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Vocabulary Old Mexican Spanish words entered into the lexicon of the indigenous languages of the Philippines.

In fact, of the great number of Spanish loanwords that exist in the various Philippine languages, a few are actually derived from the words of the indigenous peoples of the Americas that were first incorporated into American Spanish.[77] These include but not limited to:[78] PHILIPPINE LOANWORD tsokolate sayote kamote bayabas papaya or kapayas ORIGIN Nahuatl: xocolatl Nahuatl: chayotl Arawakan: guayabo VIA MEXICAN SPANISH chocolate chayote ENGLISH EQUIVALENT chocolate chayote sweet potato guava papaya

Nahuatl: camotl camote guayaba

Cariban: papaya papaya

Even words of Nahuatl origin penetrated into the Philippine languages such as nanay [from (Nahuatl: nantl); (English: mother)] and tatay[from (Nahuatl: tatl); (English: father)] as a direct result of the Manila galleon. Peninsular Spanish started to influence the vocabulary of Philippine languages after the Philippines was administered directly from Spain. Meaning changes While many Spanish words have made their way to Philippine languages, many of these words have had a shift in meaning from the original Spanish. This has resulted in false friends, related words that exist in two languages with different meanings. A sampling of these words is shown below: MEANING IN THE PHILIPPIN ES to annoy ORIGINAL SPANISH WORD SPANISH MEANING

WORD

LANGUAGE

asar

Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan Tagalog, Kapampangan Tagalog, Kapampangan

asar

roast

asta

rude hasta (in until movements Arabic: Hatta) well and worth, vale wages, pay ok! and voucher or promissory note ball

bale baln

Tagalog, well/balloo baln Kapampangan,

Visayan Tagalog, Kapampangan Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan

n within proximity of and band cheap

banda

banda

band, side

barat

barato

cheap, low prices

Tagalog, Cebuano, barkada Ilocano, Kapampangan

group of friends

barcada

boatload

basta

Tagalog, Chavacano (we also mean it as as long enough), as/secret Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan Cebuano, Tagalog, Kapampangan

basta

enough, stop!

bida

lead actor/actre vida ss

life bomb, and impressive or surprising (slang) used as an exclamation ("la bomba!") girl

bomba

erotica/nud ity and bomba bomb

chika

gossip and chica girl elite class entonces

entonse Tagalog s impakto Tagalog, Kapampangan

then, afterwards impact, shock

spirit impacto causing temporary madness

(originally elemental spirit from the earth) Tagalog, Cebuano, Chavacano (we bathroom, kasilyas casilla spell it as toilet "casillas"), Ilocano

square, cube, hut

kerida

Tagalog, Kapampangan

mistress (only)

querida

dear (used for female loved ones including mothers, sisters, aunts, and friends) and mistress (when used as "la querida")

Tagalog, kontrabi Cebuano, da Ilocano, Kapampangan konyo kubeta Tagalog Tagalog, Kapampangan

villain

contra vida

against life

rich or vain coo toilet, outhouse cubeta

Exclamation and curse word (coo!) bucket

Tagalog, kumusta Ilocano, Kapampangan kwarta Tagalog

hello or Ho How are w are Cmo est? you? / How is you? /How ___? (only) is ___? money cuarta fourth, quarter (coin)

letse

Cebuano, Tagalog

Used as a The curse word, to be nasty, but expression: t but less literally, to have ener mala often, bad milk. leche. as milk.

lola

Tagalog and grandmoth Lola other languages er Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan

native nickname of Dolores mother (parent) and nun

madre

nun (only) madre

Cebuano, maldito/ Tagalog, a Kapampangan

bad

maldito/a

bad, damned suckle (from mamar "to suckle") mammary glands (as in the English word "mammaries") Also papaya in the Caribbean

Tagalog, Cebuano, mamn Ilocano, Kapampangan

mamn (de "mamar"), fluffy bread mamn (de "mamas")

Tagalog, Chavacano maske, (spelledmasque even if maski n), Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan mutsats Tagalog, a Kapampangan onse Tagalog, Ilocano Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan

as much as; even por ms que/ if; even then;/more ms que than

maid (only) muchacha eleven and once hustle priest (only, inflexible)

maid (Mexico and Spain) and girl eleven

padre

padre

father (parent) and priest

Tagalog, palengk Ilocano, e Kapampangan pare Tagalog, Kapampangan

market

palenque

palisade

friend (slang)

Corruption godfather of one's of compadre, child, friend and not to be

confused with pare, the polite imperative of stop. Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano (spelled padi), Kapampangan Tagalog, Kapampangan Tagalog, Kapampangan

par

priest

padre

father, priest

pera peras

money pear

perra pera

coin, penny pear

pirmi

Hiligaynon, Cebuano, steady, Chavacano(spel always l it as "firmi"), Kapampangan Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan chicken breast (only)

firme

firm, steady

pitso

pecho

breast (in general including humans and other animals)

pwerta

Tagalog, Kapampangan

door (also, in some instances, used to describe puerta the orifice of the vaginal canal) menstruati regla on seguro

door

regla siguro

Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan

rule/ruler/menstrua tion secure, stable, sure

Tagalog, maybe Chavacano(seg uro), Cebuano,

Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan silb Tagalog, Cebuano, Kapampangan Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kapampangan to serve sirve He/she/it serves

sugal

gambling

jugar

to play, to gamble

Tagalog, sugarl Cebuano, Kapampangan Tagalog, suplado Cebuano, Kapampangan

gambler

jugador

gambler and player

snobbish, snooty, soplado stubborn (child), brat

blown, one who is "inflated"

Tagalog, Ilocano, Chavacano(sie mpre for "of syempre of course course" and "always"), Cebuano, Hiligaynon False cognates

siempre

always

The following words do not fall under false friends. They are still a source of confusion: SIMILA MEANING R IN THE SPANIS PHILIPPINE H S WORD

WOR LANGUAGE D

SPANISH MEANING

alamn Tagalog

to know

alamn

village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights

am an

Tagalog, Ilocano Tagalog, Ilonggo

father what

ama ano

housewife, to love anus/ring/circle

chico

Cebuano, Tagalog, sapodilla Ilonggo, Kapampangan Ilocano Tagalog west ground, earth

chico

boy

laud lup lupa

lad lupa lupa

lute magnifying glass magnifying glass

Kapampangan face Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Ilonggo Tagalog Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Ilonggo

lut

cook

luto

mourn

piso

peso

piso

floor male prostitute/homosexual (note that the original meaning of the feminine variant, "puta", is retained in Tagalog)

puto

a type of rice puto cake

baho

Tagalog, Cebuano pungent, (spelled as smelly bah), Ilonggo Tagalog, to say Kapampangan Tagalog, because Kapampangan word, to speak

bajo

low, short

sabi kas, kas

saber casi Sarita

to know almost young Sarah

sarita Ilocano

List of Spanish words of Philippine origin Although the greatest linguistic impact and loanwords have been from Spanish to the languages of the Philippines, the Philippine languages have also loaned some words to Spanish. The following are some of the words of Philippine origin that can be found in the Diccionario de la lengua espaola de la Real Academia Espaola, the dictionary published by the Real Academia Espaola:[84] SPANISH LOANWOR D abac baguio barangay bolo carabao ORIGIN Old Tagalog: abac Old Tagalog: baguio Old Tagalog: balangay Old Tagalog: bolo Old Visayan: carabo VIA FILIPINO LANGUAGE ENGLISH EQUIVALENT abaca typhoon or hurrica ne barangay bolo carabao caracoa, a war canoe cogon single, young woman Chinese hibiscus

abak bagyo baranggay bolo kalabw

caracoa

Old Old Tagalog: karakaw Malay: coracora caracoa Old Tagalog: cogn Old Tagalog: dalaga Old Tagalog: gumamela Old Malay: nipah Old Tagalog: paypay or paykogn dalaga gumamela Old Tagalog: nipa nipa pamaypay

cogn dalaga gumamela

nipa paipay

nipa palm a type of fan

pay palay pantaln salisipan sampaguita Old Tagalog: palay Old Tagalog: pantaln Old Tagalog: salicipan Old Tagalog: sampaga Old Tagalog: sauali Old Tagalog: tuba Old Chinese palay pantaln salisipan unhusked rice wooden pier salisipan, a pirate ship

sampaguita jasmine sawali, a woven bamboo ma t palm wine

sawali

sawali

tuba

tuba Old Tagalog: yo-y yoy

yoy

Chinese yo-yo