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CHAPTERIII RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the procedure used in conducting the research. It covers: research design, population and sample, research instrument, data collectionanddataanalysis.

3.1ResearchDesign The research design used in this study was descriptive research design becausethisstudybasicallyaimedatdescribingthestudentsprobleminlearning speaking. Descriptive research studies are designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomena (Ary, 2002). This study used descriptive research because it was intended to get information concerning the current status ofphenomena. The current statusof phenomena in this study was the nonlinguistic problems faced by the second semester students of English departmentatUMM inlearningEnglish speaking.

3.2PopulationandSample Thesmallgroupthatisobservediscalledassample,andthelargergroup about which the generalization is made, is called a population. A population is definedasallmemberof anywelldefined,classofpeople,eventsorobjects(Ary, 2002: 163). The population of this study was the second semester students of English Department of the University of Muhammadiyah Malang who were 22

dividedintotenclassesnamelyclassA,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J.Thetotalnumber ofpopulationwas241students. Arystated,Asampleisthesmallgroupthatisobserved(2002:163). Arikunto (1992) argues if the subject or population of the study are less than100innumber,theresearcherhadbettertakenallofthem.Ifthesubjectsare morethan100innumber,theresearchercantakearound10%15%or20%25or 50% of them. In this study the researcher used proportional random sampling technique in taking the sample, because each member of the population has an equalchanceofbeingselected(Ary,2002). The population of the study was 241 students and the sample was 60 students. The sample was taken 25% from the total population. They were 60 studentstakenfrom10classestheresearchertook 6studentsfromeachclassesto becometherepresentativestudents tofillthequestionnaire givenbytheresearcher byusinglottery.By using randomsamplingtechniqueintakingthesamplemeans it will make the data balance, because the researcher will know the most and variousproblemsfacedbythestudentsfromeachclasses.

3.3DataCollection The data of this research were the students nonlinguistic problem in speaking. The data were obtained from the result of the questionnaire and interview.Theproblemswerefocusedonnonlinguisticproblems.Theresearcher usedthefollowingstepstocollectthedata:

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1.

TheresearchconstructthequestionnairewhichareadaptedfromKurtus (2001:14) inordertogathertheinformationconcerningthestudents problems and how to cope those problems in learning speaking in overcome theirnonlinguisticproblemsinspeaking.

2.

Distributing the questionnaire to the students to get information about thestudentsproblemsandhowtocopethosenonlinguisticproblemsin learningspeaking.

3.

Thewritergavetimeallotmenttothestudentsansweredthequestionsin questionnaire.

3.4Instrument Inthisstudy,tocollectthedata,theresearcherusedthequestionnaire. Questionnaire The questionnaire was used to collect the data of the nonlinguistic problems faced by the second semester students in learning speaking at UMM. Therearetwotypesofquestionnaire,theyarecloseformandopenedform(Ary, 2002: 389). Close form contains the questions and alternative answers to them. The answers provided for each question should be exhausted of all possible responsesandatthesametimemutuallyexclusive.Openedformdoesnotinclude suggested answers. Opened questionnaire gives the respondents freedom to revealtheiropinionsandattitudes.Theresearcherusedboth,closeandopenform of questionnaire in collecting the data. The researcher combines of both questionnairesbecauseinadditiontoavailablechoices,therespondentswerealso 24

given the chance to answer the questions based on their personal opinions. To avoid students misunderstanding, the question will be written in the form of Indonesianlanguage.

3.5DataAnalysis Dataanalysisisatimeconsuminganddifficultprocess,becausetypically the researcher faces massive amounts, of fields note, interview transcript, reflection and information from the documents to examine and interpret (Ary, 2002:465). Aftercollectingthedatabygivingthequestionnaire,theresearcherwould analyzethedatadescriptively.Inthiscase,theresearcheridentifiedandclassified the problems faced by the students in learning speaking and how the students overcometheirproblems Afterthedatahadbeencollected,theywereanalyzedasfollows: 1. Identifying the nonlinguistic problems faced by the students in learning speaking,andthealternative strategiesoftheproblemsthroughthestudents answerofthequestionnaire. 2. Classifying the students answer sheet into groups that have the same commentsofopinions. 3. Tabulatingtherespondentsanswerthroughoftheformulaasfollows: P=
F X100 % N

P=thepercentageofthestudentsproblems. F=thenumberofthefrequencyoftherespondentsanswers.
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N=thenumberoftherespondent 4. Drawtheconclusionbasedontheresultofanalysis.

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