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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Structural Engineering, Laboratory Report

Advanced Strength of Materials (DESN40113) Submission Deadline 24 / 03 / 2011

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Aim The Aim of the laboratory testing is to demonstrate the practical application of the theoretical calculations through experiment. SHEAR CENTRE Method Using different sections with thin wall steel welded at each end to the section frame, resulting in the beam being fixed. Loads will be applied to the centroid of the section at right angles to the section on a plate (Figure 1). The load will be moved in 20mm increments from one side of the section to the other. Dial gauges are placed at the top of the plate will read the differential vertical movement Y of the plate to the right and left of the section (Figure 2). When the central plate is horizontal with the load applied, torsion on the section will be equalised both left and right. The point at which this equalisation of torsion (both +V plus -V = 0) occurs is the shear centre within limitations of the 20mm increments, at this point the components of the force are in the Y axis (Figure 3).

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Figure 3, Differential movement Martin Smithurst CAD

Three sections are to be tested, Equal angle, Channel & Semicircle dimensions as below (Figure 4). The sections are made from consistent cold formed sheet steel 1.63mm thick.

Figure 4, Sections Martin Smithurst CAD

Picture 1, Sections being tested in lab, featuring the channel Martin Smithurst

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Equal Angle, Theory The equal angle is symmetrical resulting in the shear centre being within the centroid of the section. The shear centre remains unaffected by the orientation of the angle because the components of the force change in equal magnitude between the X and Y axis transferring from one to the other (Figure 5). The theoretical shear centre should be at the centre at position 6 in Figure 6. (SEWARD, D)

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Practical Application Results Equal Angle (mm) from Right Left Dial reading 0 3.68 20 2.93 40 2.18 60 1.47 80 0.74 100 0.04 120 -0.68 140 -1.4 160 -2.06 180 -2.72 200 -3.38
Table 1 Equal Angle test results

Load Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Right Dial reading -4.79 -2.97 -3.29 -1.56 -0.81 -0.06 0.71 1.46 2.18 3.92 3.65

Equal Angle

Displacement (mm)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Left Right

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5

Position Number
Chart 1 Equal Angle

Results From the table it can be seen that position 6 is where the load is 0.02mm from the equilibrium from left to right about position 6. When this data is plotted into a chart the intersection of the two results is the shear centre (Chart 1). The 0.02mm can be explained by the fixed 20mm position and the thickness of the steel section, if this were an infinite sliding scale there would be a point of true equilibrium. This demonstrates that the theory follows the practice.

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Channel Theory As this is non-symmetrical section the shear centre will fall out of the centre line of the section. The eccentricity of this is dimension e (Figure 7). Distance e is calculated using the following equation (Equation 1).

(
Equation 1 Channel

e = eccentricity h = height or depth of the section b = breadth of the section

This puts the theoretical shear centre distance e of 18.75mm outside the channel section. This theoretical result should result in a shear centre in the practical test somewhere between positions 6 and 7 (Figure 7).

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Practical Application Results Channel Left Dial reading 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.05 0.02 -0.015 -0.045 -0.075 -0.115 -0.15 -0.185

Load Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

(mm) from Right 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Right Dial reading -0.28 -0.23 -0.19 -0.14 -0.095 -0.035 -0.005 0.035 0.08 0.125 0.175

Table 2 Channel test results

0.2

Channel

Displacement (mm)

-0.1 -0.2 -0.3

Position Number
Chart 2 Channel

Results As predicted the point of equilibrium falls outside of the section between positions 6 and 7. When this data is plotted the intersection of the two dial readings is where the load is at its greatest Y = maximum component and X = 0 being the shear centre of the beam. This demonstrates that the theory follows the practice. In the graph it is seen that the intersection falls below the 0 line as the whole section is deflected by this displacement.

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Semicircle, Theory Again this is non-symmetrical section the shear centre will fall out of the centre line of the section. The eccentricity of this is dimension e (Figure 8). Distance e is calculated using the following equation (Equation 2). (MEGSON, T.H.G)

Equation 2 Semicircle

e = eccentricity r = radius
This puts the theoretical shear centre distance e at 13.66mm outside the Semicircle section. This theoretical outcome should result in a shear centre in the practical test somewhere between again positions 6 and 7 (Figure 8)

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Practical Application Results

Load Position 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Semicircle (mm) from Right Left Dial reading 0 0.8 20 0.66 40 0.51 60 0.37 80 0.21 100 0.06 120 -0.475 140 -0.615 160 -0.26 180 -0.5 200 -0.65
Table 3 Channel test results

Right Dial reading -1.09 -1.07 -0.7 -0.52 -0.33 -0.15 0.035 0.23 0.41 0.585 0.77

Semicircle
0.8

Displacement (mm)

0.3 Left Right

-0.2

10

11

-0.7

-1.2

Position Number
Chart 3 Channel

Results Again as predicted the point of equilibrium falls outside of the Semicircle section between positions 6 and 7. When this data is plotted the intersection of the two dial readings is where the load is at its greatest Y component and X = 0 being the shear centre of the section. This demonstrates that the theory follows the practice. The intersection falls below the 0 line as the whole section is deflected by this displacement.

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING
This is an investigation into the moment of inertia described as: The moment of inertia of an object about a given axis describes how difficult it is to change its angular motion about that axis. Therefore, it encompasses not just how much mass the object has overall, but how far each bit of mass is from the axis. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia, March 2011) Method The intention is to demonstrate the changing moment of inertia and the states of unsymmetrical bending from a maximum to a minimum by orientation of the section. Using a solid steel section bar, 600mm in length, with an average section of 9.65mm x 19.39mm, and a load of 20N applied (Figure 9).

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

This will demonstrate the various states of unsymmetrical bending through the symmetrical state. The bar is rotated though 105 of rotation from 45 to 150, this changing orientation of the section will change the moment of inertia I in the X and Y axis. The change in moment of inertia will alter the deflection of the bar given a constant Young's modulus (the stiffness of the material). The components X and Y deflection can be recorded as the angle of rotation is changed (Figure 10).

Figure 10 Unsymmetrical bending rig, Martin Smithurst CAD.

Theory The moment of inertia I for a square section is calculated by (Equation 3) (MEGSON, T.H.G)

Equation 3 moment of inertia

Ix = moment of inertia about axis X Iy = moment of inertia about axis Y b = breadth of section d = depth of the section
The components of the load are given by the following (equation 4) (MEGSON, T.H.G)

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Equation 4 Deflection of the beam

dx = deflection about axis X (mm) dy = deflection about axis Y (mm) W = Weight applied (N) L = Effective length (mm)
= Angle of rotation (degrees)

E = Module of elasticity, constant (N/mm)

Theoretical Results
Theory bd/12 Angle () 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 E = 210 x 10E3 210000 210000 210000 210000 210000 210000 210000 210000 L = Length 216000000 216000000 216000000 216000000 216000000 216000000 216000000 216000000 W= Weight (N) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Ix 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 5860.42 bd/12 Iy 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 5802.1422 Cos 0.707 0.5 0.259 0 0.259 0.5 0.707 0.866 Sin 0.707 0.866 0.966 1 0.966 0.866 0.707 0.5 Gauge 1 0.827243 1.013285 1.130292 1.170075 1.130292 1.013285 0.8272439 0.585037 Gauge 2 0.835553 0.590914 0.306093 0 0.306093 0.590914 0.835553 1.023464

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

Theoretical results
Deflection at free end (mm) 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Angle of rotation
Chart 4 unsymmetrical bending, theory results

Gauge 1 Gauge 2

Practical Application Results

Actual Angle () unloaded 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 21.38 21.19 21.08 21.01 20.78 20.73 20.705 21.04 TOP (X) Loaded 20.28 19.91 17.905 17.29 16.7 16.51 16.72 17.42 Actual X 1.1 1.28 3.175 3.72 4.08 4.22 3.985 3.62 Unloaded 22.26 22.28 22.13 22.11 21.92 21.63 21.46 21.58 BOTTOM (Y) Loaded 26.14 25.86 25.05 24.22 21.82 21.52 20.25 19.34 Actual Y 3.88 3.58 2.92 2.11 0.1 0.11 1.21 2.24

Laboratory results
Deflection at free end (mm) 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 40 60 80 100 120 Angle of rotation 140 160 Gauge 1 Gauge 2

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

The colouration of the graphs denotes a similar trend showing the moment of inertia transforming as the beam is rotated. Taking this to 315 of rotation as shown below, this demonstrates that with consistent dimensions there will be maximum inertia of the section twice in rotation for a rectangle section.

Laboratory results
Deflection at free end (mm) 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 40 140 240 340 Angle of rotation

Guage 1 Guage 2

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Advanced Strength of Materials Laboratory Report

References: MEGSON, T.H.G 2005, Structural and Stress Analysis, Second edition, Butterworth

Heinemann, Oxford SEWARD, D 1998, Understanding Structures, Publishing, Basingstoke, Hampshire. Second Edition, Palgrave

WIKIPEDIA

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia, March 2011)

The work submitted is mine alone and not the product of plagiarism, collusion or other academic irregularity, as defined by the regulations of the University. Martin Smithurst .19/03/2011

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