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FundamentalsofLTE

Prof.JunZHANG ELEC5360 Dept.ofECE,HKUST

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Outline
Introduction DownlinkProcessing UplinkProcessing AdvancedTechniques
Mainreference:
A.Ghosh, J.Zhang,J.G.Andrews,andR.Muhamed, Fundamentalsof LTE,PrenticeHall,2010.

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CellularEvolution

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Krnet 2006, H.-W. LEE 3

EvolutionofCellularSystems
Standardsbodies 3GPP(The3rd Generation Partnership Project)

3GPP2

IEEE802.16

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(From3GAmerican,Transitionto4G)

GlobalMobileMarketShares4Q2011

64commercialnetworksin34countries 312operatorsareinvestinginLTEin98countries
GSAconfirmsLTEisthefastestdevelopingmobilesystemtechnologyever.
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LTEAroundYou
MobiledeviceswithLTEsupport

LTEnetworksinHongKong
CSL (Nov.2010) ChinaMobileHongKong(Apr.2012) Hutchison3(May2012) PCCW (May2012)
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WhatisLTE?
Separablenetworkstructurein3GPP
RadioAccessNetwork(RAN)+CoreNetwork(CN)

LTE (LongTermEvolution):Theprojectfocusingonenhancingthe3G
RAN,andoptimizing3GPPsoverallradioaccessarchitecture

EPC (EvolvedPacketCore):TheprojectfocusingontheCNevolution
withapacketbasedarchitecture

EPS (EvolvedPacketSystem):Thecompletepacketsystemconsisting
ofLTEandEPC

RAN
Radio interface ELEC5360
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3GNetwork

LTENetwork

TheRoadtoLTE PerformanceEvolutionof3GPPStandards

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MotivationsforLTE
Needtoensurethecontinuityofcompetitivenessofthe3G systemforthefuture Userdemandforhigherdataratesandqualityofservice PacketSwitchoptimizedsystem Continueddemandforcostreduction(CAPEXandOPEX) Lowcomplexity Avoidunnecessaryfragmentationoftechnologiesforpaired andunpairedbandoperation

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KeyFeaturesofLTE
Highspectralefficiency
OFDMinDownlink,frequencydomainchanneldependentscheduling DFTSOFDM(SingleCarrierFDMA)inUplink,LowPAPR,User orthogonalityinfrequencydomain Multiantenna(MIMO)transmission

Verylowlatency
Shortsetuptime&Shorttransferdelay Shorthandoverlatencyandinterruptiontime

Supportofvariablebandwidth
1.4,3,5,10,15and20MHz

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KeyFeaturesofLTE
Simpleprotocolarchitecture
Sharedchannelbased PS(packetswitch)modeonlywithVoIPcapability

SimpleArchitecture
eNodeBastheonlyEUTRANnode SmallernumberofRANinterfaces

Compatibilityandinterworkingwithearlier 3GPP Releases Interworkingwithothersystems,e.g.cdma2000 FDDandTDDwithinasingleradioaccesstechnology EfficientMulticast/Broadcast


SinglefrequencynetworkbyOFDM

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NetworkArchitectureofLTE

UE:mobileterminal eNodeB:basestation
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MME:Mobilitymanagemententity ServingGW:Servinggateway PDNGW:Packetdatanetworkgateway

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RadioInterfaceProtocols
Asothercommunicationstandards,theLTEradiointerfaceis designedbasedonalayeredprotocolstack

LTE Protocol Stack

The Packet Flow in the User Plane

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LayeredProtocolStack
PacketDataConvergenceProtocol(PDCP)
IPpacketheadercompressionanddecompression Cipheringofdataandsignaling,integrityprotectionforsignaling

RadioLinkControl(RLC)
Segmentationandconcatenationofdataunits ErrorcorrectionthroughARQ,insequencedeliveryofpackets

MediumAccessControl(MAC)
ErrorcorrectionthroughHybridARQ Dynamicscheduling,transportformatselection

PhysicalLayer(PHY)
Actualtransmissionandreception,channelmeasurements SignalingofHARQfeedback,signalingscheduledallocations
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RadioInterfaceProtocol
AnIPpacketflowwitha definedQoS between thePDNGWandtheUE Whattotransmit:defined basedonthetypeof informationitcarries Howtotransmit: characterizedbyhowand withwhatcharacteristics dataistransferred

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HierarchicalChannelStructure
LogicalChannels:WhattoTransmit ProvideservicestotheRLC Logicalcontrolchannels
BroadcastControlChannel(BCCH) MulticastControlChannel(MCCH) PagingControlChannel(PCCH) CommonControlChannel(CCCH) DedicatedControlChannel(DCCH)

Logicaltrafficchannels
DedicatedTrafficChannel(DTCH) MulticastTrafficChannel(MTCH)
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HierarchicalChannelStructure
TransportChannels:HowtoTransmit
ProvideservicestotheMAC Downlinktransportchannels
Downlinksharedchannel(DLSCH) Broadcastchannel(BCH) Multicastchannel(MCH) Pagingchannel(PCH)

Uplinktransportchannels
Uplinksharedchannel(ULSCH) Randomaccesschannel(RACH)

Controlinformation
Downlinkcontrolinformation(DCI) Controlformatindicator(CFI) HARQIndicator(HI) UplinkControlInformation(UCI)
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HierarchicalChannelStructure
PhysicalChannels:ActualTransmission
Correspondtoasetofresourceelements Downlinkphysicalchannels
Physicaldownlinkcontrolchannel(PDCCH) Physicaldownlinksharedchannel(PDSCH) Physicalbroadcastchannel(PBCH) Physicalmulticastchannel(PMCH) PhysicalhybridARQindicatorchannel(PHICH) Physicalcontrolformatindicatorchannel(PCFICH)

Uplinkphysicalchannels
Physicaluplinkcontrolchannel(PUCCH) Physicaluplinksharedchannel(PUSCH) Physicalrandomaccesschannel(PRACH)

Physicalsignals
Referencesignal Synchronizationsignal
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HierarchicalChannelStructure

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DownlinkProcessing

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DownlinkOFDMARadioResource
WhyOFDM?
OFDMisefficientincombatingthefrequencyselectivefadingchannel, whichmakesitasuitabletechniqueforwirelessbroadbandsystems suchasLTE ItispossibletoexploitfrequencyselectiveschedulingwithOFDM basedmultipleaccess OFDMA ThetransceiverstructureofOFDMwithFFT/IFFTenablesscalable bandwidthoperation withalowcomplexity OFDMmakesitmucheasiertosupportmultiantennatransmission OFDMenablesmulticast/broadcastservices onasynchronizedsingle frequencynetwork

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TimeDomain FrameStructure
FrameStructureType1(ForFDD)

CP(CyclicPrefix) NormalCP:forurbanenvironmentandhighdatarateapplications ExtendedCP:formulticellmulticast/broadcastandverylargecells


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TimeDomain FrameStructure
FrameStructureType2(ForTDD)

Specialfields DwPTS(DownlinkPilotTimeSlot),GP(GuardPeriod),UpPTS(UplinkPilotTimeSlot) Providelargeguardperiodtoswitchbetweentransmissionandreception


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PhysicalResourceBlocksforOFDMA

Eachresourceblockis180kHzinthe frequencydomain,and 0.5msinthe timedomain (oneslot) Theresourceblockisthebasic elementforradioresourceallocation Theminimumsizeofradioresource thatcanbeallocatedisone subframeof1ms,correspondingto tworesourceblocks
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TypicalParametersforDLTransmission

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DLTransportChannelProcessing

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ChannelCoding
Provideerror detection Preventexcessive complexityandmemory requirementfordecoding

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ChannelCoding

Rate1/3tailbiting convolutionencoder

Rate1/3turboencoder

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RateMatching
Ratematchingperformsinterleaving,repetitionorpuncturing togenerateatransportblockthatfitsthepayloadsize

Interlacing:guarantee equalnumberofparity 1andparity2bits

Thevirtual circularbuffer

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Modulation
Scrambing beforemodulation

Coded sequence

Scrambing sequence

Torandomizeintercellinterference

Modulationschemesfordifferentphysicalchannels
Fordata transmission

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MIMOModesinDL
7differenttransmissionmodes
Singleantennaport(port0):singleantennatransmission Transmitdiversity Openloop(OL)spatialmultiplexing Closedloop(CL)spatialmultiplexing MIMOModes CLMIMO MultiuserMIMO Modes Closedlooprank1precoding Singleantennaport(port5):beamforming

Antennaconfiguration
Baseline:2@Base,2@UE Higherorder:upto4@Base,4@UE
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LayerMappingandPrecoding
LayermappingandprecodingareforMIMOmodes
ThelayermappermapsNc codewordstov spatiallayers Theprecodermapsthev layerstoP antennaports

Thistwostepapproachallowstheinclusionofprocessingof alltheMIMOmodesinasingleframework

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LayerMappingandPrecoding
Codeword
Theoutputofeachchannelcoding/ratematchingstageassociated withasingletransportblockcomingfromtheMAClayer InLTE,limitedtotwocodewords

Layer
Correspondtoadatastreamofthespatialmultiplexingchannel Eachcodewordismappedintooneormultiplelayers,sov>=Nc

Antennaport
Alogicalentity,maynotcorrespondtoanactualphysicalantenna Antennaports03arecellspecific,usedforDLMIMO Antennaport4isformulticast/broadcastservices Antennaport5isusedforbeamforming toasingleUE
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Codewordtolayermappingforspatialmultiplexing

SupportedMIMOModesforDifferentPhysicalChannels

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OLTransmitDiversity
Fortwoantennaports
SpaceFrequencyBlockCode(SFBC) SimilartotheAlamouticode,indexedinthefrequencydomain

Forfourantennaports
SFBC combinedwithFrequencySwitchedTransmitDiversity(FSTD) Diversityorderis2

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OLSpatialMultiplexing

W(i):codebookbasedprecoding matrix
Providedecorrelation betweendifferentspatialstreams

D(i):tosupportlargedelaycyclicdelaydiversity U:afixedunitaryDFTbasedprecoding matrix D(i)Ueffectivelymakessurethatalllayersundergothesame channelquality


ThisreducessignalingoverheadasonlyasingleCQIneedstobefed back Alsoprovidesincreasedrobustnessagainstimperfectlinkadaptation
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OLSpatialMultiplexing

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CLMIMOTechniques
CLMIMOrequiresexplicitfeedback
Rankindication(RI),precodermatrixindex(PMI)

CLSpatialMultiplexing
EachUEfeedsbacktheindexoftheprecoder(PMI)

CLRank1Precoding(RI=1)
AspecialcaseofCLspatialmultiplexing

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CodebookforCLMIMO
For2antennaports

For4antennaports
ThecodebookusesaHouseholdergeneratingfunction theinputvectorsaregiveninthestandard
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MUMIMOinDL
In3GPPRelease8,thereisalimitedsupport forMUMIMOin thedownlink TheprecoderforMUMIMOisthesameasthatfortherank1 precoding TheeNodeBtransmitstotwoUEssimultaneouslywitharank 1precoderforeachUE Mutualinterferencecanbesuppressedduringthescheduling processbyselectingUEswithnearorthogonalchannel directions,orwithadvancedinterferencecancelationatthe UE

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OFDMASignalGeneration

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DownlinkSharedChannels

DownlinkSharedChannel(DLSCH)carriersbothtrafficandcontroldata fromlogicalchannels
Modulation:QPSK,16QAM,64QAM Encoder:rate1/3convolutionalturbocode MIMOmodes:all7transmissionmodes

Sharedchanneltransmission
ThePHYlayerresourcesaretreatedasacommonresourcethatcanbe dynamicallysharedamongdifferentUEs Enabledynamicscheduling

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DownlinkControlChannels

DownlinkControlInformation(DCI)
10differentDCIformats(schedulinginformation,modulationandcoding scheme,etc.) DCIformat0,foruplinktransmission DCIformat1/1A/1B/1C/1D,fordownlinktransmissionwithonecodeword withoutspatialmultiplexing DCIformat2and2A,fordownlinktransmissionwithspatialmultiplxing DCIformat3and3Acarrytransmitpowercontrolcommandsfortheuplink Coding:rate1/3convolutioncode Modulation:QPSK CarriedonPDCCH,locatedinthefirstnOFDMsymbolsofeachsubframe

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DownlinkControlChannels

ControlFormatIndicator(CFI)
IndicateshowmanyOFDMsymbolstheDCIspans TheCFItakesvaluesof1,2,or3 CFIismappedtoPCFICHinthefirstOFDMsymbolofthesubframe Encoder:rate1/16linearblockcode Modulation:QPSK ForHARQacknowledgementinresponsetouplinktransmission HI=1forpositiveack,HI=0fornegativeack Encoder:rate1/3repetitioncode Modulation:BPSK
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HARQIndicator(HI)

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BroadcastChannels
Carrysysteminformationsuchasdownlinksystembandwidth, antennaconfiguration,referencesignalpower Dividedintotwoportions
MasterInformationBlock(MIB)transmittedonPBCH SystemInformationBlock(SIB)transmittedonPDSCH

Encoder:rate1/3convolutional code Modulation:QPSK Resourcemapping:


Modulatedsymbolsaremappedontothe72subcarrierscentered aroundtheDCsubcarrierinslot1insubframe 0during4consecutive radioframes Independentofbandwidthandduplexmode,allowsUEstodecode withoutanypriorknowledge

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MulticastChannels
MultimediaBroadcastandMulticastServices(MBMS) supportsmulticast/broadcastservices LTEprovidesenhancedsupportfortheMBMStransmission
EnhancedMBMS(EMBMS) AchievedthroughSingleFrequencyNetwork(SFN)operation Multicellmulticast/broadcasttransmissionsappearasasingle transmissionoveramultipathchannel OFDMisefficientin combatingmultipathchannels Onlysingleantennaporttransmissionissupported(antennaport4) Thereducedsubcarrierspaceof7.5kHzisdefined ExtendedCP

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DownlinkPhysicalSignals
Downlinkreferencesignals:
forchannelestimation thatenablescoherentdemodulationandfor channelqualitymeasurementtoassistuserscheduling Cellspecificreferencesignals,associatedwithnonMBSFN transmission MBSFNreferencesignals,associatedwithMBSFNtransmission UEspecificreferencesignals,supportsingleantennaport transmission

SynchronizationSignals
Primarysynchronizationsignal Secondarysynchronizationsignal Enableacquisitionofsymboltimingandtheprecisefrequency

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CellSpecificReferenceSignal
Cellspecificreference signalsaredefined separatelyforantenna ports0,1,2,and3 Referencesignalson differentantennasare orthogonaltoeach other Antennaports0and1 havetwiceasmany referencesymbolsas ports2and3

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SynchronizationSignals
Primarysynchronizationsignal:carrythephysicallayerIDwithinthecell IDgroup Secondarysynchronizationsignal:carrythephysicallayercellIDgroup

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UplinkProcessing

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UplinkSCFDMARadioResource
WhySCFDMAintheuplink?
SCFDMApossessesmostofthemeritsofOFDM SCFDMAhasalowerPAPR(peakaveragepowerratio), whichishighlydesirableintheuplinkaslessexpensive poweramplifiersareneededatUEs AnSCFDMAtransceiverhasasimilarstructureasOFDM, sotheparametrizationofradioresourceinULenjoys similaritiestoDL
SCFDMAsymbols,SCFDMAcarriers

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PhysicalResourceBlocksforSCFDMA
SCFDMAcanberegardedas conventionalOFDMwitha DFTbasedprecoder Theresourcegridissimilarto DL
SCFDMAsymbols SCFDMAcarriers

Onlyonesubcarrierspacing: 15kHz Noantennaportisdefined,as onlysingleantenna transmissionissupported

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PHYLayerProcessing
SpatialmultiplexingisnotsupportedintheUL

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CodingandModulation
ChannelCoding
SimilartoDL Uplinksharedchannel(ULSCH):rate1/3turbocode Controlinformation:blockcodeorconvolutionalcode

Modulation
ULSCHsupportsQPSK,16QAM,64QAM QPSKand16QAMaremandatory,64QAMisoptional

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MIMOModes
LimitedMIMOsupportinULduetocomplexity/cost TransmitAntennaSelection
Noantennaselection:UEshalltransmitfromantennaport0 CLantennaselection:basedoncommandsfromeNodeB(inDCI) OLantennaselection:mayselectantennabasedonHARQfeedbacks

MUMIMOinUL
AlsoreferredtoasvirtualMIMO TwoUEstransmitsimultaneouslyonthesameradioresource Providesspatialmultiplexinggain,evenwithsingleantennaUEs Orthogonalreferencesignalsareassignedtoeachof2UEs

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SCFDMASignalGeneration

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UplinkSharedChannels

UplinkSharedChannel(ULSCH)istheonlytransportchannelcarrying trafficdataintheUL Encoder:1/3turboencoder Modulation:QPSK,16QAM,64QAM(optional) MIMOModes:antennaselection,MUMIMO


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FrequencyHopping
ProvidefrequencydiversitygaininUL Intrasubframe andintersubframe frequencyhopping

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UplinkControlInformation
UplinkControlInformation(UCI)providesfollowinginformation
DownlinkCQI (channelqualityindicator):foradaptivemodulationand coding,channeldependentscheduling HARQacknowledgement (HARQACK):fordownlinkHARQprocess SchedulingRequest(SR):torequestradiosourcesforULtransmission PMIandRI:forDLMIMOtransmission

Withoutuplinkresourceallocation,UCIistransmittedon PUCCH Withuplinkresourceallocation,UCIisfrequencymultiplexed withtheULSCHdataonPUSCH

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UplinkControlInformation ChannelCodingandModulation
Differenttypesofcontrolinformationareencodeddifferently
e.g.,forUCIonPUCCH
CQI/PMIareencodedwithlinearblockcode HARQACK,encodedas1or0 CQI/PMI+HARQACK,linearblockcode

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UplinkControlInformation ResourceMapping
PUCCHistimedivisionmultiplexedwiththePUSCHfromthe sameUE PUCCHcanbefrequencydivisionmultiplexedwiththePUSCH fromotherUEs PUCCHistransmittedatthebandwidth edge,toprovidecontiguousbandwidth fordatatransmission Theintrasubframefrequencyhopping providesfrequencydiversity

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UplinkReferenceSignals
LTEdefinestwotypesofreferencesignalsinUL
Demodulationreferencesignals:forcoherentdemodulation,defined forbothPUSCHandPUCCH Soundingreferencesignals:widebandreferencesignalsformeasuring ULchannelqualityforuplinkresourceallocation Whytwotypes? DemodulationreferencesignalsinULonlytransmittedonthe subcarriersassignedtoUEs,cannotprovidesufficientwideband channelqualityinformation

ReferencesignalsinULcannotbetransmittedatthesame timewithuserdata(ConsideringPAPR)

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UplinkReferenceSignals ResourceMapping
DemodulationreferencesignalsforPUSCH Soundingreferencesignals

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RandomAccessChannels
RandomaccessisforinitialaccessorreestablishUL synchronization Randomaccesspreamble:

Nointracellinterferencefrommultiplerandomaccess attemptsusingdifferentpreambles(ZadoffChusequences) Infrequencydomain,randomaccessoccupiessixconsecutive resourceblocks(72subcarriers)

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AdvancedTechniques

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HARQ
HARQ(HybridAutomaticRepeatreQuest):improvereliability
Combinesforwarderrorcorrection(FEC)andretransmission(ARQ) TypeIHARQ(chasecombining):retransmissionisidenticaltothefirst transmission TypeIIHARQ(incrementalredundancy):retransmissionprovides differentredundancy InLTE,rate1/3turbocodingisusedastheFECcodewhileaCRCis appliedforerrordetection Atthetransmitter:each(re)transmission,thesameturbocodeddata istransmittedwithdifferentpuncturing,i.e.,differentredundancy version Atthereceiver:decodethereceivedcodeblockcombinedwith previouslyreceivedversions
Noerrordetected,thenfeedbackACK Errordetected,feedbackNACK ELEC5360
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HARQ
TimeintervalbetweentwosuccessiveHARQtransmission
Typically8msecinLTE

Toavoidwaitingtime,anNchannelStopandWaitprotocolis used,consistingofNparallelHARQprocesses

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HARQ
DL:AsynchronousAdaptiveHARQ
HARQprocessescanbetransmittedinanyorderwithoutfixedtiming Provideshigherthroughputwithreschedulingorchanging modulation/coding AvoidpotentialcollisionofHARQretransmissionswithhighpriority schedulingtransmissions,e.g.,persistentscheduling Requiresmoreoverhead,e.g.,redundancyversion,etc

UL:SynchronousHARQ
Retransmissionsarescheduledonaperiodicinterval RequiresnoexplicitsignalingforHARQprocessnumber Dependsontheduplexing modeandHARQoperationtypes

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AdaptiveCodingandModulation(AMC)
AMCistotakeadvantageoffluctuationsinthechannelover timeandfrequency,i.e.,exploitingfading
Transmitashighadatarateaspossiblewhenandwherethe channel isgood Transmitatalowerratewhenandwherethechannelispoor Requiresknowledgeofinstantaneouschannelinformation

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AdaptiveCodingandModulation(AMC)
ApossiblerealizationofAMC
WithAMC,we approachthe Shannoncapacity within24dB

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SchedulingandResourceAllocation
Objective:toefficientlyallocatetheavailableradioresource toUEs Channelindependentscheduling
Theallocationisrandomandnotbasedonchannelcondition,e.g., roundrobinscheduling

Channeldependentscheduling
Theallocationisbasedonchannelcondition,e.g.,proportional fairnessscheduler,maxCI(carriertointerference)scheduler Frequencydiversescheduling:randominfrequencydomain,exploit timeselectivityandfrequencydiversity Frequencyselectivescheduling:exploitbothtimeandfrequency selectivity ofthechannel

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SchedulingandResourceAllocation
Resourceassignmentconsistsofresourceblocks(RB)and modulationandcodingschemes(MCS)
Dependsheavilyonchannelinformation ForDL:providedbyuplinkCQIfeedback ForUL:bychannelsoundingattheeNodeB

DLsupportsbothlocalizedanddistributedresourceallocations
Distributedallocationsprovidebetterperformancewithhighoverhead Localizedallocationprovideslowoverheadalternative

ULonlysupportslocalizedallocation
Preservesinglecarrierproperty Exploitmultiuserdiversityinthefrequencydomain

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SchedulingandResourceAllocation MultiuserDiversityGain
ForiidRayleighfadingchannels,withopportunisticscheduling
Sumcapacity~loglog(K)

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CQIFeedback
CQI(ChannelQualityIndicator)fromUE
Indicatesasuitabledownlinktransmissiondatarate,i.e.,aModulation andCodingScheme(MCS) BasedontheobservedSINRattheUE

Widebandvs.SubbandCQI
WidebandCQI:overtheentirechannelbandwidth,donotsupport frequencyselectivescheduling SubbandCQI:consistsofavectorofCQIvalueseachrepresenting SINRoverasubband,enables frequencyselectivescheduling

Tradeoff betweenDLperformanceandULbandwidth consumption

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CQIEstimation
TheUEcomputesSINRsamplesovermultipleOFDMsymbols andsubcarrierstocalculateaneffectiveSINR

I(.)mapstheSINRtoaperformancemetric

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CQIIndex
BasedoneffectiveSINR,theUEpickstheCQIindexthat indicatesthehighestMCSlevelthatcanbesupportedwitha 10%blockerrorrate

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CQIFeedbackModes
Tworeportingmodesinthetimedomain
Periodicreporting:theUEreportsCQI,PMI,andRIwithreporting periodsconfiguredbythehigherlayer Aperiodicreporting:canbeusedtoprovidelargeandmoredetail reportinginasinglereportinginstanceviaPUSCH

ForsubbandCQIfeedback
Inperiodicreporting
TheUEcyclesthroughdifferentsubbandsfromonereportinginstancetothe next,toreduceoverhead

Inaperiodicreporting
Higherlayerconfiguredsubbandreporting:UEreportsthesubbandCQIfor eachbandinasinglefeedbackreport UEselectedsubbandreport:UEreportsthesubbandCQIfortheMbands withthehighestCQIvalues
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CQIFeedbackModes
10MHzFDD

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CellSearchorSynchronization
WhenaUEpowerson
Itneedstoacquiretimeandfrequencysynchronizationwithacelland detectthephysicallayercellIDofthatcellthroughthecellsearch procedure

LTEusesahierarchicalcellsearchscheme

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RandomAccessProcedure
Cellsearch providesdownlinksynchronization Randomaccess enablesuplinksynchronization,notifiesthe eNodeBthattheUEhasdatatotransmit,ortransmitasmall amountofcontrolinformationanddatapackets

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PowerControlinUplink
InLTE,orthogonaltransmissioninULremovesintracell interference
Nonearfarproblem Intercellinterferenceisthemajorissue PowercontrolinUL

ObjectiveofPowerControl
Tocontrolinterferencecausedtoneighboringcells,whilemaintaining therequiredSINR attheservingcell

FractionalPowerControl(FPC)
Allowsfullorpartialcompensationofpathlossandshadowing AllowsedgeUEstooperateatlowerSINR,withlessinterferenceto othercells

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PowerControlinUplink
PowercontrolforPUSCH
Openloop component+closedloop component

Openloopcomponent:FractionalPowerControl(FPC)
M:#resourceblocks,P0:meanreceivedSINR :pathlosscompensationfactor(=1,channelinversion,a=0,noPC)

Openloop+closedloop
f(.)performsclosedlooppowercontrol Accumulated: Absolute:

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IntercellInterference(ICI)Coordination
ICIrandomization
Scramblethecodeword afterchannelencodingwithapseudorandom sequence Interferencesuppressionisachievedthroughchannelcodinggain

ICIcancellation
Decodetheinterferingsignalsfirst,andthensubtractthem Achievedwithmultiuserdetection,ormultipleantennas

ICIcoordination/avoidance
Applyrestrictionstotheresourcemanagementinacoordinatedway betweenneighboringcells

CoordinatedMultiPoint(CoMP)Transmission/Reception
Alsocalledbasestationcoordination,multicellprocessing Havegreatpotential,butnotsupportedinLTE
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IntercellInterference(ICI)Coordination
Example:
Possibledownlinkpowerlevelsofthreeneighboringcells.Edgeusersin eachcellwouldbeallocatedtothehigherpowerlevels.

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Related3GPPSpecifications
3GPPTS36.201,EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA); LTEPhysicalLayer GeneralDescription. 3GPPTS36.211,EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA); Physicalchannelsandmodulation. 3GPPTS36.212,EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA); Multiplexingandchannelcoding. 3GPPTS36.213,EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA); PhysicalLayerProcedures. 3GPPTS36.321,EvolvedUniversalTerrestrialRadioAccess(EUTRA); MediumAccessControl(MAC)protocolspecification. Availableonhttp://www.3gpp.org/specificationnumbering

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