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Elements of Soil Mechanics, 8th Edition Exercises 7.2 & 7.

The worksheets in this spreadsheet illustrate the use of the Factor of Safet Eurocode 7 EQU and GEO limit state design methods for the design of grav walls.

Although the spreadsheet contains the data for Exercises 7.2 & 7.5 from t data may be changed so that the reader can see the effect of varying the retained height etc. Instructions:

1. As the routines call data from the partial factors spreadsheet, a dialog b whether to update the data will appear. To use the default Eurocode 7 par values, click "Don't Update". If, however, you have changed values in the spreadsheet, click "Update".

2. Select Data input sheet and enter data. Results are displayed on other s Ian Smith, Sept 2005

ate the use of the Factor of Safety and the n methods for the design of gravity retaining

a for Exercises 7.2 & 7.5 from the book, the an see the effect of varying the soil properties,

l factors spreadsheet, a dialog box asking use the default Eurocode 7 partial factor you have changed values in the partial factors Results are displayed on other sheets.

Depth to underside of base Thickness of base Height of wall above foundation Breadth of base Breadth of top Concrete weight density Water weight density Retained fill Weight density Shearing resistance Effective cohesion Foundation soil Weight density Shearing resistance Effective cohesion Applied surcharge

dbase = tbase = hwall = bbase = btop = conc = water =

0.00 1.00 5.00 2.50 1.80

m m m m m

3 23.50 kN/m 3 9.81 kN/m

fill.dry = fill = c'fill =

3 18.00 kN/m 35.00 0.00 kPa

fdn = fdn = c'fdn = q=

3 18.00 kN/m 35.00

0.00 kPa 0.00 kPa

Enter values into blue fields.

surcharge, q btop

hwall
1

tbase
3

dbase bbase

Design Results: EQU: Overturning GEO: Sliding: DA1, Cbntn 1: GEO: Sliding: DA1, Cbntn 2:

2.74 (OK) 2.76 (OK) 2.27 (OK) (Governs)

Lumped Factor of Safety


1. Sliding Backfill Active earth pressure coefficient Angle of interface friction Weight density Self-weight of wall: Wall area 1, W1 Wall area 2, W2 Wall area 3, W3 Total:

Kad.fill = d = d.fill =

0.271 23.45 18.000

Gvk.1 = Gvk.2 = Gvk.3 = Gvk.wall =

32.90 169.20 58.75 260.85

Active earth pressures @ foundation Active lateral earth pressure (fill) Active lateral earth pressure (fndtn soil) @ base Active lateral earth pressure Active thrust behind wall (permanent - unfavourable) Active earth pressure 1 Active earth pressure 2 Total horizontal thrust Sliding resistance Horizontal resistance Factor of safety against sliding = 2. Overturning Disturbing Lever arms: Pa due to fill Moments: Destabilising mmt due to fill

pfdn1 = pfdn2 = pbase =

24.39 0.00 0

Pa1 = Pa2 = Hd =

60.97 0.00 60.97

Rhd.base = Fs =

113.15 1.86

LPa =

1.67

Mdst1.b =

101.62

Stabilising Lever arms: Wall area 1 Wall area 2 Wall area 3

Lwall1 = Lwall2 = Lwall3 =

0.47 1.60 1.25

Moments: Stabilising mmt due to Area 1 Stabilising mmt due to Area 2 Stabilising mmt due to Area 3 Total stabilising moment Factor of safety against overturning =

Mstb1 = Mstb2 = Mstb3 = Mstb = Fo =

15.35 270.72 73.44 359.51 3.54

1. Geometry Wall dimensions: height of sloping portion, hsloping Wall area 1, A1 Wall area 2, A2 Wall area 3, A3 Total: 2. Representative actions Self-weight of wall: Wall area 1, W1 Wall area 2, W2 Wall area 3, W3 Total: 3. Characteristic material properties Concrete weight density Retained fill Weight density Shearing resistance Effective cohesion Foundation soil Weight density Shearing resistance Effective cohesion

hsloping = Area1 = Area2 = Area3 = Awall =

4.00 1.40 7.20 2.50 11.10

Gvk.1 = Gvk.2 = Gvk.3 = Gvk.wall =

32.90 169.20 58.75 260.85

k.conc =

3 23.50 kN/m

k.fill.dry = k.fill = c'k.fill =

3 18.00 kN/m 35.00 0.00 kPa

k.fdn = k.fdn = c'k.fdn =

3 18.00 kN/m 35.00 0.00 kPa

EQU Limit State - Overturning


1. Partial factors On unfavourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On favourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On material properties/resistances Coefficient of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density G.fav = Q.fav = 0.90 G = Q = 1.10 1.50

= c = =

1.25 1.25 1.00

2. Design geometry Retained height of fill

H=

5.00

3. Design material properties: Backfill Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Active earth pressure coefficient Weight density Foundation soil Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Angle of interface friction Active earth pressure coefficient Weight density

d.fill = c'd.fill = Kad.fill = d.fill =

29.26 0.00 0.286 18.000

d.fdn = c'd.fdn = d.fdn = Kad.fdn = d.fdn =

29.26 0.00 29.26 0.286 18.000

4. Design actions Self-weight of wall (permanent - favourable) Wall area 1, W1 Wall area 2, W2 Wall area 3, W3 Total:

Gvd.1 = Gvd.2 = Gvd.3 = Gvd.wall =

29.61 152.28 52.88 234.77

Active earth pressures @ foundation Active lateral earth pressure (fill) Active lateral earth pressure (fndtn soil) @ base Active lateral earth pressure

pfdn1 = pfdn2 = pbase =

25.74 25.74 25.74

Active thrust behind wall (permanent - unfavourable) Active earth pressure 1 Ghd1 = Active earth pressure 2 Ghd2 = Active thrust due to surcharge (variable - unfavourable) Surcharge pressure 1 Qhd1 = Surcharge pressure 2 Qhd2 =

70.79 0.00

0.00 0.00

5. Design effect of actions Lever arms: Pa due to fill, Ghd1 Pa due to fndtn soil, Ghd2 Pa due to surcharge, Qhd1 Pa due to surcharge, Qhd2 Moments: Destabilising Destabilising Destabilising Destabilising

LGhd1 = LGhd2 = LQhd1 = LQhd2 =

1.67 0.00 2.50 0.00

mmt mmt mmt mmt

due due due due

to to to to

fill fndtn soil surcharge, Qhd1 surcharge, Qhd2

Mdst1 = Mdst2 = Mdst3 = Mdst4 = Mdst = Edst =

117.98 0.00 0.00 0.00 117.98 117.98

Total destabilising moment Effect of actions

6. Design resistance Lever arms: Wall area 1 Wall area 2 Wall area 3 Moments: Stabilising mmt due to Area 1 Stabilising mmt due to Area 2 Stabilising mmt due to Area 3 Total stabilising moment

Lwall1 = Lwall2 = Lwall3 =

0.47 1.60 1.25

Mstb1 = Mstb2 = Mstb3 = Mstb =

13.82 243.65 66.09 323.56

7. Verification of overturning resistance

Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used

2.74

36%

7. Verification of overturning resistance Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects

2.74

Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used =

36.5%

red= from Partial Factors table

GEO Limit State - Sliding


1. Partial factors On unfavourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On favourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On material properties/resistances Coefficient of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Bearing resistance Sliding resistance G.fav = Q.fav = G = Q =

Design Approach 1, Combination 1 A1+M1+R1

1.35 1.50

1.00 -

= c = = Rv = Rh =

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

2. Design geometry Retained height of fill

H=

5.00

3. Design material properties: Backfill Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Active earth pressure coefficient Foundation soil Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Angle of interface friction Active earth pressure coefficient

d.fill = c'd.fill = d.fill = Kad.fill =

35.00 0.00 18.000 0.218

d.fdn = c'd.fdn = d.fdn = d.fdn = Kad.fdn =

35.00 0.00 18.000 35.00 0.218

4. Design actions Self-weight of wall (permanent - favourable) Wall area 1, W1 Wall area 2, W2 Wall area 3, W3

Gvd.1 = Gvd.2 = Gvd.3 =

32.90 169.20 58.75

Total: Active earth pressures @ foundation Active lateral earth pressure (fill) Active lateral earth pressure (fndtn soil) @ base Active lateral earth pressure

Gvd.wall =

260.85

pfdn1 = pfdn2 = pbase =

19.62 19.62 19.62

Active thrust behind wall (permanent - unfavourable) Active earth pressure 1 Ghd1 = Active earth pressure 2 Ghd2 = Active thrust due to surcharge (variable - unfavourable) Surcharge pressure 1 Qhd1 = Surcharge pressure 2 Qhd2 =

66.22 0.00

0.00 0.00

5. Design effect of actions Total horizontal thrust Effect of actions Hd = Ehd = 66.22 66.22

6. Design resistance Friction on underside of base Vertical action (total) Horizontal resistance

Vd = Rhd =

260.85 182.65

7. Verification of sliding resistance Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used

2.76

36%

pproach 1, Combination 1

7. Verification of sliding resistance Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects

2.76

Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used =

36.3%

red= from Partial Factors table

GEO Limit State - Sliding


1. Partial factors On unfavourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On favourable actions/action effects Permanent actions Variable actions On material properties/resistances Coefficient of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Bearing resistance Sliding resistance G.fav = Q.fav = G = Q =

Design Approach 1, Combination 2 A2+M2+R1

1.00 1.30

1.00 -

= c = = Rv = Rh =

1.25 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00

2. Design geometry Retained height of fill

H=

5.00

3. Design material properties: Backfill Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Active earth pressure coefficient Foundation soil Angle of shearing resistance Effective cohesion Weight density Angle of interface friction Active earth pressure coefficient

d.fill = c'd.fill = d.fill = Kad.fill =

29.26 0.00 18.000 0.286

d.fdn = c'd.fdn = d.fdn = d.fdn = Kad.fdn =

29.26 0.00 18.000 29.26 0.286

4. Design actions Self-weight of wall (permanent - favourable) Wall area 1, W1 Wall area 2, W2 Wall area 3, W3

Gvd.1 = Gvd.2 = Gvd.3 =

32.90 169.20 58.75

Total: Active earth pressures @ foundation Active lateral earth pressure (fill) Active lateral earth pressure (fndtn soil) @ base Active lateral earth pressure

Gvd.wall =

260.85

pfdn1 = pfdn2 = pbase =

25.74 25.74 25.74

Active thrust behind wall (permanent - unfavourable) Active earth pressure 1 Ghd1 = Active earth pressure 2 Ghd2 = Active thrust due to surcharge (variable - unfavourable) Surcharge pressure 1 Qhd1 = Surcharge pressure 2 Qhd2 =

64.35 0.00

0.00 0.00

5. Design effect of actions Total horizontal thrust Effect of actions Hd = Ehd = 64.35 64.35

6. Design resistance Friction on underside of base Vertical action (total) Horizontal resistance

Vd = Rhd =

260.85 146.12

7. Verification of sliding resistance Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used

2.27

44%

pproach 1, Combination 2

7. Verification of sliding resistance Overdesign factor Ratio of resistance to effects

2.27

Degree of utilisation Proportion of available resistance used =

44.0%

red= from Partial Factors table

This spreadsheet has been downloaded from the website that supports Smith's Elements of Soil Mechanics, 8th Edition Published by Blackwell Publishing, May 2006 ISBN: 1-4051-3370-8 Visit the website:
http://sbe.napier.ac.uk/esm

Purchase the book:


(Blackwell Publishing website)

Please note: This spreadsheet is an aid for learning and should really only be used in conjunction with the relevant section in the book. It is not intended for use in geotechnical design. Ian Smith, May 2006

http://sbe.napier.ac.uk/esm