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Energy Efficient Building Design

College Of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

Stairwell Pressurization Table-1: Door Leakage Area Height (ft) 7 Width (ft) 3 Area (ft2) 21 Perim (ft) 20 Table-2: Elevator Doors Leak Area (ft2) Minim 0.55 Maxim 0.70

ASHRAE 1999 HVAC Applications Handbook 51.9 DPsbt = DPsbb + [ By / { 1 + ( Asb/Abo)2 } ] X = [ (DPsbt)3/2 - (DPsbb)3/2 ] / [ DPsbt - DPsbb ] User Input Calculated by Program

B = 7.64 * ( 1/To - 1/Ts ) Q = 1740 * N * Asb * X

Leak-Area (ft2) Avge 1/8" 3/4" Undercut

0.21 0.36

Doors in Parallel: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, --- An Effective Leakage Area (Ae) Ae = A1 + A2 + ----- + An A1

Table-3: Leakage Areas: Walls, Floors A = Leakage Area As = Surface Area Construction A/As Exterior Walls Tight 0.00007 Avg 0.00021 Loose 0.00042 Stairwell Walls Tight 0.00002 Avg 0.00011 Loose 0.00035 Elevator Shaft Walls Tight 0.00018 Avg 0.00084 Loose 0.00180 Floors Avg 0.00005

Table-4 Additional CFM for Open Doors Vel thru # of Doors (7' x 3') Open Door 1 3 4 25 525 1,575 2,100 50 1,050 3,150 4,200 100 2,100 6,300 8,400 150 3,150 9,450 12,600

An Doors in Series: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, A3, --- An A1 Effective Leakage Area (Ae) Doors in Series Ae = [ 1/A12 + 1/A22 + 1/A32 + ----- + 1/An2 ] -0.5 ASHRAE Pressure Recommendation Minimum Stairwell Pressure (in. H2O) = Maximum Stairwell Pressure (in. H2O) = 115 104 10 10 -4 456 70 530 0.05 0.00234 36 11 396 0.21 440 0.00011 0.0484 4818 0.00021 1.01178 0.25840 0.91964 0.48482 0.87073 0.86964 16,207 Lb Wb Ls Ws to To = to + 460 Ts = ts + 460 PD-min B = 7.64 * ( 1/To - 1/Ts ) N H y=N*H Dor-lkg See Table-1 or -2 W-sb = 2 * ( Ls + Ws ) * H Str-lkg See Table-3 F-sb = W-sb * Str-lkg Wall-ext = 2 * ( Lb + Wb ) * H * N Bld-lkg See Table-3 F-bo = W * Bld-lkg Tot-lkg = Dor-lkg + Str-lkg Fan Static Pressure PD-avg = ( PD-min + PD-max ) / 2 PD-max = PD-min + (B*y) / (1+(Tot-lkg/F-bo)^2 ) Q = 1740*N*Asb*X-n/X-d 0.052 0.551 An

To Ts DPsbb B N y Asdb

Aswb

Abo Asb DPsbt DPsb X -n X -d Q

Building Length (ft) Use square root of floor area if Building Width (ft) building is not rectangular Stairwell Plan View Length (ft) Stairwell Plan View Width (ft) Temperature of Outdoor Air in Winter (deg F) Temperature of Outdoor Air (deg Rankine) Temperature of Stairwell Air (deg F) Temperature of Stairwell Air (deg Rankine) MIN Press Difference Stair & Bldg at Bottom of Stair (in) B = 7.64 * ( 1/To - 1/Ts ) Number of Floors Floor to Floor Height (ft) Distance between Stairwell Bottom and Top (ft) Leakage Area between Stairwell Door & Bldg Space per Floor (ft2) Wall Surface Area between Stairwell & Bldg Space per floor (ft2) Stairwell Wall Tightness Leakage Area (ft2) Flow Area between Stairwell Wall & Bldg per Floor (ft2) Exter Wall Surface Area between Bldg and Outside per Floor (ft2) Building Exterior Wall Tightness Leakage Area (ft2) Flow Area between Building & Outside per Floor (ft2) Total Flow Leakage Area Stairwell & surrounding Space (ft2) MAX Press Difference Stair & Bldg at Top of Stair (in) AVG Press Difference between Stair & Bldg Space (in) [ (DPsbt)3/2 - (DPsbb)3/2 ] [ DPsbt - DPsbb ] Supply Air (cfm)

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College Of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

Example Table-4 Vel thru Door 25 50 100 150 Additional CFM for Open Doors # of Doors (7' x 3') Open 1 3 4 525 1575 2100 1050 3150 4200 2100 6300 8400 3150 9450 12600 115 104 10 10 -4 456 70 530 0.05
0.00234

To Ts DPsbb B N y Asdb

Aswb

Abo Asb DPsbt DPsb X -n X -d Q

Building Length (ft) Use square root of floor area if Building Width (ft) building is not rectangular Stairwell Plan View Length (ft) Stairwell Plan View Width (ft) Temperature of Outdoor Air in Winter (deg F) Temperature of Outdoor Air (deg Rankine) Temperature of Stairwell Air (deg F) Temperature of Stairwell Air (deg Rankine) MIN Press Difference Stair & Bldg at Bottom of Stair (in) B = 7.64 * ( 1/To - 1/Ts ) Number of Floors Floor to Floor Height (ft) Distance between Stairwell Bottom and Top (ft) Leakage Area between Stairwell Door & Bldg Space per Floor (ft2) Wall Surface Area between Stairwell & Bldg Space per floor (ft2) Stairwell Wall Tightness Leakage Area (ft2) Flow Area between Stairwell Wall & Bldg per Floor (ft2) Exter Wall Surface Area between Bldg and Outside per Floor (ft2) Building Exterior Wall Tightness Leakage Area (ft2) Flow Area between Building & Outside per Floor (ft2) Total Flow Leakage Area Stairwell & surrounding Space (ft2) MAX Press Difference Stair & Bldg at Top of Stair (in) AVG Press Difference between Stair & Bldg Space (in) [ (DPsbt)3/2 - (DPsbb)3/2 ] [ DPsbt - DPsbb ] Supply Air (cfm) Supply CFM = 16,000

16,207 2,100 18,307 No. of Floors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

for stair pressurization 4 doors open at 25 fpm Total Fan CFM Floor No. Roof Mech-36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 B1 Fan Total CFM = 16,000

2,000 cfm

36 11 396 0.21 440


0.00011

2,000 cfm

0.0484 4818
0.00021 1.01178

2,000 cfm

0.2584
0.91964 0.48482 0.87073 0.86964 16206.5

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College Of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

2,000 cfm

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

Zone & Stair Pressurization for Fire Control Project Name

ASHRAE 1999 HVAC Applications Handbook Uniform Building Code (UBC)

Default User Input Project User Input Calculated

Table-1: Door Leakage Area Height (ft) Width (ft) Area (ft2) Perim (ft) 7 3 21 20 Leak-Area (ft2) Avge 1/8" 3/4" Undercut 0.21 0.36

Doors in Series: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, A3, --- An

A1

An

Table-2: Elevator Doors Leak Area (ft2) Minimum Maximum 0.55 0.70

Effective Leakage Area (Ae) Doors in Series Ae = [ 1/A12 + 1/A22 + 1/A32 + ----- + 1/An2 ] -0.5 Doors in Parallel: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, --- An Effective Leakage Area (Ae). Ae = A1 + A2 + ----- + An Smoke Exhaust

Table-3: Leakage Areas for Walls and Floors A/As = Leakage Area / Surface Area Construction Exterior Walls Tight Avg Loose Stairwell Walls Tight Avg Loose Elev. Shaft Walls Tight Avg Loose Floors & Roofs Exit Enclosures Avg UBC A/As ASHRAE 0.00007 0.00021 0.00042 0.00002 0.00011 0.00035 0.00018 0.00084 0.00180 0.00005 x 0.00050 0.00350 A1 0.00150 0.00150 Pressurized Stairs Supply only 0.00100 Exhaust only A/As UBC An Supply only Normal

AC Supply AC Return

Qs

Pressurized Sandwich Floor Fire Floor Exhaust Qe Elevators Shafts 0.25 21 3 0.05 10 13.0

Qs

Pressurized Sandwich Floor

Normal Normal Operation (All Other Floors)

Fire Floor: Smoke Exhaust Damper is Open. HVAC Supply, Return and Exhaust (TX & GX) Air Dampers are Closed Sandwich Floors: (above & below fire floor) HVAC Supply Damper is Open. Return and all Exhaust Dampers are Closed All Other Floors: Smoke Exhaust Damper is Closed. Normal Supply, Return & Exhaust (TX & GX) operating conditions Color Key Total Leakage Area between Fire Space and Adjacent Spaces Fire Space Area (ft2) = Floor to Ceiling Height (ft) = A (leakage) / As (floor) = Flr & Clg Leakage Area (ft2) = Wall Area/Flr (ft2) = Number of Walls = A (leakage) / As = Wall Leakage Area (ft2) = 7,400 12 0.0005 7.4 1500 4 0.00021 1.26 Total Leakage Area (A) = Press. Fire Space (in.) = Press. Adjac Space (in.) = 15.46 0 0.05 Elev Shaft Area/Flr (ft2) = Number of Elevators = A (leakage) / As (elev) = Elev Leakage Area (ft2) = 950 0 0.00084 0 Default User Input Project User Input Calculated F = Fdc + (5.2 x W x A x DP) / (2 x (W - d)) d = distance from door handle to latch edge of door (ft) = A = Exit Door Area (ft2) = W = Door Width (ft) = DP = Press Diff. Across Door (in) = Fdc = Force to overcome Door Closing Device (lbf) = Min Exh fr Fire Space (Qs) = CFM/FT2 = ACH @ Ceiling Ht = 9,023 1.2 6.1 F = Exit Door Opening Force (lbf) =

Door Leakage Area per Door = 0.36 Number of Doors = Total Door Leakage = Qs = 2610 x A x sqrt(DP) 5 1.8

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill, LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

Boston Stairwell Pressurization

British Standards Institue


m3/hr to cfm meters to feet

BSI 5588 Part 4 : Fire design 1978


In. H2O to N/m2 (Pa)

248.76 0.472 10.764


Operation Pa 8 15 In 0.032 0.060

1.7 3.281

cfm to L/s m2 to ft2

Door Leakage
Door opens relative to Ht Pressurized Space m Wd m 0.8 0.8 Perimter m 5.6 5.6 ft m2 ft2 m2/m ft2/ft

Space Pressurization Levels


Leak Area Leak-A / PerimBldng Height Emergency m ft Pa 50 50 In 0.201 0.201

(1) Single opens Into 2 (2) Single opens Away 2

18.4 0.01 0.108 0.002 0.006 < 12 < 40 18.4 0.02 0.215 0.004 0.012 >= 12 >= 40

Doors in Series: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, A3, --- An Doors in Parallel: Leakage Areas = A1 , A2, A3, --- An

Effective Leakage Area (Ae)

Ae = A1 + A2 + ----- + An
A1 An A1 Ex: Stairwell (doors in parallel)

SI

IP

Effective Leakage Area (Ae) Doors in Series Ae = [ 1/A1 + 1/A2 + 1/A3 + ----- + 1/An ]
2 2 2 2 -0.5

Leakage Area/Door (m2) 0.024 0.258 Total floors Eff. Leakage Area (m2) Stairwell Pressure (Pa) Space Pressure (Pa) Supply Air (m3/s) Supply Air (L/s)
An

36

36

Required Air Supply to maintain pressure difference between Pressurized Space and Adjacent Space

0.864 9.302 120 0.482 12 7.43 7424 0.048 cfm


15,729

Q = 0.827 x A x P

0.5

Q = Air Supplr (m3/s) to the pressurized space A = Total effective leakage area (m2) P = Pressure Level (Pa) in pressurized space = Stair Pressure - Space Pressure Note Input to this Program can be entered on the ASHRAE Sheet You can override the ASHRAE input by entering data directly in the orange cells Info from ASHRAE Form or enter input directly Calculated by Program

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

Natural Ventilation

User Input

Wind Only Q=C4*Cv*A*U

InsideTempTi 2xgrav.Const HeightBot-Topft

50 64.4 110

HourstoMinutes OpeningAreaft2

60 100

Flow Due to Thermal Forces To F 0 0.525 0.500 0.475 0.450 0.425 0.400 0.375 0.350 0.325 0.300 0.275 0.250 1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 1.200 Cd (Ti-To)/Ti Q CFM 265,124 225,842 185,806 143,725 95,983 0 84,691 111,786 127,130 135,505 138,875 138,300

Q=AirFlowRate,cfm Cv=OpeningEffectivenessCoeff A=OpeningArea,ft2 U=WindVelocity,mph g=GravitationalConstant

Flow Due to Wind Only Dir Spd mph 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 10 Cv 0.2 0 8,800 17,600 26,400 35,200 44,000 52,800 20 Cv 0.3 0 13,200 26,400 39,600 52,800 66,000 79,200 40 Cv 0.4 0 17,600 35,200 52,800 70,400 88,000 105,600 60 Cv 0.5 0 22,000 44,000 66,000 88,000 110,000 132,000 80 Cv 0.6 0 26,400 52,800 79,200 105,600 132,000 158,400 90 Cv 0.7 0 30,800 61,600 92,400 123,200 154,000 184,800

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Thermal Only Q=60*Cd*A*sqrt(2*g*DH*abs(T Cd=0.4+0.0025*(Ti-To) Cd=DischargeCoeffforOpening

DH=DifferenceinOpeningHeights Ti=InsideTemp,F To=OutsideTemp,F

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)

Energy Efficient Building Design

College of Architecture

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago

irFlowRate,cfm

OpeningEffectivenessCoeff

peningArea,ft2

WindVelocity,mph

ravitationalConstant

0*Cd*A*sqrt(2*g*DH*abs(Ti-To)Ti)

0.4+0.0025*(Ti-To)

DischargeCoeffforOpening

DifferenceinOpeningHeights,ft

nsideTemp,F

OutsideTemp,F

Instructor: Varkie C. Thomas, Ph.D., P.E.

Skidmore, Owings Merrill LLP

Arch-551 (Fall) Arch-552 (Spring)