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10.

4: EVEN AND ODD FUNCTIONS


KIAM HEONG KWA

1. The Fourier Cosine and Sine Series It is often desired to expand in a Fourier series of period 2L a function f (x) originally dened only on either one of the intervals (0, L), (0, L], [0, L), and [0, L]. One way this can be done is the following. We rst extend f (x) to a new function onto either one of the intervals (L, L), (L, L], [L, L), and [L, L]. Then the new function is extended periodically onto the real line R. Of particular simplicity and applicability to us later are the following two extensions: The even extension of f (x). Let (1.1) g (x) = f (x) if 0 x L, f (x) if L < x < 0.

Then we require that g (x + 2L) = g (x) for all x R. The function g (x) is called the even extension of f (x). The odd extension of f (x). Let if 0 < x < L, f (x) (1.2) h(x) = 0 if x = 0, L, f (x) if L < x < 0. Then we require that h(x + 2L) = h(x) for all x R. The function h(x) is called the odd extension of f (x). See the appendix for some important properties of even and odd functions. The Fourier series of an extension of f (x) converges to f (x) almost everywhere in the sense that the series converges to f (x) in the original interval except possibly at a nite number of points.
Let g (x) be the even extension of f (x). Let {an } n=0 and {bn }n=1 be the Fourier coecients of g (x). Then

an =

1 L

g (x) cos
L

nx 2 dx = L L

f (x) cos
0

nx dx, n = 0, 1, 2, , L

Date : February 12, 2011.


1

KIAM HEONG KWA

and 1 bn = L
L

g (x) sin
L

nx dx = 0, n = 1, 2, 3, , L

nx nx is even and g (x) sin is odd. We dene the L L Fourier series F [g ](x) of g (x) to be the Fourier cosine series Fc [f ](x) of f , i.e., we set Fc [f ](x) = F [g ](x). Explicitly, because g (x) cos (1.3) where 2 an = L
L

Fc [f ](x) =

a0 nx + an cos , 2 L n=1

f (x) cos
0

nx dx, n = 0, 1, 2, . L

Likewise, if h(x) is the odd extension of f (x), we dene the Fourier series F [h](x) of h(x) to be the Fourier sine series Fs [f ](x) of f (x), i.e., we set Fs [f ](x) = F [h](x). Explicitly,

(1.4) where

Fs [f ](x) =
n=1

bn sin

nx , L

bn =

2 L

f (x) sin
0

nx dx, n = 1, 2, 3, . L

Remark 1. It is sometimes desired that the function f (x) be represented by a Fourier series of period L. In this case, we extend f (x) to the function (1.5) k (x) = f (x), 0 x < L,

and require that k (x + L) = k (x) for all x R. Then the Fourier series F [k ](x) of k (x) approximates f (x) inside the original interval. See problem 20 for an example.

10.4: EVEN AND ODD FUNCTIONS

Appendix A. Even and Odd Functions Recall that a function f (x) is called even on an interval I, where I is either one of the intervals (L, L), (L, L], [L, L), and [L, L], if (A.1) f (x) = f (x) for almost all x I in the sense that (A.1) holds for all x I except possibly at a nite number of points. Geometrically, the graph of f (x) over the interval I is symmetric about the y -axis for the most part in this case. Likewise, a function g (x) is called odd on the interval I if (A.2) g (x) = g (x) for almost all x I. Geometrically, the graph of g (x) over the interval I is symmetric about the origin for the most part in this case. Some useful properties of even and odd functions are as follows. The product of two odd functions is an even function. The product of two even functions is an even function. The product of an odd function and an even function is an odd function. L L If f (x) is an even function on I, then L f (x) dx = 2 0 f (x) dx. L If g (x) is an odd function on I, then L g (x) dx = 0.