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PreMotA to xjm faoultjr of thc Qraduata DiTtion of tht TttxAj Tvchnologioal Collag* in Partlal FUiriIjMnt of thm Rquirarnt6

For th Dgr of

mani or SCIEICI

KAroId YayxM BAHMr^ B t U M o o k | TXAfl .hoM, I9U9

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1. Introductlon b. 2. 3. U $ 6 7. 8. Cata C'irvej <idittnt

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I

i Mnthodt of obsrvmtion

II 19 21

Con^l.L'. nn a:/i IntrT>n'tatlon6 of resulta - 30 AcVnrwl* i YBtOt BlbxcTa Ay _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ "^ 3$ 36

IfftlHMVftiiM For A half o#ntury, workera in radioactivity hv boon OTax^ of the f Act that A oharwi Itctrocopo wiiX sicMly dis-> ohart n hn no radiootT tource ^ ' >rBMr.v. '-MreTsr^

CouIOHbf M tflor M 178^, rcordd Uw fact that vhon prop&r proutions are takon to prvnnt lAakaif dijcharei i s t i U aotlMd on ahorfBd IotroMcp Coka and RuthMrford^ aftdb tho f i r s t careful study of this phonotnon and f ound that about 10 ions per oar pr cond

w^r^ forMd in brM ^I f i l l d with air when a l l knowa ouroB of radiatian wrm oar^fuUy rMWT^d* Th^y alJo found that, bj ohiitldlng th^ Ictroscop^ yr^^^ ^ ron and I^ad, tho unknown radiation was x t r e l y pomtr.. ^j . .ing a daoroaao

of onlj about U O J in ths produotion of iono* At f irst i t waa tbooght that tais rauiation was of trrestrial o r i ^ that \a, i t was asMMd to bs ponetrating T' radiation froa th^ groand. Oockol^^ in 1910^ HBW?, in 1911^ and KoIhArster'', in I9I3-I9I14 showsdf hMsrvr, that tha rdAtion Bust 0 o coa&ic ori^in oy sending Isctroscopes in balloons to U500 Mtsrs^ 5^ . ^Mters, and 9000 Mters altituda, rospsctiTvIjr*
TIMM

exrrMnts showed that ths radiation i n -

oroasod instsad of dacraasody as would ba xp^cted i f th^ rays

1 K. Rutharford and Cooka, H L., Ptri, ReT, 16, Ifi3 (1903) 2 A. Oockl, Phys, i : e i t s , , I I , 28o"Tl?IoTr 3 Hss, Phys,"I u'I7T?. 966 ( I 9 I 1 ) . h KoIhrstr, ^ h ^ . ^ r i t s . , UL, I066, II53 (1913).

Mre of tsrrvstrial origin*

'olhdrster^ found that ths ionima-

tion W M about Uo tMS M grsat at 9000 Mters as at S M l e v o l . H also calculated a M S S absorption cof'lcicnt of ^ ^ 5 - '0^*'*!^, Itnich was Iatr shown to bs MOh V^o nigh a valua. In other altitud studies, Baeen, MiUikan, and Nehar ont balloons with recording baroMtrs, theraoMters, and electroscopes to within 2% by weight of the top of the atBOphero, or about 22 i l e s . Pror Uieir data tiiey plotted curves of ion TheM data

[>airs forMd per c c . per sec against the altitude.

wmr% taken at Ft. S M HMSton, Texas^, and Madras, India.^ Ths j^>ortance of these data WM recognisd when the curv^s rv>vealed differcnt peaks for differ^nt Mgn^tic latltudos* Another ro*

veallnfr fact about th^ eurv*^ i s that ths intens' ^ reached a ptk at a certain alUtude and thn f^II off. This waa tho f i r s t

TxMnM of tha xistsnco of a Mooodary raciUtion, whlch apparsntly was a radUUon forMd within ths aUiospnere of th arth and produced by a prlmary raiation coBng froei spac. In I92U, 1925, and 1926, killikan and hls associaUs^*^ sank electroscopes under wat-^r to a depth of 60 Beters and, froB this evid^nM, concludod that the rays mist be htgh froquoncy lectroMgMtlc radiation of wava length approxinately I/300 that of the ahortest > radUtion. ThsM data Mre Uken at

5 Kolhrster, op> '' . p. U53. ^ JL ? ^v>'ill^it*n . Haher, and S. K. TlayMS. Phys, e v . . 50, 992 (1932). ^ * 7 I . S. Bowen, R. A, i.lUikan, and B. V. Weher, Phys, ^ev.. 52, 80 (1937). ^ ' 8 R. A. l'iUikan and 0 . H. Caiwron, rhys. ?. T . , 2:3, 8 ^ (1926) 9 R. A. milikan and 0 . H. CaMron, r y s . I g r . , 31, 92I (1923)

IKiir Lako and Arrowhasd Laks sinM thsM lakos, bsint' sf^<^ ^*^ Mr^ r^IaUTsIy frM of rad oactivity. They also concludod that

frM snorgy and absorption oonsiderations, the radiation wo Id bo that Mitted ib the process of the uui.xuxxig of s i l i c o n , heUuaiy Myf^n, and iron frora hydrogen. HoMver, the po^sl^^nitv of

this interpretation hM becn shovn to be unlikely. Wilson^, Bamothy and ^arro^, and Mishina, Sokido, WiyMaki, 12 and Haouda took electroooopes undorgroond to neasure the M M abMrption eofflclent < " intensity of radiatlon, after r^Vs. w n s o n ^ fomv! that the :r '.cr

Arsnc throunh ^

qulval^nt of rock, was about 1/10,000 that incldent upon th rock. Thiis, abo^tt 99% of the nMt peMrating radiatlon i n o i -

dsnt on a Betnr thlcVneM of water aet?ially gets throojti thls thlckMM. OMrous othsr investif^tions wers Mdo in dop uimM and Xakss and MOh data Mrs taksn in ordar to detemM M s e bMrption ooeffieients of varMS iietals. Qne nf the niost

ling resolts of thoM MasureMnts i s tho s troM p^netratinc of the soMBary radiation. For exavple, Wilson^ detected

10 V. C. Wilson, rtyt. Rer., 53, 201^, 337, (1938). U J. Bamothy and V. Farro, ?hys. ReT., $5, 870, (1930) | 58, 8U4 (191 ) .
12 T. Nishlna, T. Sokido, T. MiyMaki, and T. ICasudaf I. RiST., $9, hOI (I9I1I). 13 V. C. Wilson, OM. j i t . , p . 339.

radiation undsr rock of ^.

meters water aquTalent.

This iM

quivalrnt to 12li Miers of lead.

Thus, i t i s r.ot surprising

XJbAZ UTM radiation WM a t f i r s t thought to be r ' "^^''"^ ^- st^^c^ of oharfid partioles. In 1927, Clay^ discoTrred a Mgnetic latitude affect, bot at f i r s t othcr workrrs were unAble to confirm his data. Aftar MbMqMnt Investi^ti'^n, however, Mny others with i provod techniqM and oqnipMnt hoMd his original findinc^s to be t r M . Psrtiipe tho MOt r^IiabU of thoM invcstigations was .^ ThsM MasuraMnts wor Mdo on

that by Cos>pton sod T

tjtclve 8taasL'.p ToyiM* aoroM tM Pacific Ocaan fron ppro MUIjr 5 $ ^ to It^ MgMtio latitude T>ia OOMO ray

intensitor was fo^uid to vary froa a osrtain valM at 5 5 ^ to lJ% Less at (fi latitudo, thsn upeard to ap^>raxBaUIy tha original v tMporatura 1 u.-^ U5^* Thejs ujtXiux^ aiso sfxwsa rwii>11 baroMtrio prMsoro Md saMnaI variations. ^"er-

hapa U Boot signif ioant WM tho variation with tM^ifraturs an prsMurs. Ths xpIaMtioo that has boen siigs'ted i s that 's in uaronctrlc pressurs and

tssqicrature caaB^Da cauM '

this,^n tJim, accounU for a "thicker" or "thinner" atnosphsr*.

1$ J. Clay, Proc. Acftd. etonach, AMUrdam, 3C, 1 U 5 (1927), taken Trfn Stranathan, rHri'.c>a of Vodam ^yiysics, (Blakiston, Philadelphia, r ' ^ \ prTT'. 16 A. H. wui t^ton *!. . . ?umer, ^ y a . e v . , $2, 799 (1937).

An increaM 1n ataiosnherlc thlckness wo^ild obviously absorb ore of the s o f t oosiponent of


COMC

rays, thus l e s s e n i n g tho

OTsrall i n U n s i t y at the mirface of tha e a r t h . Sinoe temperature arsu oaroMtric pressure i n d i r e c t l / MUM soM changes in e l e c t ^ l c n o t r n t l a l gradient, the l a t U r has been sug^vsted as the cauM of soae coMc ray v a r i a t i o n . By assuning crude Talues for the s l e c t r i c p o U n t i a l ' nt

and tho M i g h t of th^ atMflpMra, tha w r i U r has caloulated that If a p a r t i c l e e t - r U d fro reat at th ton of the a t a o s pihers and was aocIsrated by a p o U n t i a l > ' cn the oarth

and the ataosphsre, ths partiole would gain energy gr*at e n c u ^ t o oauM pOMbly radlatlon.^'
SOM

Tariation In the energies of the

COMC

Thla calffalat^on d s not Uke into conaldprat^.on '.'-At as OM goss thr'^' :h the

the Tariation of p o U n t l a l

atBOsphsrv and should not be interpretsd M S posaibls rMSon for the Mch higher eMrjjiss of the
COMC

radiation but as a

rsaaon for the varlatlon of eoMc ray I n U n s i t y with a*.rospMric ;>oUntiaI rt; n t , i f such a phanoMnon does e x l s t .

LsMtre and V a U a r U ^ a l s o investigated the p o s s i b i l i t y that ths U t i t u d o s f f e o t i s oauMd by the e a r t h ' s M g M i i o fied. WhiU i t Is knovn frosi absorr'tion atudies that the rays

pMMSs very high e M r g i e s and that ths e a r t h ' s f l e l d i s r e l a t i v e l y weak, tha U t U r xUnds for huridreds of
ITIPS

abova

17 18

& appandix. 0 . LMaitre and V. S . V a l U r U , Phgjrt.

IIIIT.,

l3,

87 (1933).

tha arth's rorfaco^ thus, the bsnding of path for even very high eMrgy rays My be apprsciabU. If ths shape of tne earth' field i s uakon into account, ( i . s . , sMiUr to ths fUId produc^d by a bar M g M t ) , noro bonding should be producod at ths MgMtic equator than a t highr U t i t u d s s . The bsnding i s found to be so great for

soM los ttMrgy particles (thoM with less than 17 b i l l i o n Uctron v o l U M r g y ) ^ that thay wUl b^ bent sway froa ths arth s n t i r e l y . Thus ths oossdo ray inUnsity would be s x -

p^cted to be loMr at the MgMtic quator. Anow.er cxperiAentai .<tct "uiut i s acccrjnted for by ths MMtio fUId of th sarth is the Mist-Mat j i t r y of coaaU ray i n U n s i t y . ?y uslng directional coincidonM typs

counUrs, as dscribd in this papsr, MasursMnU tmard ths M t aau eat Mre m^. Ths result of thsM eAprAenU shed two thingsi greaUat aasvMaetry ocrurs at zenlth

angUs of fron hS^ to 60^, and particUs fron th west wero prapondarant. By the UM of FUsdng's notor ruU, i t can bs

hown aUost concIusivIy that thare are morm coMc ray particUs that are nosltlve 1n a1 m than nrratlve. FTM ths forvgoing TldonM and othar xprAentaI ''acU, i t nov MeM that coMc radUtion consiats prijnarily of pro-

19

C. StoTMr, Trr. Va^, and Atn. ^ l e c . , 37, 375 (1932).

tons hitting ths upper atBOphsr* of the earth^ by proMM this radiation i s broken down into oth*r pax*ticles, SM positive and soM Mgtivs, whlch constit lU th^ coodary radiation. Th Mft cMpon^nt usually consisU

of eUctx*ons, positrons, and protons (the eUctron and pMtroo are producad by pair fomation fTM protons), and th hard or penetrating coapoMnt ia usuallj Mdo up of a nov particU discovered by Andar^on and Nadd^rMyer^^ in 1936. Thla nartlcU ia the neson, whlch la rari^oactlve and dsMys into an eUctron or positron with a half l i f e of fri 2 to 3 aicro-MConds, has s mmm appc^xi.Tuitrly 29o t i s e s thit of ths electron, and oiay have either a positive or a negativs chargs. It i s inUrestint: to noU that thls now particU wai

prsdictsd atheMiticalIy fron theoretical considsrations by ^^ in 1935 snd for a long tiM was oalUd ttm "lkMa ParticU." PhysicisU ars ^ * ^ '"fJr'! coM m agr^oMnt now

that tha "TkMa ParUcU" and tha Mson are tha M M partlcU^ This secondary radiation reachss th earth in amounU that Tary but U t t U ( , - lO^) betesn day and oight^ thus, i t MBot haTe originated in the sun. Osigsr-MUIUr oounUr Maaurs*

MnU mtvcm that ths ooa ic ray intsnsity i s s l i g h t l y grsaUr hon ths pllky way i s '^rerhead than whn on the horlzon. Thiis,

20 C. D. Anderson ftnd .;. H. Meddsnwyer, Phys. RoT., 50, 27C (1936). 21 H. TukMs, '* ' a . ''ath. Soc. Japan, quted fTM Stranathan ParticUs . .em rhyslcs (T^Ukiston, Philadeliihia.

I9U6), p . 533, 551.

preMnt evidenM M M S to ^ ndicaU Uiat the cosnic rays may ori^inaU within our g iaxy Ths subjot of ats >spharic p o U n t i a l grsdient, UkewM^ has oeen a f U i a oi science that Hust pena airtost rnx.ureiy ujjon e n p i r i c a l r e s u l t s * * r stidy. *s arly aa 1752, Ls V^'^'Ur

recognUed U u t there was alwa/s, <>verywhere, a nore or l e s s persanent c l e c t r i c a l p o U n t i a l gr.. iont. any MaaursMnU o L world. "nrough ths ysArs,

lcnt Mra Ma uir^mghout \,rm 22 ,

otaLU aMng thaM a r l y workers wers Peccaria

PeltUr^^, '.'orLnder^^, Sin)Mn25, and Parkinaon^^ vhoM paper* poinUd U th f a c t that the e U c t r i c gradient was ever c.&ni^ing, due to tejnperatuxw, oartssieu'ic pressure, vinu vci.oci'./, cxouas and other aUosnheric chanjea. ThaM worVers found an averags

of around Uc v o I U per a e U r for a U ymtkr round. LaUr workers included Dvight^^, Depp^naan^ and othex*s who roportod M n U a l I y tha saM d a U M givan ^bovts exoept for

22 0 . n^ocaria, p l U e l e c t r i c i U U r r e s t r e a U o s f e r i o a a c i e l o lereno, Turln 1775, fTM T. PyMS, "A Study of tha Ata Mphsrio Potantial Gradient at Lubbock, TsxaS|"(Thesis, Texas TMhnoUgieal CoUe.^, Lubboek, T X M , 1935;, p . 2 . 23 P o l t l e r , km. de Chisde. e t dii P h ^ . IV, 385, lflU2, f r M s. op. c l t . , p . 2 . 2h I'. K. Norindsr, Svensks Vetenkaps Aksd. Handlinger. I v i i i , 1917-I9I9, lo. l , froBj HayMS, op. c i t . , p . 3 . i:5 0 . C* Slaipaon, Roy. Vet. ^-K T ^uarterly '00^., TV, 19Ih, p . 12, froB HoyM^ op. c i t . , p . 3 26 Parkinson, Paper pres'-nUd at th# Ui Pacific ScienM Confsrence, frosi HayMS, o p . c i t . , p. 5 . 27 Dwit'ht, Terr. " _ , _ ^tm. n ^ c . , 36, 309 ( 1 9 3 l ) . 28 DopneriBan, TcrT . . a"T"AU. ^ e c . , 36, 231 ( 1 9 3 1 ) .

d l f f e r e n t narU of the world.

AroTind 1926, ProfeMor K. F. OoorfSf o^ TexM TechnoIogMl CoIIegs, beosM InUrestod in the electrio gradient at i^bbock^ TvxM, when he Mtad a disohirgo of U c t r i c i t y fron an M r i a l Irad-ln wlm to a sUaiii radUtor diirlnp a sandstorm. -'non nakli g . t.r'^en

MaaursMnU of this voIUgs which exoodd L'i,000 voI*!i a high anUnna and groond, he reportod his f^nd' u:a to ths

Mrican bociaty for the HiirsnrsMnt of ScienM which M t In IMso in 1927. ProfesMr^ C. C. 9M dt ad W. H. Abbitt, of tha aaM institution, took ovsr tha probUa vith an Upoorad Uchn qM a fM years U U r . Thsy usad n t i a U y ths S S M systM that

ths wriUr usod In his obaorvstlons conMmsd with this napor. Ur Schsiidt and Dr. Abbitt found that as a sandstora approac^od, ths gradient riuctuated :^Ueen pMitive and MgatTe Talues aad went strongly Mgstlvs during sandstorM, sosntines as great M 3000 to L O O O volts osr MUr.^^ HoMtoQ^, in 1932, condi:ctd ro^Mrch atUnptinf^ to oerraUU this nnnaMl ffwiimnx, ith ataMphsric coniti >ns. Aaong his findings, hs prorsd that ths U c t r i c l t y could not bs ^ d by colliaions of Mmd particUs with the coIUetor svstMi, and, aiso, that th gradUnt lap^ndsd U a l U i t a d exUnt u->on U. Virpx raiure, baroMtric pr^ssurs, and reiative hur.

29 C. Houstcn, " A btudy of CrUin Ataosphsric FhMioMnon AoooBpanying Sand Stonas," (ThcsU, Toxas .ogioal ColUgs, Lubbock, T^XM, 1932). 30 Ibid.

10 In th^ suMsr of 1935, Haynea^^ nade observatioM of theM TariatioM, atUnptini: to discoTer possibU causes for t;/ .

His obMrvations ahowod MntiaUy tha aaM rauIU ^s Hoaston*s but indicated furtiMr th^t CIMUT weauier ^iiaienx.9 ij*c prm^ dn inaUly positive, SOM 10 or 15 volts per M U r in this l o c a l i V . Tha wriUr has also f ound that in cUar wsathar hr XJbm gradUnt U trom 2 or 3 U about >< or Uo voIU per M U r . O n dry, hot,

oUar days, the gradlsnt i s uauaxx/ on the ordar of 2 or 3 Tolts per BeUr positive, whiU ^n days that ara s l i g h t l y windy or cloudy, i t My ba positive u U 30 or Lo volts per rveUr.

31 T. Ha/MS, op. cit.^

APPARATUS AND MFrHCOS OF OBSERVATIoN SlaM oaly avraf: valMS of p o t o n t U l granient wera naded for t h i s obMrvation, the w r i U r used a crwion DoUMUk qxiadrant e U c t r o M U r connected U a c o l l e c t o r syatM aounted thrM M U r s bOT^ ground. "le U e t r i c i i l conn<ctlon8 are shwn In f i f u r s 1

the e l e c t r c a e U r syaUa U shown in a p^totograph in figurs 2 . Ths e U e t r o a ^ U r was o d i f i s d in one x*espect. ^nsUad of

ths silTsred nica vane, as i s oirllnarily uMd, a brmss with a snich greaUr rosient of MX^ia was s u b s t i t n t e d . "his

Mrvss to e l i B i M U Mon porious fiuctuation and Unds to givo a t n i e r Talii of tha aToraga potantial ipradiant btwo^n M j o r ohan^es in ths gradient. Ths Imctromet^r, as uaed, was c^pabU

of MaauriniT p o U n t l a l a u^ U about 600 v o I U , thua e a s i l y e n bimolng vaiues of the (^z'aaient t.uat were o ths Bst conMm to the w i ^ U r . rm 1 Tyrical c-^^V^tlon ^'rv#8 *^r the e U c t r n B e U r
M'X.

led in th srr^

A disc of copper p U U , apprcBrMUly fivo inches in d i S M U r aad iippnrted shout tares a x<ors bove ground, was ooUector p U U .
USPU

as a

This o U U was coaUd wlth s raHlo.^ctlTe M l t . o nUU

in oirlor U i o n i s e ths surrt^indint: a l r anJ thua to the s s M p o U n t l a l &a tho a i r .

Wuaber 16 copper wir^ nountod

in sulphur i n s u U t o r s WM usd to ooaaacL ^he c o l l e c t o r '^laU t o ths U c t r o U r . As w i U bs M^n in figur^ 1, a I^ ,000 Tolt a U c t r o s U t i o T o I t M U r was on hand i f ths p o U n t i a l on tha p l a U exoMdd th^

12
range of tM U o t r o M U r . >MMr, this instrunent wM M

For tM MA^ursMnt of OOSBC ray InUnaity, a coHMX^:ial ooincidonc* oounUr, Mmifactux*d by EI-Tronics Incoi*poratod, was usd. A slRpIified cix*cult dian*M of this instx*ucient i s shown

In figure L, and a photOf^raph of the instr-uaient i s ahoen in figurv 3 . Ths nnlnnlfonM cirouit anoen was dSTisea uy Rossi^ in

1929.
Ths coinoldoBM eounUr operaUs esMntialIy M follMsx As w i l l bs mmmit in figore h, th4* cathodcs of the counUr tubes ax*e conMCtad togotMr, as are the of th^ 6c;.> tubes. Th

grids of ths 6c5 tubs are oooMctsd to tho anodes of the x*espectivs countar tut^s throa^ oadMMrs M shown, so that tM 6C5 tubes ar nonaally eoadaeting. througxi a coun'. r ' , If a parUcU (COMC ray) pMMS ise arrivea on tM grid cf

ths corx^opoading 605 tttb^ thus, i t CSSMS to conduct and ths tub b^ooMO n t i a l i y a high r^sistanos. c nducting, i t W M a auch l e r resisUnc. WhiU tha Ub^ was Thus, i t wiU bo Msn

that tha poUntlai of the coM m p U U circuit la aetermin^d by tM equTaUnt of a eystM of paralUI resistances. ^f ons or U o

of tho 6C5 tubs becoM high resistancss (by the pMMga of a coaBic ray thx^mgh OM or U o of the oounUr tubf^s, t.hus causing a MgaUvs pulM O B tM cri<-s;, t!<i nla'r circuit of tho 6C5 t'ibM My be conidrod U b^ OM or Uo high resisUncss 1n paralUI with ons I M resistancs. a nost of the current wiU flow

P. Rossi ax i N. Gijsrnto, Hhys. ,eita., 66, (Ax (1^31)

13
through ths low rosistanM, ths ohango in poUntUI of tho platt cix*cuit w i U ba M a U . If, hoerever, a oosaic ray should pass

through a l l tnre^ coMnt*r t;:* s, a l l 6c;t> tu: #3 wo-ild caaM to ccnduct, thMs ausing a '''^'^*^'rbU chanije ^^ ^>-r,4cT <n fj^ p U U cix^niit. A larga '^":lse, therf'*oxT, occurs in tho oatfiat only ^nr-^ cly coass to c l^^r^m 885) *h li U a

wh^n a l l tu^>ea e

trwiMttd to thfl th:'.'. .-^ . *. J

the pulM to 9uch a tM inUrval as to cause tne Mchan!cal x^cox^ier to r e g i a U r . FTM the disctissiofi Auove, i t w i U on t. SMn Uiat, depending

-Ing etMen th^ cmmUr tub^s, the coodc ray coiint The wriUr used the line of tubes

oan be a*de highly direcUonal.

in a vertical plane in ordar U a l U i n a U the backgi*oux)d count of radioactive pax*ticles In the building and gzx>und so that only ooMc rays vouid be countod* The counUr tubes opersU as follcerai A poUntUI ia plaoed

across the cat.hods and anoda. The passa.re of a coMc ry thrtnigh a tube ionUes the MaU Mount of gM that i s put InU the t\)S. The po^itive ioos are atu'a:te to the net^ativo catno and tho Mgative lons to ths anode, thus causing the tubrs U conduet MMntarily, and this ^auMS ths n^gative milM, DX*eTlousIy d i s cusssd, to appe r on the grid of the 6C^. SiaulUnaau^ rMdings of poUntial gradient were UKen, th^ tM inUrral of x^ading dapandUg prMriIy on changes in potantial gradient. For p U , i f ths U c t r o M U r easurod a

ci*Uin Talus, tha tM wo*jId be notm aa wall as the rsading on tha record^r of the counUr. Vthen thm U c t r o M U r ohangsd to a

11
diffarent Talue, U\o time and counUr reading were at;ain noi-eu. FrM this W M obUined the avarage poUntial gradlent as M 1 1 ma the coMc rsv Intrnaitv 1n roimts por minuU durint: thie tM inUi-val. coMic rai' inUnsity waa plotted against ths syrai

p o u n t i a l graaient on an ax*t>itrary absciSM M can be Mon frosi th^ e\urves. Psfore Mkixi a run, the approprUU swiUhes wer

thrcwn in ordsr to calibraU ths U c t r o M U r . Tnm tM U tisM rec^ : wex^ taken of th wind v^Iocity,

r e U t i v e hMaity, baror V r pressxure, ana tsap^raturw sinM coMic ray inUnsity M obMX*ved on the eax*th'8 surface S M to dopsnd on th^ U t U r uro facUrs U a csrtuU e x U n t .

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CRAPH NO. PQTtNTIALl O^ADltNT

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POTENTIAU PHADIENT - . 4 V01.TS TER

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GRAPH NO PTENTUL GROlENt VQLTiyl


1

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/METER

^inNin siNnoo -Ai.lS4aiNI AVU pii^oo

GRAPH NO. .POTENtlAL. .GFAIENT vbLTS/ .


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1

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PACE 29 GRAPH NO. i

1
! ^ ^ a !! P M ^

^^MB

^ ! M M M M M!^^Mi^

MBS

MSKM
MSSZS

sssssas

30

CO*'

tS fD T*'T^'?P^iiTT.'W. ';!^ w rvT"

To roYlew ths nroblsa at haod, ths v r i U r has attsaptad to find aoas r s i a t i pot^nt^^i . *s . >n coailc rsy inUnslty ryl at08 h#ric ! ^d by peferrlnc U ths . dy aro 9b1rc!t to 3,

oorrss l throoi^ 8, tho tso factora

large variations fro t v aean, rvm on s t l l l Sinco on dlstu. oonsidaration, ths wrlUiT any, variation of oosBc ra/ ir. on thsss days. poUnti. . tier

ny facUrs twist bs Uksn InU ^^ uvW w the SBMII, ity with noUntlal gr-dlent

>rs aaks su h a grc^t diffepsnoo in .ill v..rlAtlon Unt i s Typical disturbsd T^se cMrvss wors

"st variai -^ns, u*.:

U bs obsarvsd i s aIost ooaplsUI/ aaakad. day Tariations ars shovn by Cinrss 2 and 6.

dsd for coBpIsUnsss of daU for a l l types of days. Whsn rco .!.,: the poUai. t, i t shouia oe tsjcsn into considera-

tion th.w v.isse are STsrtfs values^ not peak TaL^es whioh for sh-irt tiB inUnrals are vsry auch g r s a U r . rk) daU coiild be m when Uken on rainy days or

days on wLlc/. i t snowrd, sinoo tho colicctor aysUc w. ^'y-^->o to ths elsaenU and the chars Isakage was an apprsoia;.le p<roentace of thc U U I charfs O B ths ooUector systs:r, lypical clsar wathr daU are plotted on cixrves 1, 3# 5# and 7. , i. - n: 'vr-i^ ray ^era, u ars sostlnes pro-

ducod whsn a cosaic ray strikss a fairly dsnss n s U r i a l to fom

othsr partlclss, i t oan b sen that in vtany oa'^es a coi mgr inUnslty peak or doprsssion ra\\im occtirs 4*t XJtir- 5 -. t- as a poUntial r.i'!lont cn^ '* dsgrsssion vulue. T-^rr'lc ray Int-

Bsity and poU t i a l grm.'^nt wmrm unrslatsd In sny wny, ths law of probability would sUt^ that ther^ s be as many laces

ths psak or lepresfion values would not oooor toither m9 vhsrs thsy vould* Taking valuss frcs ths - r^es, ws gstt Total nuabsr of valuss '.'or r valurs whsrs psaks or deprcssions occur
at UM SSSM ti-e

Curvs

NuHber of values whsrs peaks or dsnrsssions do not oc 'ur to^ethcr

22 21 21
2li

16
Ili

6 7 6 6
11

3
U

15 16 11

s
7

22

ftom ths fir-^''" hftv *t sAflsia nossibli! that ths gradient and oomic ray ' / r^. :: rsliktsd.

Anothsr inUresting point U b notsd frcn a considsration of curves 1 t;.r fluctuaU at* cosaic ray inUnsxwj sosas U e r U i n t i s s tha- t othrs, and *n sotne cases

w^ttn Um poUntial gridient i s undsrgoin^ ui**^t fluctuation, ths oos io ray InUnsit^ actsd vsry auch ths SSBS. v.is i s not sur-

pr^amg ausas iv ...s iumii u.tkx, coisiic ra/ iiiUnsilOf' " ^ ^ ^** slightly with saae of the sssis fsrtnT^s that 1nnu(*nc var*ation3 in ootntUI

I NsglrctiBg changes that are diffictilt to d s U c t or thoi not at soIuUly reliabls*

*, thus a grsat variati^n in ths poUntial gradicnt co ^li alao bs froa ths SSBS oaitM ati a va*iu^.m in the Unsity. - rve 6 and ths daU iven ars / taking ;-ay in-

ths snrsra^ valuss frar varl us da^'s 4L.d att^ pting U correlaU tban* As can bs sssn frasi uuc curve^ thio uutempt was unsuoosssfulf

vhieh i-idituiUs that m s s bly variatlons of sosmlc ra^ 1ntna^y with .tial gradientf if s^iCh doss e x i s t , are aors or l e s s

instantansGus variatio.ns* Ths writr'a oata ^ " " ^ iow '. a* tial

grwiisnt that HajfSS^ dhU1n#d on clear days In thla l o r a l i t v as eoBipard with U.e hthei' Vil.es found at othsr placss* Sincs thers was no daU ava usLn^ ths SMJM orisnUtion ^ *^ .i It ^n ooadc ray ' nity

^ubss that ths wriUr uasd ehsok ths Lnb': ock

1n hla ohrvat'or.s, i t m s ianoss


rcsi-lU.

ftPOB a study of ths prscedin^ rssuIU, i t is obvious that furuT atou/ L- wiia ^ujsooBsnon i s nesdod. ?y using iaprovsd

tootoniqus that w^ld enable the vorker to obUin instantmsOM values perhaps aore coild bs aooosipl shed. unr s ., cstion i s an

autoatic recording dsvios whioh w .Id record on phot^fTarhic napor variations in ux* Uu :actors under study. Thus continuoos readings

eould bs Uken 2\x hours a dv f^r ncvrrR.^ mon'.ha, without re-.uirIng ths ssrvicss of the op' ra* i U do roir4ns BainUnanoo^

Hayes, 0. c l t . t r*. 27.

33

auoh as ehanjin.- and develot ini^ f i l a , ad.iu jtin^ eqiiicmenty s t

i f s TariaU.on of '

ri

\'*' r.i.'.y > it> . v*

rlc

poUntial gradisnt doos toxisu^ Uisrs c^ tions for thp corr*lationt 1. Ohanss in ths coMiic Tc .V .s:;y.

^ibXe axplana-

lc rays ionise ths a l r , thas prodoeBC .1 jra^i^rnty with changoa B This could bs nsasursd on s t i l l ,

C l s a r -nTrr -ml':,

.(T' o t h e r 'ct'^rs MlVS SO WlOh

differ 2.

in r Thc poUntial p

- ^

andy dsya*

nt nsay exsrt a foroo oo

cosBic ra^-s grsat oaoocb to dsflsct thsa s l i ^ t l y frosi thlr rzsxixl IndiserlrinaU p a t U m so that ohsngss in pot ^I gradiant c iy pr xiuce chan.ws in

cosBiic ray mUns \ .

3).

ACXSOVLEDOEMEIT Tho v r i U r wiahss 's opportunity

to sxtsnd his thanks U a l l ths Bsribsrs of tho Dopartr<*nt of ItiQrsirs fcr thsir assisUnos in tlM prsoaratlan of WUa Viasis, lar, U Dr. . w, So)ldt a-^ T>,. :s n particu-

wvi fnr tv r patirnt hslp with ths ; that k Tr

- U t i s in ofloosotion with

the gathering of Ihess cL ..i.

35

BIBLI^ORAi'ifT

BIBLIGRA;'

Cork, ^ . , Radioaci Tork, i .., .

-^ ar Physics

\,^:\

.O

( t t i , ElepenU of liojlsar Physics Tork, . .

(Prsntics-Hall, j to

'^Uysr, K. K*9 and Kennard, E. K.| Introd^ fcoasm /hyaics (lloOrsw-HiIl, ew York, I9li2).

Stranathan, T , "# ftpr.f^^tt pf liodsm Phys^cs, (fflakiaton, ^ l a a, T

^rio^^ Andsraon. C. D . , aoA aioarrrr,'^r, '". M., i 50, 27C ( 1 9 3 6 ) . Bamathy, J . , and nr^n, (193^^ t $8, eUi (19U . , . ., ^ l Keview,

s c a l Rrvi#w, <?<, 070

-r, Physical ^evi*^. 52, 80 ( 1 9 3 7 ) . ., -liyslcal Hev>w, ^2,

C '^n, A. H., and T'jmer, .:. 799 (Iy.>/;.

Dsppoman, T s r r e s t r i a l Kagnstissi and Atooopheric E l s c t i d ty, 36, 211 (1V31). Dwight, : . r . '-f*^^ M and AUosphsric Electric ty, ^ ' f t , xx, ^w. ^ i y i c ; *

3, 309 (19317:
uocjcei, A., ^ _^

Hess, PnysikaUschs ^ s i U c h r i f t . 12, 966 ( I 9 I I ) . KolhArsUr, Tysikalisohs ^ s i U c h r i f t . Ui, 1(^66, II$3, (1^13). LBiaitrs, 0 . , and V a l I a r U , M. 8 . , Physical Rcview, li3, 67 (iy33). k i l l i k a n , ''. A., and CaMron, 0 . '., Phyaical :'svicrw, 28, 851 (1926).

37 liiilikan, H. A., aixi Caaaron, G. H., ?hysical Rcview, 31, 921 (1926). kiHikan, R. A., Neher, RsTisw. 50, 992 ( : . . . , and Havrnn, f., r., Physical

Hiahiaa, Y., bekido, T.. yiyasake, T., and ICasuda, T., Physical rveview. 59, Uol ( m i ) . Roasi, B., uid Ciawnto, f., Physikalische '^-'^^-'ft, 6li ( 1 3 1 ) .
(

68,

Rutherfnrd,, 1 . , and Cooki, H. L., Physi:al 'eviini, I6, I83 SUrrer, C , 37, 375 (1932). vl Ifagiet^sin and AUospheric r i e c t r i c i t y , ^

Wilaon, V. C , Phyaieal Review. 53, 2Qii, 337 (1938). rhssss Haynes, T., " A Study of ths Ataosphsrio Pr al Oradient at ' , Tsxat", (Thssis, Tsxaa TsohDOlogloai ^ollsgs, Lub'>ock,
Tsxaa,
X?J5).

Roustan, f,, "A Stiidv o ' CsrUin Atonhr1c Vhsnosietian nying <3niia", / ^ s i s , TSXM> ogical jo, 30ck, Tsxas, 1932).

kV 'FHDn

39

APPINDU CALCULATIOII IIADS TO SHOI TH/ STARTim F R O M RST AT T TMI SURfAC? THI OBSIRVU^ 'J EmOT QAINID BY A N KLECTRONf 'HIU A K D rlNDINO AT tiVBOr CCMPARABLE TO ^.S

An s l e c t r o n v o l t of enerf^ i s dsfinad as ths saount of onsrgy an s l s c t r o n would gain in f a l l i n g through a p o U n t i a l differrnos of 1 v o l t . Thus, i f w % waks tha follcming assuwptionsA 1 . the hsight of ths atnosphers i s about 200 ka. 2 . the av^rai^s ^ gradient along ths ataosphers froa ths sarth t of ths atooaphsrs i s aVout 100 T o I t s ^ U r , thsn a p o U n t i a l diffsrenos of sbout 2C a i l l i o n v o I U aay s x i s t bstwosn the earth and ths U p of ths aBOsphsrs. Thus, an s l s c t r o n f a l l i n g throogh t h l s p o U n t i a l difId gain 20 a i l . i o n s l s c t r o n v o I U of soargjr*

I laking ths assuxnption also that d i s U r t i o n of ths s l s c t r i c f i s l d doss not s x i s t *


TEXAS TI Ll IIRRAffY

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GRAPH NO.

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