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U.S. Policy Toward Sudan Page 1 of 5

George E. Moose, Assistant Secretary for


African Affairs
Statement before the Subcommittee on Africa
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Washington, D.C., May 15, 1997 ^r\ ,,
U.S. Department of State C <^ 2*8*5 (*>" \. Counterte

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee:


I welcome the opportunity to participate in this hearing on U.S. Counterterrorism policy toward
Sudan. My colleague, Acting Coordinator for Counterterrorism Ken McKune, will address the
particulars of our Counterterrorism policy. I would like to complement his presentation by describing
the broader concerns we have with Sudan and the numerous actions we have taken in response,
including our fight against terrorism.

Background
Sudan is the largest country in Africa, as large as the eastern portion of the United States. Its 27
million people belong to numerous ethnic and religious groups, many of which fit together uneasily.
The most distinct division in the country is between a predominantly Arab/Muslim north and a
predominantly non- Arab/non-Muslim south. The desire of many southerners for greater autonomy,
control of resources, and liberation from the imposition of Islamic law lies at the heart of Sudan's
continuous civil strife. Since independence in 1956, only the period between 1972 and 1983 saw a
country at peace with itself. We estimate that the conflict has taken about one-and-a-half million lives.
Today, there are approximately two million internally displaced persons in Sudan, as well as several
hundred thousand Sudanese refugees living in neighboring states.
The tragedy of Sudan is compounded by the fact that a potentially prosperous nation has failed its
own people and contributed negatively to the region's welfare. Decades of economic mismanagement
have resulted in an inflation rate of more than 100%, and the largest arrears to the International
Monetary Fund Of any country in the world. Endowed with the potential to generate food surpluses,
poor policies and civil war make Sudan a net food importer. The threat Sudan poses to its neighbors
has forced those countries to divert scarce resources from productive to military ends.

Sudan Under the NIF: Fundamental Problems

Since 1989, when military officers aligned with the National Islamic Front (NIF) overthrew Sudan's
last democratically elected government, Sudan has implemented a wide range of policies which have
further alienated it from its citizens and earned it the opprobrium of the international community. Our
concerns, and our responses, fall into four broad categories:

First, the NIF regime supports international terrorism, primarily by providing safe-haven to terrorist
elements. We have taken unilateral actions and worked through the UN Security Council to mobilize
international action on this issue.

Second, Khartoum actively seeks to destabilize its neighbors by providing material support and haven
for violent insurgent groups. President Clinton's response is to provide the neighboring states of
Sudan and Terrorism Page 1 of 3

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endorsement of the views contained therein.

Kenneth R. McKune
Acting Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Statement before the Subcommittee on Africa
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Washington, D.C., May 15, 1997
U.S. Department of State

"Sudan and Terrorism"

Mr. Chairman:

Thank you for the opportunity to testify today on our counterterrorism policy toward Sudan.

Before commenting on Sudan specifically, I would like to briefly provide a context by outlining
several key elements of our overall counterterrorism policy. They apply to Sudan and other
countries on the terrorism list, and to individual terrorists.

First, a fundamental principle of U.S. policy is to make no concessions to terrorists. We have a


longstanding policy of not giving in to terrorists' demands and not making concessions that would
x reward terrorist actions, including payment of ransom for hostages. Of course, we will use every
appropriate resource to gain the safe return of American citizens held hostage, but without making
concessions.

These principles have guided our counterterrorism policy and actions for many years. We urge
other governments to follow these principles, and we apply them in practice.

Second, we treat terrorists as criminals, consider their acts of violence as crimes, and make every
effort to apprehend international terrorists who attack U.S. citizens or interests so that they are
prosecuted according to the rule of law.

Third, regarding countries that support terrorists, we seek to bring pressure on them to end their
assistance by imposing a variety of economic, diplomatic, and political sanctions.

Sudan was brought under this sanctions regime in August 1993, when the Secretary of State
formally designated it as a country that has repeatedly provided support to groups engaged in acts
of international terrorism. Sudan thus joined six countries already on the list: Iran, Iraq, Libya,
Syria, North Korea, and Cuba.

http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/mckune_970515.html 10/6/03