel. Four Generation Bio-fuels are aimed at not only producing sustainable energy but also a way of capturing and storing co2. Biomass materials, which have absorbed co2 while growing, are converted into fuel using the same processes as second generation biofuels. This process differs from second and third generation production as at all stages of production the carbon dioxide is captured using processes such as oxy-fuel combustion. The carbon dioxide can then be geosequestered by storing it in old oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. This carbon capture makes fourth generation biofuel production carbon negative rather then simply carbon neutral, as it is locks away more carbon than it produces. This system not only captures and stores carbon dioxide from the atmosphere but it also reduces co2 emissions by replacing fossil fuels. 5.2 Nuclear technology Nuclear Reactor Technology A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy and for the propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers either ship's propellers or electrical generators. A few reactors manufacture isotopes for medical and industrial use, and some reactors are only operated for research. Analysis: Is nuclear power the answer?
With Prime Minister Tony Blair calling for an "open-minded" debate on the future of nuclear power in the UK, the BBC's Alex Kirby explores the pros and cons of atomic energy.

Nuclear power looks as if it should be the answer to all our energy conundrums, and perhaps even to climate change. It provides a steady stream of energy, and does not depend on hydrocarbon supplies from unstable regimes. It is the nearest thing we have to a non-polluting energy source, apart from natural renewables. But it still engenders massive distrust, so much that many people say it can never be part of the way to avoid a disastrously warming world. Nuclear energy has always had its proponents, their ranks swollen now by people who dislike the technology but believe it may be essential. They point out that a reactor emits virtually no carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas released from human activities (though of course building the power station produces a lot of CO2). UK'S ENERGY PRESSURES Supplies of cheap domestic gas are running low Oil and gas prices have risen dramatically Government aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% of 1990 levels by 2010 Nuclear generates 20% of the UK's electricity All but one of UK's nuclear power stations are set to close by 2023 and no more are planned They say nuclear power is safe, and that the 1957 Windscale fire in the UK, Three Mile Island in the US in 1979, and even Chernobyl have killed massively fewer

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people than the oil and coal industries. Beyond that, they say modern reactors are inherently far safer than those built 20 or 30 years ago, reducing a small risk still further. Supporters say uranium prices have remained steady for decades, meaning nuclear energy is far more secure than fossil fuels can ever be. And they argue that modern nuclear power systems are far more economic than the older versions, and are therefore a good investment. And yet their opponents insist that, if nuclear power really is the answer, then we must be asking the wrong question. Terror fears There is an inevitable link between civil and military atoms, they retort. If we say we need them to stave off climate change, then so can countries like Iran and North Korea - and there is no impermeable barrier between electricity and bombs. They say nuclear energy is economic only under a very restricted analysis - by the time you have factored in the costs of construction, insurance, waste disposal and decommissioning, you need huge subsidies. And, opponents ask, what happens to the waste? The only answer we have come up with so far entails storing the most radioactive waste under guard for millennia, until it has decayed to safe levels. Certainly nuclear power would provide energy to a centralised supply system. But it would do nothing directly to reduce CO2 from transport, unless it made the advent of the hydrogen economy likelier. Also, given the long planning and construction lead times, it would be a good decade or so before we saw any new power stations, even if we decided to go ahead today. I once heard from a British environment secretary, Chris (now Lord) Patten, a telling definition of the problem. "Nuclear power? To most people, it's witchcraft," he told his hearers. Most of us worry far more about something that we see as very unlikely but grotesquely horrible than we do about what we perceive as far likelier but much more mundane. We have a horror of dying in an air crash, but not of driving to the airport along far more dangerous roads. We fear radioactive death, but cock an insouciant snook at the risk of dying painfully from the effects of smoking, or obesity, or alcohol. To that degree, our distrust of nuclear energy may be partly irrational. In other ways, though, it makes very good sense. Consumer demand Getting rid of civil reactors would not remove the risk of a nuclear war breaking out, but it would reduce it. Beyond that, in the past, the nuclear industry (at least in the UK) has at times been cavalier with the truth. One Conservative Minister said 15 years ago: "It is depressing to stand up in the House of Commons and broadcast explicit assurances from our nuclear 'experts' one day, only to find them discredited the next." A veteran of the nuclear industry wrote this: "What the industry needs to regain the support of the British public is... something akin to a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. "It needs to be admitted that governments and industry lied to the public about the links with the military programme" (Nuclear Europe Worldscan, 1998). The signs are that the captains of today's industry are different and far more open. But the distrust persists.Two sets of figures crystallise the dilemma. The UK's nuclear power stations produce about 20% of the country's electricity, and by 2023 all are due to have closed. But by 2030 it is estimated world CO2 emissions will be 62% higher than today, as global demand for energy grows. By mid-century we could be on the verge of producing power from nuclear fusion, a radically different technology. Getting from here to there is the tricky bit. We are understandably terrified of nuclear meltdown, but far fewer of us yet fear the prospect of planetary overheating as we should.
Adatped from:http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/science/nature

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The End of Nuclear Power by Roland Kupers OXFORD Japans nuclear crisis, and the approaching 25th anniversary of the nuclear meltdown at Chernobyl, have incited heated new discussions about the desirability of nuclear power. By awakening dormant fears, this debate threatens to halt what to many had seemed like a budding nuclear renaissance. The stealth-like nature of radiation taps into deep-seated human anxieties. But, however well founded those fears might be, they are probably the wrong reason to oppose nuclear energy. There is an even stronger argument than safety alone for why a nuclear renaissance is neither likely nor necessary: cost. The price of nuclear power has been escalating steadily for decades. Since 1970, the cost in constant dollars of new nuclear generating capacity has increased nine-fold, as additional safety features make plant designs more expensive. New innovations, such as pebble-bed reactors, promise to increase safety further, but will be vastly more costly to adopt. In addition, we have lost economies of scale because we build so few nuclear power plants. As with fighter jets, adding features and building small quantities causes costs to skyrocket. Globally, the median age of nuclear plants is now 27 years, so much of the learning from building the early plants has gone. The exception is China, where a large-scale construction plan is showing evidence of lowering costs. But with the next generation of safer reactors, costs are rising fast. Xu Yuanhui of Chinergy, which is building two pebble-bed reactors, commented recently on the new design: The safety is no question, but the economics are not so clear. The exact opposite is occurring with renewables. We are learning quickly, and costs are plummeting through the sheer volume of construction: 40,000 wind turbines over the past decade in Europe alone. And solar power will reach grid parity in sunny regions like South Africa, Greece, and Florida by 2015. As the price of nuclear power steadily rises and that of renewables falls, inevitably the cost curves will cross. The only question is when and it is likely to occur well within the decade that it will take for the next nuclear plant to come online in the industrialized world. In other words, before we finish building the next nuclear plant, it will be an expensive and increasingly irrelevant relic of the 1950s dream of atoms for peace. That dream always contained the seeds of a nightmare. While the risk that nuclear power could fuel nuclear proliferation seems to have receded as a cause of public angst, by many accounts we have simply been lucky so far: the larger the nuclear economy becomes, the higher the chances of a mistake. Even in the absence of proliferation risks, leaving dangerous trash for future generations is morally dubious. We would judge Alexander the Great differently if his conquests had left a toxic legacy that we were still living with today. Most advocates of nuclear energy now endorse solar and wind, but in the same breath claim that renewables alone simply are not a practicable solution for the necessary reduction of carbon emissions. Every day brings another editorial arguing that nuclear energy is fundamental to a decarbonized power system. But is it really true that a renewable power system is impossible?

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In 2010, the European Climate Foundation (ECF) published a much-noted report called Roadmap 2050, which modeled in great detail the cost and technical feasibility of various scenarios for a carbon-free power system in Europe by 2050. It describes a scenario of 80% renewable power, complemented by a remnant of nuclear and fossil fuels with carbon capture and sequestration. In a nutshell, the ECFs conclusion is that a continent-wide renewable power system is both technically possible and economically affordable. The muchmaligned and very real intermittency of supplies of renewable power is addressed through additional back-up generation capacity and, crucially, a new direct-current supergrid that enables load balancing across the European continent. Still, if it is affordable and doable in the long term, what about in the shorter term? The evidence of the link between carbon reduction, economic growth, and job creation is mounting. In the past six months, studies by the United Nations Environment Program and Johns Hopkins University, as well as A new growth path for Europe, a blueprint proposed by six leading European universities, all project the creation of millions of job before 2020. Notably, these are not just Green Jobs; they are Green Growth jobs across all industrial and services sectors. What we are witnessing is a watershed in the debate on greenhouse-gas emissions. A low-carbon growth path requires neither coal nor new nuclear power. The way forward is to pursue more ambitious and consistent climate and energy policies that drive the massive deployment of renewables; install new load-balancing electricity grids; and ensure large-scale adoption of energy-efficiency measures. This agenda promises to boost investments, stimulate economic growth, and create jobs while increasing competitiveness and energy security. In both economic and ethical terms, nuclear power merits no role. 4.2 Information Technology Collective term for the various technologies involved in processing and transmitting information. They include computing, telecommunications, and microelectronics. The term became popular in the UK after the Government's `Information Technology Year` in 1972. Word processing, databases, and spreadsheets are just some of the computing software packages that have revolutionized work in the office environment. Email and the internet have revolutionized business communications, and not only can work be done more quickly than before, but IT has given decision makers the opportunity to consider far more data when making decisions. Found on http://www.talktalk.co.uk/reference/ency Kindle5 (entertainment)
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Digital book reader created by Amazon Has the dimensions of a paperback, with a tapering of its width that emulates the bulge toward a book's binding Handheld device that can hold several shelves' worth of books Its real breakthrough is a feature that its predecessors never offered: wireless connectivity, via a system called Whispernet Possible signal of the death of print media What the writer writes, how he writes and gets edited, printed and sold, and then readall the old assumptions are under siege."

Newsweek. Available: < http://www.newsweek.com/id/70983/page/1 >. Cited 25 November 2007.

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iPhone6 (mobile phone) A revolutionary new mobile phone that allows you to make a call by simply tapping a name or number in your address book, a favorites list, or a call log. It also automatically syncs all your contacts from a PC, Mac, or Internet service. And it lets you select and listen to voicemail messages in whatever order you want just like email. Nintendo Wii7 (gaming) The 5th home video game console released by Nintendo A distinguishing feature is its wireless remote controller (Wii remote) which can be used as a handheld pointing device and detects movements in 3D Nintendo fused the familiarity of a remote control with the sophistication of motion-sensing technology to come up with an input device for the ages. Google Earth8 (mapping, satellite imagery) Google Earth combines the power of Google Search with satellite imagery, maps, terrain and 3D buildings to put the world's geographic information at your fingertips Fly to your house. Just type in an address, press Search, and youll zoom right in. Search for schools, parks, restaurants, and hotels. Get driving directions. Tilt and rotate the view to see 3D terrain and buildings. Save and share your searches and favorites.

Skype9 (internet telephony) Make phone calls from your computer Talk, listen, watch, read, write to anyone, anywhere in the world without worrying about cost, distance or time

2.3 Statistics

Mobile phone penetration in Singapore - 108.1% (Apr 2007)10 Household broadband penetration in Singapore 66.1% (Apr 2007)11

Harsh Internet Tactics Become Double-Edged Sword in Egypt Authorities in Egypt shut down the country's last remaining Internet service provider on Monday - essentially taking the entire nation offline. As officials take other measures including shutting down train service and limiting cellphone connectivity to
6 7

Apple. Available: < www.apple.com/iphone/phone/ >. Cited 7 July 2007. Nintendo. Available: < http://wii.nintendo.com/ >. Cited 7 July 2007. 8 Google Earth. Available: < http://earth.google.com/ >. Cited 7 July 2007. 9 Skype. Available: < http://www.skype.com >. 10 IDA Singapore. Available: < http://www.ida.gov.sg/Publications/20070209134246.aspx >. Cited 7 July 2007. 11 Ibid.

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try and slow the growing swell of protests, questions are rising over just how big an impact Egypt's tough tactics could have on other tightly-ruled countries across the globe.Late last week, Jim Cowie, the chief technology officer at Renesys - a company that monitors global Internet traffic - says his organization saw something unprecedented going on with the Internet in Egypt."As we watched it [the Internet] last Friday, we observed something that we've really never seen before, at that scale," he said. "All of the paths that go to Egyptian providers - with a very few exceptions vanished. And in about the space of about 20 minutes, one by one, each of the providers of Internet service that has international connections in Egypt turned them off."
adapted from http://www.voanews.com/english/news/science-technology/In-Egypt-HarshInternet-Tactics-Become-Double-Edged-Sword-115048204.html from

How Technology is Changing Relationships Good News Good connections online often mean good connections offline. The vast majority of chatting on social networking sites occurs between young people who already know each other rather than with strangers. It is a form of hanging out, no more inherently debilitating or dangerous than hanging out at the corner soda fountain of yesteryear or the mall of today. In fact, the heaviest users of online social networks also tend to be the most socially active offline (Lenhart & Madden,2007). Introverted kids gain social confidence and support online. Introverted teens and those who are especially sensitive to others (real or imagined) nonverbal signs of rejection find online communication less intimidating. For these kids, research shows online social networks have aided social confidence and social support (Ellison et al, 2006; Valkenburg et al, 2006). Creative self-expression through posting music, graphics, videos, poetry and blogs on social networking sites can level the social playing field, help likeminded individuals get to know each other better and deepen genuine friendships offline. Wired kids are better-prepared for todays professions. In a connected world, fluidity between online and offline communications will serve kids well in future careers in which teams of people work together remotely. Exposure to diversity is easier. Communicating with peers around the world from different cultures used to be limited to pen-pals who waited weeks for letters. Now people can communicate in real-time and learn about each others lives with video, audio, satellite maps and text. An entire classroom can maintain contact with a similar grade in another country, facilitated by the teacher or librarian. Mixed News Baring the soul.People tend to disclose more personal communication when they cant see each other, and when they believe they have a supportive audience. Kids today have a very different sense of privacy than prior generations because they were born into a culture of public exposure. They often dont care who reads the juicy, emotional or meaningless ramblings in their blogs (like online diaries). They may even get a charge out of knowing others are reading their words it makes them feel more important, validated and interesting when others comment about their revelations. Its good to feel others support and interest, but kids face risks from predators who prey on exposed personal vulnerabilities. Even if posts are limited to online friends, too much disclosure can lead to harassment from peers.

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Reaching out for emotional support. Some children with emotional problems have been helped tremendously as a result of reaching out to others on blogs, social networks and self-help websites. But stigma remains around some mental,physical and sexual health issues. Shame, denial or societal prejudices can make it difficult for kids to turn to their families or real-life Bad News Using Internet communities to support pathology instead of healing. The flip side to online self-help is access to communities that encourage and enable dangerous or unhealthy behaviors. The Internet has become a haven for these kids, who can easily locate special websites dedicated to the encouragement of eating disorders, self-mutilation, and many other issues. Compulsive online use. Overuse of the Internet can create serious life imbalance for any child. Kids with attention deficit disorders may, ironically, find it easier to focus for long stretches of time on the constantly shifting stimuli provided by computer games and other online activities. Kids with obsessive-compulsive disorders are very vulnerable to overuse of the Internet. Kids with depression can use the Internet to withdraw completely from family. Online gaming is particularly seductive for overuse. Status-seeking objectification by ratings and rankings. For those with fragile self-esteem who measure their worth by who they know and how they rank, the Internet offers superficial value through artificial measures such as number of friends on online networks, hits on ones profile, website or video, photo ratings and hot-or-not rankings. Kids (and vulnerable adults) can overrely on superficial connections to feel good about themselves. Adapted from http://www.incredibleinternet.com/user_files/file_84.pdf 4.3 Transportation technology Milestone in Transportation On the Road 6500 B.C. The wheel is invented by the Sumerians. 3500 Animals pull wheeled vehicles in Mesopotamia. The wheelbarrow is invented by the Chinese. A.D. 1769 The first steam-powered vehicle, with three wheels, is invented in France. 1791 The bicycle is invented in Scotland. 1792 The ambulance is created for Napoleon's army. 1839 The electric car is invented in Scotland. 1869 The modern motorcycle is invented in Germany. 1871 The cable streetcar is invented in the United States. 1885 The first car with internal-cumbustion engine is invented in Germany. 1892 The first car is run by gasoline in the United States. 1892 The tractor is invented in the United States. 1893 The license plate is invented in France.

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1895 The diesel engine is invented in Germany. 1905 The hybrid car is invented in the United States. 1908 The Model T car is the first car mass produced on an assembly line in the United States. 1923 The traffic signal is invented in the United States. 1959 The seat belt is invented in Sweden. 1980 Rollerblades are invented in the United States. 2001 The Segway human transporter is invented in the United States. On the Rails 1769 The steam engine is invented in Scotland. 1804 The steam-powered locomotive is invented in England. 1825 The railway is invented in England. 1964 The bullet train is invented in Japan. 1983 The TGV (Train Grande Vitesse) is invented in France In the air1783 The hot-air balloon is invented in France. 1783 The parachute is invented in France. 1852 The dirigible is invented in France. 1900 The zeppelin is invented in Germany. 1903 The first propellor airplane is invented in the United States. 1911 The first hydroplane is invented in the United States. 1926 The rocket is invented in the United States. 1930 The jet engine is invented in England. 1936 The double-rotor helicopter is invented in Germany. 1939 The jet is invented in Germany. 1940 The single-rotor helicopter is invented in Russia and the United States. 1955 The hovercraft is invented in England. 1969 The Concorde supersonic passenger airplane is invented in England. 1970 The jumbo jet is invented in Germany and England. 1981

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The first solar-powered airplane is invented in the United States. 1981 The first space shuttle, Columbia, is launched in the United States. 2006 The Airbus 380 superjumbo jet, the world's largest passenger plane, is developed in France. 2007 Boeing begins rollout of the 787 Dreamliner, a smaller, quieter, and more efficient challenger to the Airbus 380. It is the world's first commercial airliner to be built mainly of composite materials. From http://www.factmonster.com/science/inventions/water.html 4.5 Space Technology Space technology is technology that is related to entering, and retrieving objects or life forms from space. "Every day" technologies such as weather forecasting, remote sensing, GPS systems, satellite television, and some long distance communications systems critically rely on space infrastructure. Of sciences astronomy and Earth sciences (via remote sensing) most notably benefit from space technology. Computers and telemetry were once leading edge technologies that might have been considered "space technology" because of their criticality to boosters and spacecraft. They existed prior to the Space Race of the Cold War (between the USSR and the USA.) but their development was vastly accelerated to meet the needs of the two major superpowers' space programs. While still used today in spacecraft and missiles, the more prosaic applications such as remote monitoring (via telemetry) of patients, water plants, highway conditions, etc. and the widespread use of computers far surpasses their space applications in quantity and variety of application. Space is such an alien environment that attempting to work in it requires new techniques and knowledge. New technologies originating with or accelerated by space-related endeavors are often subsequently exploited in other economic activities. This has been widely pointed to as beneficial by space advocates and enthusiasts favoring the investment of public funds in space activities and programs. Political opponents counter that it would be far cheaper to develop specific technologies directly if they are beneficial and scoff at this justification for public expenditures on space-related research.

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_technology
Alphasat I-XL12 (telecommunications) One of the biggest commercial telecoms satellites ever launched Will deliver high-bandwith services to Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Africa Has five times the capacity of current space platforms Allows people to set up virtual offices anywhere around the world Although urbanised centres will always have superior wired communications, satellite-delivered services may be the only solution in more remote or temporary locations As a result, more capacity will be put into more areas, and speeds will be increased

6. Effects of Science & Technology

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BBC News. Available: < http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7109545.stm >. Cited 25 November 2007.

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6.1 How technology has shaped what we are today Technology offers mankind creation, comfort, civilization, choice, change or destruction (how we cut ourselves) in the following areas: Genetics Richard Seed, eugenics, Dolly, DNA, cloning, gene therapy Physics light year, Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Einstein, roentgen, quantum Tele-communications: - internet, surfing, e-filing, modem, mouse, virus Information Technology bits and bytes, smart card, ERP, robotics Medicine antibiotics, Cryogenics, nerve gas, in-vitro fertilisation Space Exploration Sputnik, Neil Armstrong, satellites, NASA 6.2 The other face of technology At the same time, technology inflicts destruction, depletion and damage in the following aspects: Short-term worldview shift towards materialism, focus on short-term gains Values-conflict rapid change, diversity of values, confusion and instability in individuals, societies and ethical systems Damaged environment pollution and depletion, deliberate or as side-effects Escalating war impact capacity for large scale destruction in war Cultural erosion common urban lifestyles, loss of cultural diversity Social ills developmental inequality and exploitation, lack of social amenities, poverty and illiteracy, crime and violence 6.3 Technology in the days to come Innovation in technology causes change, whether for gain or for loss. Man must strike a balance in his future dependence on technology. 6.4 Quotations on the impact of S&T The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty, and all forms of human life. John F. Kennedy Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men. Martin Luther King Jr. It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity. Albert Einstein Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards. Aldous Huxley Technology is so much fun but we can drown in our technology. Daniel J. Boorstin Science is one thing. Wisdom is another. Science is an edged tool, with which men play like children, and cut their own fingers. Our scientific power has outrun our spiritual power. We have guided missiles and misguided men. .our technology has exceeded our humanity. Man is a technological giant and a moral pygmy.

6.5 Analysing the impact of Science &Technology Technology & our future: .who wields the sword? Whose values? Whose agendas?

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Who takes responsibility? Who has power? Politicians, businessmen, intellectuals, artists, educators? Science and Technology have all the answers for todays problems Do you agree? Agree Problem International conflict Solutions 1 Internet global communication; sharing of ideas and views; openness in communication with disregard for race, ethnicity, nationality, cultural barrier. World is getting smaller, cooperation and unity possible in a global village.

2 Globalisation made possible by technological advances in improved transportation and communication networks. Thus less possibility of disputes due to greater international understanding e.g. global trade in any nations survival. Growing population, shrinking 1 Food technology advances point to a better life; food supply GM food guarantee higher yields, shorter maturing time and better nutrition Diseases 1 Medical advances burgeoning biotech industry destroy imperfections and provide cures to fatal diseases; better medicines result in longer lifespan and quality of life; better health care; new discoveries. Pollution and Greenhouse 1 Alternative sources of power hydroelectric, solar, effect nuclear power reduce environmental damage effected by 200 years of fossil fuel burning. Disagree Problem International conflict worsened by global implications because Science and Technology have produced more powerful and effective weapons e.g. ICBMs; fallout affects millions. Diseases build up resistance to drugs/antibiotics; new strains are more difficult to combat. Pollution and Greenhouse effect materialism and pollution enhanced by technological advances; handphones, computers, electronic appliances are discarded and thus pollute. Rich/poor gap worsened by Science and Technology because of the digital divide that has resulted. Religion/morality declining emphasis is exacerbated by progress of Science and Technology as they disprove ancient myths and beliefs that have provided humanity with spiritual guidance. [Further Singapore: How have scientific and technological developments affected the lives of Singaporeans?] 6.6 The Impact/Effects of Science and Technology The developments in Science and Technology, past and present, have revealed significant impact on our lives. research on

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In the past impact was felt in areas affected by machines, medicine, and weapons in warfare, to name a few. Machines: from beasts of burden to the steam engine to the electric engine. Medicines: from vaccination to anesthesia to vitamins to scanners to genetic engineering. Weapons in warfare: from spears to firearms to atomic bombs. In the present, are developments in nuclear technology, biometrics, artificial intelligence, cloning, and xenotransplantation. Nuclear technology: both for peaceful nuclear energy and nuclear weaponry. Biometrics: to identify people using their physical characteristics like face, fingerprint, and voice. Artificial Intelligence: smart machines and robots to behave like humans, commercial use in banks to organise their operations, and space exploration to planets. Cloning: create an identical copy of an original organism and therapeutic cloning where damaged organs are replaced. Xenotransplantation: of cells, tissues or organs from one species of animals to another, even man. 6.7 Impact/Effects of Science and Technology Diverging opinions: Optimists Science and Technology ensure progress; provide solutions to complex problems e.g. better quality food and greater access to knowledge Transformation of labour-intensive industries to capital and technology intensive industries Mass production methods are introduced Pessimists Science and Technology have been used for undemocratic, violent ends; there is abuse of human rights and environmental destruction Unemployment and social unrest in the interim period

Traditional and unique production methods and skills like craftwork Use in agriculture of higher quality Ecological and environmental effects as fertilizers, irrigation and harvesting a result of long-term use of fertilizers methods Better quality of crops and plants Genetic diversity limited because of tendency to use only certain strains Health benefits with better medication Common diseases spread as bacteria and sanitation strains become stronger. Bad sanitation in Third World countries Space technology benefits Wars new frontiers; weapons and surveillance Social activities change e.g. TV, Internet, Long-term social impact e.g. Myopia, less Computer games inter-personal skills and relationships Easier and quicker access to information Difficult monitoring of trash on the Net via Internet 6.8 Impact of Science & Technology Area of Impact Economy Industry Positive Impact Introduction of machines & robotics - greater precision and reliability - higher quality goods Negative Impact - increased unemployment more widespread retrenchment as machines replace workers - higher consumption of

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- increased efficiency - lowered cost of goods - fewer workers needed save time & money - greater variety and choice of items available

Communication

- quicker and more effective (mobile phones, internet, teleconferencing, Blackberrys, fax machines etc) - communication on the go - people are contactable 24/7 - benefits competitive world - families in different countries can keep in touch - global network of friends (Friendster, Facebook, MSN Spaces, blogs, podcasts etc.) and business contacts - time saving (internet instant source of information as compared to going to the library)

Transportation

- people are able to get around more quickly - more modes of transport available (land, sea, air) - catering to different budgets (budget airlines like Jetstar Asia, Air Asia vs. brand name carriers

fossil fuels to run machines - increased levels of pollution (by products of factories include sewage, chemical waste, etc.) - mass production of identical goods lacks uniqueness and individuality - intrusion to personal privacy - no clear demarcation of boundaries between work/personal life - anonymity on the internet not guaranteed (IP addresses can be traced etc.) - information overload sheer amount of information available on the internet requires more time to sift through - increased divide between the have and have-nots (countries with better telecommunications support have an advantage in terms of business, etc) - e.g. Indonesia has less than 1% of its citizens benefiting from high-speed internet13 - more online contact than face-to-face ones people unable to interact with others in real-life situations - abuse of connectivity (e.g. illegal song downloads, internet piracy, plagiarism, terror networks, pornography, internet scams, e-fraud, hacking, viruses etc.) - greater environmental pollution

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DigitalDivide.org. Available: < http://www.digitaldivide.org/dd/igadd.html >. Cited 9 July 2007.

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Physical environment

like Singapore Airlines etc.) - low cost housing made possible due to prefabrication of building blocks and labour effective machines (e.g. lifting cranes, excavators etc.) composite building materials buildings cheaper to build - solar powered buildings cut down utility bills more sophisticated equipment to predict natural disasters like tsunami warning system, hurricane warning system etc. - use of labour and timesaving appliances like dishwashers and microwave ovens women have more time to spend with family - time freed up for more women to go out to work

- increased logging for raw materials like timber - destruction of valuable forests and animal habitats - greater areas of forests destroyed in shorter amount of time due to more effective machines like bulldozers - aesthetic appeal of land is lost as more space is cleared to build buildings

Family institutions

Medicine

- increased knowledge of bodily functions/organs prolong human life potent vaccines developed that stem the onslaught of diseases (e.g. polio, tuberculosis) - computers introduced to field of medical diagnosis greater precision and accuracy, minimize human error - genetic engineering allows for modification of genetic structure treats diseases in unborn child

Moral values

- with both parents working, the care of children will be relegated to formal institutions e.g. child care centres - tendency for child to go astray as child spends less time with family - each spouse has greater emotional and financial dependence less inclination to hold on to marriage Possibility of abuses: - manipulation of genetic traits - danger of human beings being judged by their genetic structure - transmission of unknown genetic traits from donors because genetic screening is not 100% foolproof - legal status of child not genetically related to father commercialization of human reproduction process - controversial issues (e.g. sanctity of human life, playing God etc.) - materialism encouraged

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Agriculture

increased yield, production due to stronger fertilizers and pesticides developed - soil (fertilizers) and water control (irrigation) facilitates extensive agriculture - hardier and more fertile animals (genetics/cross breeding)

in technological society - values like honesty tend to decline with increasing materialism - culture of instant selfgratification produced - no exhaustive testing of such chemicals - wanton elimination of both harmful and useful insects - poses threat to human life because of possible contamination - chemicals sprayed on land pollutes land and rivers, killing human and aquatic life

- genetic engineering - make-up of food altered allows for more crops/unit -possible threats to wellarea and less disease being of humans which increases overall food supply for an everincreasing population - development of suitable crops for harsh environments - retrenchment of workers - faster, more efficient harvesting with use of efficient machinery - frees up human labour for other kinds of work Military dynamite originally conceived by inventor Nobel to aid in dangerous work like quarrying and tunneling nuclear energy conceived as alternative source of energy that is potentially cost-effective, environmentally friendly and inexhaustible - dynamite modified into practical and deadly weapons that claimed many lives during WWII - terrible consequences of radioactivity of nuclear energy newer and more destructive weapons constantly invented far outstrip the capabilities of the scientists to create shields against them - environmental pollution by nuclear particles when proper precautions are not taken due to the high costs of the initial setting up of such plants

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Religion

- the nature of science denies the unexplainable - no room for faith and religion - foundation of religious devotion is rocked and modern man is thrown into abyss of uncertainty - lack of stability in Mans life rush to embrace materialistic values at the expense of moral values & traditional beliefs in good and evil

7. Previous GCE A level questions Nov 1999 Q6 Can the transplanting of animal organs into human beings ever be justified? Nov 1999 Q7 Is a sound knowledge of science and technology essential for a well-educated person in todays world? Nov 2000 Q6 Science never provides solutions it only poses more problems. Is this a fair comment? Nov 2001 Q6 Examine the implications of cloning for the human race. Nov 2002 Q6 Science and religion will always conflict. Discuss. Nov 2003 Q5 Should medical science always seek to prolong life? Nov 2003 Q11 Does the modern world place too much reliance on technology? Nov 2004 Q4 How inventions and discoveries are used is not the concern of the scientist. Do you agree? Nov 2005 Q1 Is effective farming possible without science? Nov 2005 Q5 Medical science has been so successful that people now expect too much of it. Discuss. Nov 2006 Q3 Does modern technology always improve the quality of peoples lives? Nov 2007 Q11 Should research into expensive medical treatments be allowed when only a few can afford them?

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