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CBS NEWS POLL For release: Wednesday, August 28, 2013 6:30 pm ET Race Relations in the U.S.

and the Impact of Martin Luther King


August 7-11, 2013

85% of Americans including most whites and blacks - say Martin Luther King, Jr. improved the lives of African Americans, but a majority thinks only some of the goals of the civil rights movement have been met. Most Americans think racial discrimination exists today, but 73% think real progress has been made since the 1960s, and for the first time more than half say they there is real hope of ending discrimination. There are striking racial differences on many of the poll questions. Blacks are less hopeful that discrimination will end and they are more likely to say the justice system is biased against blacks. 40% of blacks say there is a lot of racial discrimination today, compared to 15% of whites. Americas first black president is the top choice as the most important black role model for young people today. 33% of Americans and 50% of blacks volunteer Barack Obama as the most important black role model, followed by Martin Luther King, Jr. (8%).

The Impact of Martin Luther King Jr. There is widespread consensus about the impact of Martin Luther King Jr. on the lives of black Americans -- more than four in five Americans think he improved their lives. 85% of Americans think he made things better for blacks, including 86% of whites and 89% of blacks. Just 7% of Americans think he made no difference, and 1% thinks he made things worse for blacks in this country. MLK Impact on Blacks in the U.S. Total Whites Blacks 85% 86% 89% 1 2 1 7 7 6

Made things better Made things worse Made no difference

But 50 years after the March on Washington, few Americans - just 4% - think all of the goals of Martin Luther King and the 1960s civil rights movement have been achieved. While 31% think most of these goals have been achieved, a 55% majority (including 62% of blacks) think that only some have been achieved. How Many Goals of MLK and the Civil Rights Movement Have Been Achieved? Total Whites Blacks All 4% 4% 5% Most 31 32 27 Only some 55 55 62 Almost none 3 3 4 1

Racial Discrimination When it comes to specific questions about racial discrimination, the poll finds a wide divergence between the views of white and black Americans. While sizeable majorities of both whites and blacks think there is at least some racial discrimination today, blacks are more apt to say it is widespread. 40% of blacks say there is a lot of discrimination against African Americans today, compared to just 15% of whites who say that. How Much Discrimination is there Against African Americans Today? Total Whites Blacks A lot 19% 15% 40% Some 49 52 40 Only a little 22 23 14 None at all 7 8 1 Differing views may be a result of different personal experiences. Just 29% of whites say they can think of a specific instance where they felt discriminated against because of their race, but this rises to 62% among blacks. Ever Felt Discriminated Against Because of your Race? Total Whites Blacks Yes 36% 29% 62% No 62 69 37 At the same time, Americans do recognize some progress. Nearly three in four say there has been a lot of real progress in getting rid of racial discrimination since the 1960s. This percentage has risen since the 1990s, when CBS News first began asking the question. Majorities of both blacks and whites think there has been a lot of progress, but more whites (78%) than blacks (55%) think that. Real Progress in Getting Rid of Racial Discrimination? Now 7/2008 2/2000 6/1997 12/1996 5/1992 73% 76% 71% 61% 56% 50% 20 20 26 34 39 46

Yes No

A slim majority of Americans think theres now real hope in ending discrimination in the long run the first time a majority has said this since CBS News first asked the question in 1992. Still, 42% think there will always be a lot of racial prejudice and discrimination. Racial Discrimination in America Now 2/2000 12/1996 Will always exist 42% 50% 53% Real hope of ending it 52 46 43 5/1992 53% 40

However, African Americans are less optimistic than whites about ending racial discrimination. 54% of blacks think there will always be a lot racial prejudice and discrimination in America, while 39% say there is real hope of ending it in the long run. Opinions of whites are reversed.

Racial Discrimination in America Total Whites Blacks Will always exist 42% 41% 54% Real hope of ending it 52 54 39 Blacks and Whites: Getting Ahead and the Justice System Even though most Americans (56%) think whites and blacks have an equal chance of getting ahead in todays society, they are more than five times as likely to say whites have a better chance of getting ahead than blacks. There are stark racial differences here. 50% of black Americans say whites have a better chance of getting ahead, compared to just 29% of whites who say that. Who Has a Better Chance of Getting Ahead Today? Total Whites Blacks White people 32% 29% 50% Black people 6 7 4 Equal 56 60 38 Black and white Americans also differ markedly in assessing the fairness of the U.S. criminal justice system towards blacks. 30% of whites say the justice system is biased against blacks, but more 48% - think it treats blacks fairly. In contrast, 61% of black Americans think the justice system is biased against blacks. U.S. Criminal Justice System is Total Whites Blacks Biased in favor of blacks 5% 5% 8% Biased against blacks 35 30 61 Treats blacks fairly 43 48 19 Black Role Models Americas first black president is the top choice as the most important black role model for young people today. 33% of Americans and 50% of black Americans volunteer Barack Obama as the most important black role model, while Martin Luther King Jr. is a distant second overall at 8%, followed by Oprah Winfrey (5%), Bill Cosby (3%), and Michelle Obama (2%). Most Important Black Role Model for Young People Today? Total Whites Blacks Barack Obama 33% 31% 50% Martin Luther King Jr. 8 8 3 Oprah Winfrey 5 4 8 Bill Cosby 3 3 -Michelle Obama 2 2 1 When this question was last asked in February 2000, nearly a decade before Mr. Obama assumed the presidency, Martin Luther King Jr. was the top choice at 20%. Race Relations Today More than half of Americans 57% - think race relations in the United States are generally good, down slightly from early last year, and nine points lower than the high of 66% reached in 3

April 2009, shortly after President Barack Obama took office. A third says race relations are generally bad. Views of race relations may be a bit less positive today compared to recent years, but they are considerably more upbeat than they were in the 1990s. In 1992, amid the riots in Los Angeles, just 25% of Americans described race relations in the country as generally good. Race Relations in the U.S. Now 1/2012 4/2009 7/2008 2/2000 Generally good 57% 62% 66% 53% 52% Generally bad 32 30 22 37 38 6/1997 38% 52 5/1992 25% 68

There is a racial divide on this question as well, with white Americans more optimistic about race relations in the U.S. than blacks. 58% of whites believe race relations are good, but among African Americans, opinion is more divided: 46% think race relations are good, but almost as many 41%- say they are bad. The percentage of African Americans who say race relations are generally good has dropped nine points since January 2012. Race Relations in the U.S. Whites Blacks Now 1/2012 Now 1/2012 58% 64% 46% 55% 31 27 41 37

Generally good Generally bad

As has historically been the case, Americans rate race relations in their own community more positively than race relations in the country overall. This is true among both white and black Americans. Race Relations in The U.S Your community 57% 79% 32 15

Generally good Generally bad Interracial Marriage

Perhaps one of the most striking indications of the changing perception of race relations comes from Americans shifting attitudes about interracial marriage. Today more than eight in 10 Americans approve of marriage between blacks and whites, including large majorities of both black and white Americans. Marriage Between Blacks and Whites? Total Whites Blacks Approve 82% 80% 88% Disapprove 10 11 7 Even in the South where laws against interracial marriage stayed on the books in every state in the region until they were deemed unconstitutional in 1967 three in four Americans approve of marriage between whites and blacks. Approval of marriage between blacks and whites has risen dramatically over the years. According to Gallup polling, 73% of Americans approved of marriage between blacks and whites ten years ago, and just 48% approved back in 1994. As late as 1983, more Americans 4

disapproved (50%) than approved (43%). When Gallup first asked Americans whether they approved or disapproved of marriage between white and colored people back in 1958, just 4% of Americans approved. CBS Now 82% 10 Marriage Between Blacks and Whites? ********************* Gallup Polls (1958-2003) *********************** 11/2003 9/1994 4/1983 10/1972* 9/1958^ 73% 48% 43% 29% 4% 23 37 50 60 93

Approve Disapprove

*Wording change: marriage between whites and non-whites ^Wording change: marriage between white and colored people

_______________________________________________________________________
This poll was conducted by telephone from August 7-11, 2013 among 1,006 adults nationwide. Data collection was conducted on behalf of CBS News by Social Science Research Solutions of Media, PA. Phone numbers were dialed from samples of both standard land-line and cell phones. The error due to sampling for results based on the entire sample could be plus or minus three percentage points. The error for subgroups may be higher. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish . This poll release conforms to the Standards of Disclosure of the National Council on Public Polls.

CBS NEWS POLL Race Relations and Martin Luther King August 7-11, 2013 Q1. Do you think race relations in the United States are generally good or generally bad? TOTAL RESPONDENTS Total White Black % % % 57 58 46 32 31 41 11 10 13 Jan12b % 62 30 8

Good Bad Dont know/No answer

Q2. Do you think race relations in YOUR COMMUNITY are generally good or generally bad? Good Bad Dont know/No answer 79 15 80 14 5 78 18 5 Jul08a 77 20 4 3

Q3. In general, who do you think has a better chance of getting ahead in today's society--white people, black people, or do white people and black people have about an equal chance of getting ahead? White people Black people Equal Dont know/No answer 32 7 60 6 29 4 38 4 50 8 Jan12b 40 5 51 4

6 56

Q4. Some people say that since the 1960s there has been a lot of real progress in getting rid of racial discrimination against blacks. Others say that there hasn't been much real progress for blacks over that time. Which do you agree with more? Would you say there's been a lot of real progress getting rid of racial discrimination or hasn't there been much real progress? Progress No real progress Dont know/No answer 73 20 78 17 7 55 39 5 Jul08a 76 20 6 4

Q5. How much discrimination do you think there is against African Americans in our society today. -- a lot, some, only a little, or none at all? A lot Some Only a little None at all Dont know/No answer 19 49 22 7 15 52 23 8 4 40 40 14 1 4

Q6. Do you think there will always be a lot of racial prejudice and discrimination in America, or is there real hope of ending it in the long run? 6

TOTAL RESPONDENTS Total White Black % % % Always prejudice and discrimination 42 41 54 Real hope 52 54 39 None now (vol.) 1 1 Dont know/No answer 5 5 6

Feb00a % 50 46 1 3

Q7. In general, do you think the criminal justice system in the United States is biased in favor of blacks, or is it biased against blacks, or does it generally give blacks fair treatment? Jan07c Biased in favor Biased against Treat fairly Dont know/No answer 43 5 35 48 17 5 30 19 17 8 61 49 12 13 2 36

Q8. Was there ever a specific instance when you felt discriminated against because of your race? Yes No Dont know/No answer 36 62 29 69 2 62 37 2 Jan08a 34 66 * 0

Q8a. Do you approve or disapprove of marriage between blacks and whites? Approve Disapprove Dont know/No answer 82 10 80 11 8 88 7 8

Q9. Who, if anyone, do you think is the most important black role model for young people today? TOTAL RESPONDENTS Total White Black % % % 33 31 50 8 8 3 5 4 8 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 12 12 29 30 19 Feb00a % -20 2 ------3 12 9 --27 27

Barack Obama Martin Luther King Oprah Winfrey Bill Cosby Michelle Obama Will Smith Dr. Ben Carson Denzel Washington Condoleezza Rice Parents Colin Powell Michael Jordan Clarence Thomas Lebron James Other Don't know/No answer

Q10. Overall, do you think Martin Luther King, Jr. made things better for blacks in this country, made things worse, or don't you think he made a difference? TOTAL RESPONDENTS Total White Black % % % 85 86 89 1 2 1 7 7 6 6 6 3 Mar93b % 79 4 10 7

Made Made Made Dont

things better things worse no difference know/No answer

Q11. Thinking about the goals of Martin Luther King and the 1960's civil rights movement, do you think that all of their goals have been achieved, most have been achieved, only some have been achieved, or almost none of their goals have been achieved? All Most Only some Almost none Dont know/No answer Total Respondents Total Whites Total Blacks 4 31 55 3 4 32 55 3 7 5 27 62 4 7

Unweighted 1,006 762 148 777 118

Weighted Margin of error 3 pts. 4 pts 8 pts.