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Schlumberger

Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

Exercise 1

Analyzing Well Performance

You will run Nodal analysis that is part of well performance analysis, based on the principle that the completion and production system can be divided into two sub-systems: reservoir inflow and wellbore outflow. To analyze well performance: 1. Create the well model shown here using well schematics and data listed in the table.

Reservoir Data Static Pressure (Pws) Temperature Model type Vogel Coefficient Test Flow rate Test BHP 1,700 psia 240 degF Vogels Equation 0.8 300 STB/day 1,400 psia Wellbore Data (use detailed model) Tubing ID Tubing Depth Perforation Depth Wellhead ambient temp 3.958 in 6,000 ft 6,000 ft 60 degF

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Fluid Data Water Cut GOR Oil gravity Gas SG Water SG Bubble Point Calibration 24% 200 scf/STB 28 API 0.87 1.03 Sat. Gas 200 scf/STB 3,200 psia 240 degF

2. Select Operations > Nodal Analysis. 3. Click the Limits button. 4. Choose the option Limit the outflow curves to lie within the pressure range of the inflow curves. 5. Set the outlet pressure to 200 psia and run the Nodal Analysis operation. 6. Report the current behavior of the well. 7. Estimate the amount of pressure boost required from an artificial lift solution. Is the well producing naturally? What is the absolute open flow potential (STB/d)? What is the DP required to achieve the production target (psi)?

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

Exercise 2

Designing a Tapered String Rod Pump

A tapered design is the most common configuration for a rod string longer than about 3,500 feet. This design uses combinations of rods with different diameters, installed with the largest diameter rod at the top and the smallest rod at the bottom. PIPESIM automatically selects and recommends rod size distribution and respective length based on stress loading. To design a tapered string rod pump: 1. In the PIPESIM window, launch the Rod Pump Design interface by selecting Artificial Lift > Rod Pump > Rod Pump Design. 2. View the Well Information tab for data pulled in from the base PIPESIM model.

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3. Choose surface and downhole equipment on the Equipment Selection tab shown in the figure.

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

4. On the Design Control tab, specify these parameters: Target production rate Pump depth Operating conditions Downhole separator.

5. Click Run Design. 6. Analyze the design results and plots and then enter the data in the table.
Selected pump Pump intake pressure Pump discharge pressure DP across pump Nominal flow rate at pump Required power Number of rod strings Net pump efficiency % psia psia psi bbl/d hp

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Exercise 3

Designing with a User-Specified Rod String

Frequently, the pump design is based on available rod strings and other equipment from inventory. For this exercise, assume a 1-2/8 rod string is available. To design a pump with a user-specified rod string: 1. On the Equipment Selection tab, include a user-specified single rod string of 1-2/8 inch. 2. Leave all other settings on the Equipment Selection tab unchanged from Exercise 2. Is the Pumping Unit (LC640D-256-144) good enough for new rod string?

3. Choose a new pumping unit from the user inventory Lufkin Conventional LC 640D-305-144.

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

4. Perform a redesign and report the following results:


Selected pump Pump intake pressure Pump discharge pressure DP across the pump (psi) Nominal flow rate at the pump Required power Number of rod strings Net pump efficiency % psia psia psi bbl/d hp

5. Check the stress loading calculation for the rod string. Is the rod string suitable for the application? What is the stress loading? (%)

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Exercise 4

PIPESIM Rod Pump Simulation

PIPESIM allows rod pumps to be defined in the Downhole Equipment tab of the Tubing Editor (detailed tubing model only). This allows you to simulate rod pumped wells for standard well performance and perform network analysis in PIPESIM. 1. Open the PIPESIM Tubing Editor and convert the tubing model to display in detailed mode. 2. Specify Rod Pump at a pump setting depth of 5,500 ft.

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

3. Configure properties in the Rod Pump dialog based on the results obtained from Exercise 3.

4. Perform Nodal Analysis or a Pressure Temperature Profile. 5. Report the results. What is the production rate (STB/d)? Pump Power (hp)? 6. Save the model as rodpump.bps.

Questions
These questions are for discussion and review. Why use a tapered rod string? What are the factors affecting rod pump efficiency? How does rod size impact the pumping unit selection?

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Lesson 2

Progressive Cavity Pump Overview

Progressive cavity pumps (PCPs) are a special type of rotary positive displacement pumps, sometimes referred to as singlescrew pumps. Unlike electric submersible pumps (ESPs), PCP performance is based on the volume of fluid displaced and not on the dynamically generated pressure increase through the pump. PCPs are an increasingly common form of artificial lift for low- to moderate-rate wells, especially onshore and for heavy (solid laden) fluids. PCP systems have many advantages over other lift methods: Overall high energy efficiency (typically 55-75%) Ability to handle solids Ability to tolerate free gas No valves or reciprocating parts Good resistance to abrasion Low internal shear rates (limits fluid emulsification through agitation) Relatively lower power costs (prime mover capacity fully utilized) Relatively simple installation and operation (low maintenance) Low profile surface equipment and noise levels.

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

Principle of Operation
A PCP (Figure 2) is comprised of two helical gears: a stationary gear called the stator (external gear) and a rotating gear called the rotor (internal gear). The stator is commonly made of an elastomer but it also can be made of steel. The rotor is positioned inside the stator and rotates along a longitudinal axis.

Figure 2

Composition of a progressive cavity pump (PCP)

The volume between the stator and rotor forms a sealed cavity that traps the fluid. As the rotor turns, this cavity progresses the fluid from the inlet to the outlet of the pump. The volume of the cavity and the rotational speed (N) determine the flow rate achieved by the pump. The volume of the cavity is calculated based on geometric parameters. The volume of the cavity is defined by the diameter of the rotor (Dr) times the stator pitch length (Ls) times the eccentricity (e). The eccentricity is defined as the distance between the centerlines of the major and minor diameters of the rotor.

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Therefore, the flow rate through the pump can be expressed as: Q = 4eDrLsN In field units, Ps, e, and D are noted in feet, while N is specified as revolutions per-minute to give a rate in ft3/min. Multiply by 256.46 to convert to BPD. The geometric parameters required for this calculation vary considerably among vendors and are generally not published. Hydraulic power can then be calculated by the equation: Hhp = 1.7 X 10-5 DP Q where DP is the pressure differential across the pump (psi) and Q is the rate (BPD). In practice, the clearance between the rotor and stator are not perfect due, mainly, to deformation of the elastomeric stator as a function of pressure, temperature, and wear. This causes some of the fluid to slip back into preceding cavities. Slip increases with increasing pressure and the number of stages. TIP: Higher viscosity fluids exhibit less slip. PCP performance curves are generally used for simulation purposes. While the format of performance curves varies by vendor, PIPESIM has adopted the format suggested by ISO 15136-1 (2009)1. PIPESIM provides performance curves from several vendors based on reference conditions (generally, water at standard conditions). While catalog performance curves for rotodynamictype pumps (such as ESPs) are generally consistent with field performance, PCP performance curves vary considerably as a result of different operating conditions (pressure and temperature) and fluid properties. The catalog curves available from within PIPESIM should be used only for preliminary analysis. It is common for PCPs to undergo bench tests to generate performance curves for specific pumps at intended operating conditions. It is recommended that these bench test curves be used for more detailed simulation studies.

1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Schlumberger\PIPESIM\Programs\pipesimdoc.chm::/pipesim/td/refe rences.ht ml#ISO15136-1

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

Viscosity Effects
PIPESIM offers the option to apply a viscosity correction to reduce slippage effects for higher viscosity fluids. The Karassik et al1 method is used.

Exercise 1

Running a PIPESIM PCP Simulation

To simulate a PCP, PIPESIM maintains a database of manufacturers and models from which you can select a pump that is suitable for the target well. If the required PCP is not in the database or does not have a bench test performance curve available, you can enter the required data into the database. To run a PCP simulation: 1. Save the previous model used for designing the rod pump as PCP.bps. 2. On the Downhole Equipment tab in the tubing model, change the Rod Pump to a PCP.

1. mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files\Schlumberger\PIPESIM\Programs\pipesimdoc.chm::/pipesim/td/refer ences.htm l#karassik2001

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3. Choose the Manufacturer and Model based on Diameter and Nominal rate to ensure the pump fits in the casing and is suitable for the target production rate at design speed. Refer to the figure. NOTE: You must calculate a speed that can meet the target production rate. This will be done in a later step.

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

4. Run a Pressure Temperature Profile operation to estimate the speed required to achieve the production rate (400 STB/d), as specified in Lesson 1, Exercise 2.

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Selected PCP Model Required Speed for the PCP Pump Power? rpm hp

Exercise 2

Predicting Future Well Lift Performance

1. Review and compare performance of the well at a future date when reservoir pressure declines to 1200 psia. 2. Modify the Completion for both the Rod Pump and PCP models to set the Reservoir Pressure to 1200 psia and the AOFP to 800 BPD. 3. Rerun the Rod Pump Design using the same pumping unit. 4. Rerun the PCP simulation to determine the speed required to achieve the same production rate. Is current Rod Pump Setup good for future operation? Is current PCP Unit Setup good for future operation?

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Artificial Lift Design: Onshore

5. Record comparative results in the table, if the data are available. What is the recommended artificial lift method?
Comparison Summary Result Rod Pump Unit Rod Pump Power Rod Stress Loading Rod Pump Efficiency PCP Unit PCP Operating Speed PCP Power Required PCP Efficiency Current Future

Review Questions
What are the factors affecting a PCP performance curve? Why do you need bench test data to accurately predict PCP performance for a given well system?

Summary
In this module, you learned about: performing basic well performance analysis designing a rod pump installation evaluating well performance under progressive cavity pump assessing future well performance.

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