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High frequency FRF testing

Tom knechten LMS Engineering Services

Webex overview

Challenges with acoustic excitation Noise level Directivity Sensor freq response Housing radiation Challenges with structural excitation Accessibility Mass loading Sensor freq response Housing radiation Reproducability

LMS Qsources hardware completes LMS NVH test solution


LMS ES provides unique structural and acoustic excitation hardware & services used in NVH by engineering. Focus on performance attributes: system dynamics, comfort/sound quality. Offering: Standard set of structural and acoustic exciters covering most of the typical applications. EMA, ASQ, TPA, body isolation testing, Innovative customized solutions Benefits: Increased efficiency of Transfer Function (FRF) measurements by enabling reciprocal measurements. Extended measurement capability - Excitation at difficult to reach locations.

Identify all the orders on the same waterfall diagram


6000.00 0.00

Time Domain
GEAR:-X (CH4) Hz

AutoPow er GEAR:-X WF 163 [152.07-949.89 rpm]

0.00 0.00 s Time 14.00

-90.00

MG2 related MG1 related PSD related Engine related

dB g

FRF information

FRF measurements on vehicle bodies enables various analyses: Body sensitivity to dynamic structural or acoustic loads Body isolation Mode frequencies Input data for Transfer-Path-Analysis model(TPA), Airborne Source Quantification(ASQ) In order to increase measurement efficiency reciprocal measurements are common.

Reciprocal acoustic excitation


The reciprocity principle: Vibro-acoustic system transfer

Acoustic system transfer

p1 a2 = & F2 Q 1

p2 p1 = p1 p2

Volume acceleration enables measuring vibro-acoustic FRFs without post-processing as most common motion sensors are accelerometers which output an acceleration signal.

Reciprocal FRF

& &2 x p1 = - Direct FRF & Q1 F2 & &2 x


F2

& Q

p1

LMS Qsources Mid Frequency Volume Source Working principle

1. An electrodynamic speaker to excite the structure 2. A reference signal to measure sound source strength
of the speaker. Compared to a normal speaker: High SPL output Designed to behave like a point/monopole source Internal sound source strength reference sensor Electronic protection against overload Comments on design: A small nozzle to reduce diffraction effect of speaker. A flexible tube enabling fast & easy positioning Reference sensor integrated in nozzle of sound source to define the excitation

Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Directivity of noise emission

Directivity becomes more relevant as frequency increases as ratio between wavelength and hardware size decreases.

Directivity plot shows 3 frequency ranges [dB] 1000Hz 4000Hz 10000Hz Pressure measurement at 0.5 meter distance, every 30

Mic frequency response chart Freefield-pressure @ 00 incidence

Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Directivity of sensors


10000 8000

The frequency response of the measurement equipment should be acceptable for high frequencies.

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Log

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Mic frequency response chart Freefield-pressure @ 00 incidence

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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Housing radiation

The monopole source should excite the acoustic environment with the noise that is emitted at the nozzle only. Noise radiation from tubing or housing should be avoided Compact driver design 100 Reinforced tubing 90 Double sealed driver connection 85
80 70 65 Pa dB 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 20 89 Octave 1/3 Hz 22387 A L 20.00 dB [0-20480 Hz] Pa

100.00

Nonlinear tube acoustics make radiating noise uncorrelated and therefore not critical

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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Nonlinear tube acoustics

At low source output level, the emitted noise is symmetric. At maximum output level, the time signal of the reference sensor is deteriorated. The pressure in the tube is in the range where nonlinear acoustics apply.

Symmetric waveform

Asymmetric waveform

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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Stable sound source strength measurement

Volume acceleration as a quantity for sound source strength is more independent of acoustic environment, compared to sound power calculation based on pressure measurements.

& Q

Volume acceleration reference sensor in free-field and in an engine bay show consistent source strength quantification.

Pressure reference sensor in free-field and in an engine bay show variable sound source strength in function of acoustic environment. 12

Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation High frequency reciprocal FRF measurement
As isolation performance increases with frequency, so do the noise levels of the source need to increase. This triggered LMS to develop a special version of the current source which allows a higher noise level at frequencies above 3kHz. 2 versions exist:

A normal mid high frequency source with 4 meter tube

A wide frequency range mid high frequency source with a 2 meter tube that can be extended to a 6 meter tube.

200-10000Hz

150-10000Hz Higher noise level


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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Noise level - Q-MHF vs Q-MHF-WIDE(long&short tube)
-10 -13 -15 -18 -20 -23 -25 -28 -30 (m3/s 2) 2/Hz -33 dB -35 -38 -40 -43 -45 -48 -50 -53 -55 -58 -60 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1000 Hz 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 10000 15000

Q-MHF-WIDE: Long tube Q-MHF-WIDE: Short tube Q-MHF standard


F F F

PSD VOLACC:S SHORT TUBE MAX SPECTRA 500-10kHz MAX AMPLI RUN 2 PSD VOLACC:S LONG TUBE MAX SPECTRA 150-2kHz MAX AMPLI RUN 2 PSD VOLACC:S STANDARD TUBE MAX SPECTRA 200-2kHz MAX AMPLI RUN 2

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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Noise level - Q-MHF vs Q-MHF-WIDE(long&short tube)
-50.00 -55 F F PSD LONG:0001:+Z NORMAL_burst100%_han_500avg_200-10kHz PSD LONG:0001:+Z WIDE_LONG_burst100%_han_500avg_150-3kHz

Accelerometer reponse: MOUNT:ENGINE:-Z The long tube at low frequencies a significant gain is obtained in structural response.
(m/s 2) 2/Hz dB

-60 -65 -70 -75 -80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 -110.00 100 200 300 400 500600 800 1000 Hz 2000 3000 4000 6000 8000 13000

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0.00 100 200 300 400 500 700 1000 Hz 2000 3000 4000 6000 13000

Amplitude

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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Noise level - Q-MHF vs Q-MHF-WIDE(long&short tube)
-70.00 -75 F F PSD LONG:0001:+Z NORMAL_burst100%_han_500avg_200-10kHz PSD LONG:0001:+Z WIDE_SHORT_burst100%_han_500avg_400-10kHz

Accelerometer reponse: MOUNT:ENGINE:-Z With the short tube at high frequencies a significant gain is obtained in structural response and an improvement in coherence.
(m/s 2) 2/Hz dB

-80 -85 -90 -95 -100 -105 -110 -115 -120.00 3000.00
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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Noise level - Q-MHF vs Q-MHF-WIDE(hort tube)

Curve: Coherence FRF interior mic to microphone in engine compartment Comparing the coherence of a microphone near engine compartment shows an significant improvement.

1.00

F F

Coherence ENCO:frnt:S/Q_NORMAL:S Coherence ENCO:frnt:S/Q_WIDE:short:S

/ Amplitude

Curve Average Hz 0.38 / 0.58 /


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Challenges with high frequency acoustic excitation Noise level - Q-MHF vs Q-MHF-WIDE (short tube)
0.10

Pa/(m3/s 2)

FRF interior mic to microphone in engine compartment To obtain a full bandwidth FRF, the two FRF sets can be easily merged within LMS Test.Lab environment.

FRF ENCO:frnt:S/Q_WIDE:long:S

100e-9 180.00 -180.00 1.00 Hz 10000.00

1.00 F Amplitude Coherence ENCO:frnt:S/Q_WIDE:long:S

0.00 0.00 Hz 10000.00

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Log

Overview

Challenges with acoustic excitation Noise level Directivity Sensor freq response Housing radiation Challenges with structural excitation Accessibility Mass loading Sensor freq response Housing radiation Reproducability

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation accessibility

The LMS Qsources shakers are based on the inertia principle making it possible to excite structures without any external support. Shakers are self aligning making the test efficient. Internal force and acceleration sensors reduce space constraints and alignment work. The uncoupled mass is kept to a minimum. Shakers allow testing from a safe location. Frequency range: 20-2000Hz 50-5000Hz

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation Mass loading


Four types of transfer functions with volume source excitation were performed: No added weight With added weight close to the response point of the accelerometer : 8.3g , 132.3g, 950 g

Reference accelerometer with added weights


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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation Mass loading


For every weight added you can see a peak in the FRF and the level drops just after this peak. Each peak corresponds to the local mode of the added mass on a spring with the stiffness of the metal sheet of the body.

-20.00 (m/s 2)/(m3/s 2)

-110.00 180.00 -180.00 2.00 800.00 Hz 3067.95 5000.00

dB

For 800Hz we have a stiffness of around 5e7 N/m. If we calculate the resonance for a 132g mass, it will be around 1000 Hz.

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Housing radiation Influence of airborne noise emitted by minishaker


FRF
70.00

_ Normally attached _ Insulated all around with foam _ Decoupled (on foam)

-30.00 180.00

Pa/N dB

-180.00 2000

FRF Mic:S/Q-MSH:+X Run 1 FRF Mic:S/Q-MSH:+X Run 3_w ith_insulation FRF Mic:S/Q-MSH:+X Run 6_decoupled Hz 10000

Coherence Functions
1.00 / Amplitude 0.00 2000 Hz 10000

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation frequency response internal force sensor
1000.00

The frequency response of the internal force sensor is flat up to 5kHz.


/ Log F FRF accelerometer:-Z/Force cell:+Z

1.00 50 1000 2000 3000 4000 Hz 5000 6000 7000 8200

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation Blocked force spectrum vs floornoise
1.00

Setup: Shaker mounted to rigid base max output voltage: 2.5V Amplifier level:+16dB

100e-6 10.00 Hz 10000.00

N Log

Red curve:maximum force level in 1/3 octaves Excitation frequency range: 50-5000Hz Green curve: maximum force level in 1/3 octaves Excitation frequency range: 50-600Hz Black curve: Background noise during no excitation.

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation Force level - example

90.00

FRF Mic:S/Force Cell:+X Shaker_on_force_cell Run 1

0.00 180.00

Pa/N dB

2000 2893.18 0 2000

4000

6000 5262.82

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-180.00

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Coherence Mic:S/shaker:+X

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LMS Qsources Integral Shaker Very high data accuracy and reliability
Exact excitation position and orientation is critical in high accuracy measurements. Following comparison has been shows that the Integral Shaker is most robust in operator reproducability and repeatability.
Conventional shaker Modal hammer Integral shaker

Typical operator variation: Hammer worst repeataiblity Q-ISH best repeatability resulting in high data accuracy and confidence in the measurement results.
27 copyright LMS International - 2005

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Challenges with high frequency structural excitation Reproducability


70.00

Positioning error of ring on structure 2mm

Typical operator variation: Q-ISH: Positioning error Misalignment error Repeatability A comparison between Integral shaker Conventional shaker Modal hammer Q-ISH shows a minimum variation in vibro-acoustic FRF on a passenger car.

35.00 70.00

Pa/N dB

Misalignment of conventional shaker 5degrees


Pa/N dB 35.00 70.00

Reproducability of 10 persons with modal hammer


Pa/N dB

28 copyright LMS International - 2005

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Overview

Challenges with acoustic excitation Noise level Directivity Sensor freq response Housing radiation Challenges with structural excitation Accessibility Mass loading Sensor freq response Housing radiation Reproducability Questions?

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