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(IV )
24

2004

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(IV ). - 24. : , 1994.


, 4 .

,
. , .

UNIT 1

I. .
Flight, direction in flight, flight of the projectile;
machine, to be a machine;
mechanism, breech mechanism, aiming mechanism;
know, known, is known, is known to be a machine, is known to be designed;
means, by means of, by means of breech ring;
chamber, chamber for ammunition, powder chamber;
combustion, combustion takes place, combustion of propelling charge;
tube, the back end of the tube, the tube is closed;
muzzle, muzzle end, muzzle velocity, muzzle brake.
II. :

mount
to mount
fire
to fire
function
to function
force
to force
recoil
to recoil
support
to support
III. or, -er
.
: to amplify () amplifier ().
To hide (; . ), to operate (), to protect (), to load
(), to stabilize (), to produce ().
IV. out of, at, for, on, against, with .
1.Gases project () the projectilethe weapon.
2.The gun is aimed ()the target.
3.Air-defense arty is usedprotection of ground targetsenemy aircraft.
4.Arty can maneuverthe battlefield.
5.Arty commander coordinates its actionsthe plans of other arms.
V. . .
Machine, direction, mechanism, function, protection, tube, metal.
VI. :
) Participle 1 .
: to use () - using (, ).
To expand (), to aim (), to perform (), to function (, ), to absorb ();

) Participle I.
1.() gases propel the projectile.
2.Artillery is the arm of the service () many important missions in combat.
3.() the energy, the mechanism reduces the shock.
4.When () as a supporting arm, arty performs various important missions.
5.Gunner is a man () the gun.
VII. :
) Participle II .
: to use () used (), when used ( ).
To attach (), to fit (), to locate (), to design
(), to close (), to confine (), to operate ();
) Participle 2.
1.Mortar fires at the targets () on reverse slopes.
2.( ) to deliver direct fire guns are placed on open positions.
3.The gases expand in () space and propel the projectile.
4.( ) to the division, arty units perform various supporting missions.
VIII. .
:
The target being destroyed, the gun stopped firing.
1.The target was destroyed.
2.The gun stopped firing.
1.Artillery is an important arm, its function being to support other arms.
2.Howitzer having curved trajectory, its fire is effective against hidden targets.
XI. ,
. , : , , .
1.Cannon is an artillery gun.
Its caliber is above 6 in.
2.Cannon consists of many parts and mechanisms.
Its main parts are barrel and carriage.


machine
expand
barrel assembly
breech ring
carriage
impart
muzzle
muzzle velocity
muzzle brake
muzzle end
aiming mechanism
fit
cradle
bore
rifled bore
rifling
chamber
nfine
confined space
combustion
breechblock
operate
breech mechanism
flash hider
flash
absorb
recoil
recoil mechanism
certain
due to
take place
force
force out

New words
,




()
,

,
;

I. ) ):
) ertain , protection, forward, cannon, machine, back, fit;
) defence, gun ,rear, attach, mechanism, front, definite.
II. :
muzzle
recoil
gas
propelling
rifled
forward
other

brake
end
velocity
force
part

aiming
breech
recoil

mechanism

gun
metal
closed

tube

III. :.
a) the force of expanding gases; to firce the projectile out; to impart it muzzle velocity;
combustion takes place; to reduce the recoil force; to absorb the energy;
) ; ; ; ; ; .
IV. .
Text 1
Cannon
A cannon is a machine designed to propel a projectile. The force of expanding gases
is used to force the projectile out of the gun.
Any cannon consists of two parts: barrel assembly with breech ring and carriage.
Barrel assembly is designed to give the projectile a definite direction in flight and to impart it certain muzzle velocity. Carriage is the mount used to support the barrel and other
parts attached to the weapon, such as cradle, recoil mechanism, aiming mechanism used
for aiming the gun at the target, shield performing protection functions, elevating and traversing mechanisms.
Barrel assembly. It is composed of metal tube closed at one end by means of
breech mechanism. The forward part of barrel is called muzzle. Flash hider is fitted on the
muzzle end of the gun tube, its function being to protect the operations from temporary
blindness due to the flash of firing.
The tube contains a rifled bore and a chamber for ammunition. The chamber is a
confined space where combustion of the propelling charge takes place. The back end of
the tube may be closed or opened by breechblock located in breech ring and operated by
the breech mechanism.
Notes
temporary-
blindness-
V. :
1. A cannon is a machine designed to
2. is used to force the projectile out of the gun.
3. Any cannon consists of two main parts:
4. is designed to give the projectile a definite direction in flight and to impart it certain
muzzle velocity.
5. Carriage is the mount used to support
6. Other parts attached to the weapon are
7. Barrel assembly is composed of metal closed at one end by means of
8. The forward part of the barrel is called

9. is fitted on the muzzle end of the gun tube.


10.The tube contains
11.The chamber is a confined space where takes place.
12.The back end of the tube may be closed or opened by
13.The breechblock is operated by
VI. .
1.What is a cannon?
2.What force is used to propel the projectile?
3.What are the two main parts of the cannon?
4.What is the barrel assembly designed for?
5.What is the carriage designed for?
6.What does barrel assembly consist of?
7.What are other parts of the cannon?
8.What part is called muzzle?
9.What is its function?
10.What does tube contain?
12.What is chamber?
13.What part is used to close or open the back end of the barrel?
14.Where is the breechblock located?
15.What part is used to operate the breechblock?
VII. C .
a)Barrel assembly
Tube
Breech ring

contains
consists of
is composed of

rifled bore, chamber


tube, breech ring,
breechblock ,breech mechanism

)Barrel assembly
Chamber
Breechblock
Flash hider

is designed
is used

for combustion of the charge


for opening or closing the tube
to protect operators from the flash
to give projectile direction and
muzzle velocity

VIII. .
a) What
What components

does
is

the barrel assembly


the tube
the breech ring

consist of
contain
composed of

b) What
What purpose

is

the barrel assembly

designed for

the chamber
the breechblock
the flash hider
IX. , .

UNIT 2

I. .
interior, the interior part, the interior part of the barrel; surface, on the surface, on the surface of the bore; portion, the raised portion, the raised portions of rifling; uniform, uniform
twist, uniform twist of rifling; through, out, throughout, throughout the bore, constant
throughout the bore; pressure, the pressure on the lands, the pressure on the lands changes;
equalize, to equalize the pressure, to equalize the pressure on the lands; advantages, has
advantages, has advantages over uniform twist.
II. .
to stabilize, (er).
to equalize, (ation)
() to rotate, (ion).
() to incline, (ation).
to protect, (ion).
to apply, (ation).
to press, (sure).
to produce, (tion).
III. . .
: together with, out of, into, throughout, from, forward, between.
1.The barrel is rifled ( ; ) throughout the bore.
2.The barrel is rifled( )the chamber ( ; ) the muzzle.
3.Barrel ( ) breech mechanism is called barrel assembly.
4.The gases force the projectile () the barrel.
5.The heavy weight of the gun forces it () the ground.
6.The chamber is located () the rifled bore and the breech ring.
IV. :
) of :
part of the barrel, a number of guns, the surface of the bore, the system of rifling, parts of
the projectile, types of weapons;
) , of :
, , , ,
, .
V. , , .
:
The less she speaks, the more she hears.
, .
1.The longer the barrel, the higher muzzle velocity is developed.
2.The less the muzzle velocity, the shorter is the range.

VI. .
.
Portion, system, stabilizer, uniform, constant, production.

interior
surface
raise
portion
groove
land
rifling
impart
flight
rotation
rotational motion
stabilize
force into
rotating band
twist
angle
uniform twist
rate
increasing twist
inclination
constant
to equalize
pressure
advantage(over)
ware
simple
produce
production
smoothbore
permit
stability
stabilizer
influence
speed
apply
application
however
therefore
together with
throughout
life (of gun)

New words

(, ),



, ,

()

,
,

,

, , .:
()

I. ) ):
a)uniform twist, muzzle velocity, increasing twist, high pressure, low pressure, raised
portion, wide application, element of the bore, a number of grooves;
)initial, great, use, several (some), constant, progressive, part, small.
II. :
) :
to stabilize
to increase
to equalize
to reduce
to influence

pressure
ware
rotation
twist
projectile

) :
interior
raised
rotational
soft
constant
high
smoothbore

portion
metal
pressure
barrel
twist
motion
part

III. :
) a number of grooves, to impart rotational motion, is forced into the grooves, takes up
the motion of rotation, to equalize the pressure on the lands, changes from high to low, has
advantages over, reduces the ware of the rifling, influences the rotation, finds wide application, throughout the bore, from the breech toward the muzzle, together with muzzle velocity.
) , , , ( ), , , () , , , ,
, ;
IV. .
Text 2
Rifling
The interior part of the barrel has a number of grooves made on the surface of the
bore. The raised portions between the grooves are called lands. The system of grooves and
lands is known as rifling. The rifling is designed to impart rotational motion to the projectile and to stabilize it in flight. The rotating band of the projectile is forced into the grooves
imparting the projectile the motion of rotation.
The inclination of one of the grooves to an element of the bore is called twist of ri-

fling. Twist of rifling together with muzzle velocity influences the rate of rotation of the
projectile. The more the angle of the twist, the higher the rate of rotation is.
There are two types of the twist of rifling: uniform twist and increasing twist. Uniform twist is that which is constant throughout the bore, increasing twist is that in which
the twist increases from the breech toward the muzzle.
Both types are in use. The purpose of the increasing twist is to equalize the pressure
on the lands. With the uniform twist the pressure on the lands charge from high to low.
The increasing twist has advantages over the uniform twist in that it reduces the ware of
the rifling and rotating band. Uniform twist is however simple in production and therefore
finds wide application in artillery.
Besides rifled barrels smoothbore barrels are also used in recoilless rifles and mortars. The smoothbore barrels increase the life of guns, the stability in flight being provided
by special stabilizers.
V. .
1. The interior part of the barrel has
2. The raised portions between the grooves are called
3. is designed to impart rotational motion to the projectile in order to
4. is the inclination of one of the grooves to the element of the bore.
5. There are two types of rifling: and
6. is constant throughout the bore.
7. increases from the breech to the muzzle.
8. The purpose of the increasing twist is the pressure on the lands.
9. With the uniform twist the pressure
10.Increasing twist reduces
11.Uniform twist is simple in
12.Smoothbore barrels are used in
13.Smoothbore barrels permit the increase of
VI. .
1.What has the interior of the barrel?
2.What is called lands?
3.What is called rifling?
4.What is the rifling designed for?
5.How does the projectile take up the motion of rotation?
6.What is twist of rifling?
7.Does the twist of rifling influence the rotation of the projectile?
8.What are the types of twist of rifling?
9.What is the uniform twist?
10.What is the increasing twist?
11.What are the purposes of the increasing twist and uniform twist?
12.What are the advantages of the uniform twist?
13.What are the advantages of the increasing twist?
14.What do you know about smoothbore barrels?

VII. :
) .
Raised portions between grooves are
Inclination of one groove to the is
bore element
System of grooves and lands

called
known as

rifling
lands
twist of rifling

) .
1. .
2. .
3. .
VIII. :
) .
Rifling
is designed
to change the pressure from high to low;
Increasing twist
is intended
to impart rotational motion to projectile;
Uniform twist
to equalize pressure on lands
) :
1. .
2.
.
3. .
IX. :
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

UNIT 3

I. ;
:
Quite right

I think you are right
, .
You are mistaken
.
No such thing
!
Its not quite right
.
1. As far as I know the main part of an arty weapon is the barrel.
2. The barrel assembly is a metal tube, isnt it?
3. The tube of the barrel is rifled throughout its length ,isnt it?
4. I think rifling performs its special function.
5. To my mind, type of rifling influences the flight of the projectile.
6. To my mind, there must be a space in the barrel for combustion of the propelling
charge.
7. The back end of the tube must be closed or opened by means of the chamber.
II. :
) , You are right. Any arty cannon consists
of
..
?

The carriage is designed

, Quite right to give direction and


.
)-, - No such thing. The barrel includes
,
, ?
?

Rifling is designed
The type of rifling influences

There are two types of rifling:


?
III. :
:
The barrel assembly consists of many important parts. Each part performs its special function.


.
IV. 3.1.
1. , .
2. :
Caliber.
Angle of elevation.
Length of bore.
Type of rifling.
Length of rifling.
Range of fire.
Muzzle velocity.
Method of transportation.
3. 110 114.

I. 3.
1. 3 - :
?
?
?
?
2. ,
:
(-)


,
: .

3. 1-
) - , : rifled bore, powder chamber, breech recess, counterbore;
) - , , .
4. 2- - 1011.

Text 3
105-mm Howitzer M101A1
Barrel Assembly
The barrel assembly of the 105-mm howitzer M101A1 consists of tube, breech ring
and breech mechanism. The breech ring is screwed into the tube.
The tube contains the rifled bore and the chamber for ammunition. The breech ring
houses the breechblock, which is placed in the breech recess.
The breech recess is the space at the rear of the barrel assembly designed to receive
the breechblock and to permit mechanical opening and closing the rear of the barrel assembly for loading and firing the weapon.
The powder chamber is also the portion of the bore. It is designed to house the propelling charge which is contained in the cartridge case.
The main bore includes the rifled portion of the bore. The counterbore is that portion
of the muzzle end of the tube where grooves and lands are removed in order to increase
the diameter in that portion.
The characteristics of the barrel assembly are the following:
(1)Caliber 105mm or 4.13 inches between opposite lands.
(2)Length of the tube 93.05 inches (22.5 cal).
(3)Length of rifling (bore) 78.02 in.
(4)Muzzle velocity 465 mps (meters per second).
(5)Maximum chamber pressure 32.000 pounds per square inch.
(6)Lands and grooves 36.
(7)Rifling uniform right-hand twist, 1 turn in 20 calibers.
(8)Maximum range 11.000 meters.
(9)Weight of barrel assembly 973 pounds.
(10)Weight of breech mechanism 91 pounds.
The tube is made of alloy steel and is of monoblock (one-piece) construction.
breech recess
counterbore
remove
receive
alloy steel

Notes

,

.:

II. 4.
1. 4 :
?
?
?
?
?

2. . :
1. .
2. .
3., .
4., .
:



,
3. .
Barrel

Bore

Muzzle
block

4. ;
.
Text 4
Parts of Artillery Weapons. Barrel Assembly
Barrel is the most important part of an arty weapon.
Barrel is a tube made of special high quality steel. The back end of the tube is a
breech and the forward part is a muzzle.
On the muzzle there may be a muzzle brake for reducing the shock of fire.
The interior part of the barrel is divided into breech ring and bore. In the breech ring
there is a breechblock.
The bore consists of a smooth part and a rifled part. The forward surface of the
breechblock is the bottom of the bore.
In the smooth part of the bore the powder is located, this part being called powder
chamber. The powder may be located either in a special case or in bags.
The design of the powder chamber depends on the method of loading the weapon.
There are case loading and bag loading weapons, the form of the chamber corresponding
to either of those methods.
In the chamber the combustion of the powder charge takes place. The volume of the
chamber is an important characteristic. The volume influences the density of loading.
The rifled portion of the weapon is the part where the projectile moves in firing. Ri-

fling is a system of grooves on the interior surface of the bore. The raised surfaces of the
grooves are called lands. The diameter of the bore between the opposite lands is called
caliber.
Notes
interior
bottom
case
bag
case loading
bag loading
correspond
density of loading
volume

.:

UNIT 4

I. .
Mechanism, breech mechanism, breech operating mechanism, mechanical, mechanical device; automatic, automatically, semiautomatic, to function automatically; principal, principal part, principle of function; screw, screw breechblock, screw type of breechblock, is
screwed, may be screwed; thread, threaded, threaded sections, is threaded; angle, angular,
rectangular, rectangular form, rectangular recess.
II.
Mechanize (), mechanism, mechanical, mechanically;
Automatic (), semiautomatic, automatically;
Operate (, ),operation, operator.
III. :
) of:
end of the barrel, part of the mechanism, types of breechblocks, elements of breechblocks,
sector of the breechblock;
) , of:
, , , ,
IV. , :
1.The barrel is used for giving direction to the projectile.
2.The elevating mechanism is necessary for elevating the barrel to a desired angle.
3.The safety devices prevent the weapon from firing.
4.Before moving to the new position the weapon is connected to the prime mover.
V. , Participle 2
Passive Voice.
1.The targets are located on reverse slopes.
Mortar fires at the targets located on reverse slopes.
2.The cannon is designed to propel a projectile to a target.
The cannon is a machine designed to propel a projectile to a target.
3.The following parts are attached to the carriage: recoil mechanism, aiming mechanism,
traversing and elevating mechanism.
The parts attached to the carriage are: recoil mechanism, aiming mechanism and others.


New words

safety device

provide (for)
(),
entry (of ammunition)
.: ()
sealing (ammunition)

breech operating mechanism

breech mechanism

lever

latch

prevent

fully

lock

screw breechblock
. , .:
wedge breechblock

screw
,
wedge

carry
,
carrier

operate operating lever

side
.:
push (into)

breech recess
;
thread

opposite
, .:
blank
, ()
engage

rectangular

slide

firing mechanism

automatic

semiautomatic

manual
, ; ()
turn
-
half a turn
()
accidental firing

obturator

escape of gases
:
ammo: ammunition ()
wpn: weapon
I. :
a) breechblock, breech mechanism, breech operating mechanism, breech ring, crew
breechblock, breech recess, wedge breechblock;

) , , , ,
, , .
II. .
firing mechanism

wedge

breech recess

screw

operating lever

latch

lever

mechanical device

safety devices

III. :
) ;
Provides for
entry
sealing
closing
opening
opens

the breechblock
the breech ring

closes

the barrel
the breech
the breechblock
the chamber

includes

firing mechanism
breechblock
screw

) , :The breech
mechanism .
IV. .
lever
safety
mechanism
screw
device
operating
mechanism
rectangular
element
firing
form
principal
recess
wedge
breech
breechblock
V. :
a) to provide for entry and sealing the ammo, prevents the weapon from firing, is turned
half a turn, is operated by the operating lever, is pushed into the breech recess, opposite
the blank sectors, to close the back end of the barrel, to engage the threads of the recess, to
lock the chamber;

) , ,
, , () , -, ,
, .
VI. .
Text 5
Breech Mechanism
Breech mechanism is a mechanical device located in the rear end of the barrel and
providing for entry and sealing the ammo in the chamber.
Breechblock is the principal part of the breech mechanism mechanism used for closing and locking the back end of the barrel. That part of the breech mechanism used for
opening and closing the breechblock is called breech operating mechanism.
The breech mechanism also contains safety devices. They consist of levers and
latches which function automatically preventing the weapon from accidental firing before
the breech mechanism is fully closed.
The obturator assembly is also necessary to prevent the escape of gases to the rear.
The two types of the breechblocks used today are known as screw breechblock and
wedge breechblock.
The principal elements of the screw breechblock is the screw. The element carrying
the screw is called carrier. The carrier is operated by the operating lever located at the
right side of the breech.
When it is necessary to close the chamber, the screw is pushed into the breech recess of the breech ring, the threaded sectors of the breech recess being opposite the blank
sectors of the screw. After that the screw is turned half a turn, the threaded sectors of the
block engaging the threads of the breech recess and locking the chamber.
As to the wedge breechblock, it has a wedge of rectangular form, this wedge sliding
in the rectangular recess of the breech ring. Operating levers, safety devices are also the
components of the wedge breechblock.
Both the wedge breechblock and the screw breechblock include a firing mechanism
for detonating ammunition. Breech mechanism may be automatic, semiautomatic and
manual.
VII. .
1. The breech mechanism is located
2.The breech mechanism provides
3.The breech mechanism includes the following parts:
4.The breechblock closes and locks
5.The are two types of breechblocks:
6.The principal part of the screw breechblock is
7.The element carrying the screw is called
8.The carrier is operated by
9.The principal part of the wedge breechblock is
10. The firing mechanism is used for

11.The part used for opening and closing the breechblock is called
12.The safety devices consist of
13.The levers and latches prevent the weapon from before
VIII. .
1.Where is the breech mechanism located?
2.What does it provide?
3.What are the principal parts of the breech mechanism?
4.What is the breechblock used for?
5.What types of breechblocks are there?
6.What are the principal parts of the screw breechblock and the wedge breechblock?
7.What element carries the screw?
8.What is the carrier operated by?
9.What part is used for opening and closing the breechblock?
11.What do safety devices consist of ?
12.What is the function of the levers and latches?
IX. :
) .
Breech mechanism
consist(s) of
Breechblock
include(s)
Safety devices

Levers, latches;
Breechblock, carrier, breech operating mechanism;
Screw, firing mechanism

) :
1. ,
, .
2. , .
3. .
X.
What
does
breech mechanism
What parts
do
breechblock
safety devices
XI. :
) .
is
used (for)
Breech mechanism
are
Breechblock
Breech operating mech.
Operating lever
Firing mechanism
Safety devices
Carrier

consist of ?
include ?

preventing the weapon from accidental firing;


detonating ammo;
operating the carrier;
opening
and
closing
the
breechblock;
closing and locking the rear of the
barrel;
entering and sealing ammo;
to carry the screw breechblock.

) .
1. .
2. .
3.
.
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
XII. .
What
is
breech mechanism
What purpose
are
breechblock
operating lever
firing mechanism
safety devices
carrier

used for

XIII.
.

UNIT 5

I. .
3 .
1.The breech mechanism is located near the muzzle of the barrel, isnt it?
2.Thr breech mechanism is used to provide entry and sealing the ammo in the chamber,
isnt it?
3.The principal part of the breech mechanism is the carrier.
4.The breechblock is used for closing and locking the back end of the barrel.
5.The firing mechanism is used for opening and closing the breechblock.
6.Levers and latches are the parts of the safety devices.
II. .
)I think breechblock is

. .

What is the breechblock ?

As far as I know there are many

.
: .

What does the screw breechblock ? , , ,


.
What are these parts?


.
.

I think the main element

.
.

) , Firing mechanism is used


?
(Tell me)
, - You are not quite right
.
(I think)
, - Quite right. There are
, They consist of
.
(To my mind)

III. :
) :
I think breech mechanism is a device including many important parts that provide
safe() entry, sealing and detonation of ammunition in the weapon.
, .
) , ,
.
. .
IV. 5.2.
1. .
2. .

25 .
6
Firing Mechanism
Firing mechanism is a device used for detonating the ammunition and firing the gun.
The firing mechanism includes the Firing Mechanism M1 with a firing pin which is
removed and replaced between the rounds. It also consists of adapter and firing mechanism housing that retain the firing mechanism in the breech, and percussion mechanism
actuating the Firing Mechanism M1.
The percussion mechanism has a hammer. A lanyard(attached to the hammer) being
pulled, the hammer strikes the firing pin of the Firing Mechanism M1. The firing pin exploding the primer of the ammunition, the gun fires.
Firing Mechanism M1
remove
round
retain
actuate
pull
lanyard
percussion
percussion mechanism
hammer
pin
housing
replace
attach
firing pin

Notes
1

.:

, ,

UNIT 6

I. .
Wheel, two wheels, by means of two wheels; trough, a U-shaped trough, by means of a Ushaped trough; recoil, counterrecoil, counterrecoil mechanism; trunnion, about trunnions,
turn about trunnions; weigh, weight, overweight, balance the overweight, equilibrator,
called equilibrator, special mechanism called equilibrator; traverse, traversing, traversing
mechanism.
II. ), ), ), .
Carriage, weapon, carry, mover, position, permit, vertical, compose, equilibrator, portion,
stabilize, rotate, horizontal, attach, elevation, weigh, weight.
III. , , ; .
Trails, compose, mount, consist, cannon, control, fire, mechanism, mechanize, support,
angle, recoil, cradle, permit, counterrecoil.
IV. : to, in, with, of.
1.The cradle is connected the carriage.
2.The weapon travels the new position.
3.The main parts the cannon are barrel and carriage.
4.The breechblock is the breech ring.
V. :
) .
Safety devices are known to function automatically.
) to know ( are known) ;
.

to expect
to assume
to say
to suppose
to consider

,
,
,

VI. :
?
,
to use
? -
,

1.To use this literature is important.


2.To use this literature, you should learn English.
3.To rotate the gun about its axis, the traversing mechanism is used.
4.To rotate the gun about its axis is the function of the traversing mechanism.
VII. , :
1. , .
2. , .
VIII. , .
:
The weapon to be used - , ( ).
?
1.The breechblock contains firing mechanism to detonate ammunition.
2.The flash hider to be fitted on the muzzle reduces the flash of firing.
3.The barrel contains the chamber to be loaded with ammunition.

New words

trail
axle

axis

connect

split trail

block trail

box trail

expect
,
trough

elevate

depress

slide

recoil

counterrecoil

recoil mechanism

counterrecoil mechanism
,
recoil brake

attach

tipping portion

turn (about)
()
trunnion

angle of elevation

permit
various
compose
overweight
balance
equilibrator
laying
mount
requirement
meet a requirement

I. ) ).
a)movement, attach, perform, axle, turn, various, balance, portion;
b)connect, axis, different, traveling, part, carry out, rotate, equilibrate.
II. .
to permit
horizontal laying
vertical laying
various angles of
elevation
to elevate

the barrel
the tipping portion
the gun

to balance

overweight
the parts of weapons
the barrel

to depress

the barrel
the tipping part
the gun

III. .
carriage
recoil
part
counterrecoil
laying
top
brake
bottom
mechanism
elevating
traversing
rotating
tipping
horizontal
IV. :
a) to stabilize the weapon in firing, sliding in recoil and counterrecoil, controls the movement of the barrel, compose the tipping portion, is balanced by a special mechanism, to rotate the gun about its axis, meet the requirements of modern combat.
) , , , , () , , ;
V. .

Text 7
Carriage
To move rapidly on the battlefield, to shift fire without changing firing positions are
the requirements of modern warfare. The modern two-part carriage consisting of top carriage and bottom carriage meets these requirements.
The carriage is considered to be the part of an artillery weapon supporting the gun in
firing and providing its traveling to new positions.
The bottom carriage includes trails, axle and wheels. The trails are used to connect
the weapon and the prime mover when traveling, as well as to stabilize the weapon in firing position. There are split trails, box trails, block trails. All these types are expected to be
used in modern artillery.
The bottom carriage carries the top carriage and the cradle with recoil mechanism.
The cradle is a U-shaped trough to support the barrel sliding in recoil and counterrecoil.
The recoil mechanism to be attached to the cradle controls the movement of the barrel in recoil and counterrecoil. It consists of recoil brake and counterrecoil mechanism.
The barrel, the recoil mechanism and the cradle compose the tipping portion of the
cannon. The tipping portion can turn about trunnions to permit various angles of elevation
of the barrel, that is to elevate or depress the barrel to different angles. This vertical
movement is performed by the elevating mechanism connected with the top carriage.
The overweight of the tipping part of the gun is balanced by a special mechanism
called equilibrator. It is mounted on the top carriage.
The barrel, the recoil mechanism, the cradle, the top carriage with the elevating
mechanism and the equilibrator compose the rotating part of the gun.
This part may be rotated permitting horizontal laying of the gun. To rotate the gun
about its axis the traversing mechanism is used, which is connected with both top and bottom carriage.
VI. .
1.The carriage supports and provides
2.It consists of two main parts:
3.The bottom carriage includes
4.The trails are used to connect and to stabilize
5.There are different types of trails:
6.The top carriage carries
7.The cradle is used to support
8.The recoil mechanism is designed to control
9.The recoil mechanism consists of:
10.The barrel, the recoil mechanism and the cradle compose
11.The tipping portion turns about to permit
12.The vertical movement of the gun is performed by
13.The overweight of the tipping part is balanced by
14. compose the rotating part of the barrel.
15.The traversing mechanism is used to

VII. .
1.What functions does the carriage perform?
2.What two parts does it consist of?
3.What does the bottom carriage include?
4.What are the trails used for?
5.What types of trails are there?
6.What does the bottom carriage carry?
7.What is the cradle used for?
8.What is the recoil mechanism designed for?
9.What does the recoil mechanism consist of?
10.What parts compose the tipping portion of the gun?
11.What permits various angles of elevation?
12.What mechanism performs vertical movement of the gun?
13.What mechanism is used to balance the tipping part?
14.What parts compose the rotating part of the gun?
15.What is the traversing mechanism used for?
VIII. :
) .
includes
The carriage
consists of
bottom carriage
recoil mechanism

recoil brake, counterrecoil mechanism;


axle, trails, wheels;
barrel ,recoil mech. cradle,
top carriage, equilibrator;
barrel, recoil mech. cradle;

tipping part
rotating part
) .
What
does
the carriage
bottom carriage
recoil mechanism
tipping part
rotating part
IX. :
) .
is
The
gun
are
barrel
tipping parts
rotating parts
recoil of the gun

elevated
rotated
supported
stabilized
balanced
controlled

consist of
include

by means of trails
recoil mech.
elevating
mech.
traversing
mech.
cradle
equilibrator

) .
By what means

is
are

the

gun

elevated

barrel

rotated

tipping parts

supported

rotating parts

stabilized

recoil

balanced

controlled
X. , :

UNIT 7

I. . . .
You are right
Im afraid you are mistaken
I agree with you
You are not quite right
Quite right
I dont agree with you.
1.I think carriage is a very important part of a weapon.
2.To my mind carriage is a simple mount.
3.As far as I know the trails perform only one function: to stabilize the weapon in firing.
4.The barrel moving in recoil slides on a trough, doesnt it?
5.The recoil mechanism controls the movement of the gun in recoil, doesnt it?
6.The tipping portion and the rotating part include the same components, dont they?
7.I think the gun includes some devices permitting various angles of elevation of the barrel.
8.To my mind the gun cannot rotate in horizontal plane ().
9.The overweight of the tipping part must be balanced, mustnt it?
II. :
, Im afraid you are mistaken.
, Carriage includes
.
- The tipping part of the weapon
?
(By what means can )
- The tipping part includes
?(What does )
, - I dont agree with you. The gun can be
rotated in horizontal plane about its axis
.
by means of
The rotating portion includes:
? (What parts rotate )
III. :
) , , . .
) .
: . , .
IV. 7.3.
1. ,
:

) ;
) ;
) .
2. :
, pintle pin ? .

1. 8 .
2.
. ) ; ) ; ) .
3.
, :



: ,
(
, ).

Text 8
Development of Trails
With the improvements of the weapon making high angles of traverse, the corresponding developments were connected with increasing angles of elevation. On the old
weapons, when the tube was elevated there was a limit to depressing the breech end of the
tube. When the gun was fired and the tube recoiled, if the breech end was depressed too
much, it would strike the box trail which was attached to the carriage immediately under
the tube. The solution of this problem was quite simple. It consisted in simply splitting the
box trail and attaching the split trails to the carriage just inside the wheels. When the trails
were opened wide for firing, the tube of the weapon could then be elevated to a maximum
of 1.165 mils. When the weapon was prepared for travel, the trails were closed (or brought
together) and locked in a position similar to that of the box trail.
Modern arty weapons are expected to use various types of trails: split trails, box
trails(girders), tubular trails, block trails.
Both 155-mm howitzers M 114 and M 114 A 1 are equipped with tapered, steel box
girders. The trails are hinged to the bottom carriage; when they are split (opened), each
trail forms a 30 angle with the center of the carriage. The elevation goes to 63 degrees.
The trails are equipped with trail handles to help personnel in lifting the weapon.
M 101 A 1 105 mm towed howitzer is capable of sustained rates of fire of 180
rounds per hour and has a maximum range of 11.270 meters of conventional split-trail

layout, the M 101 A 1 fires from its wheels.


M 101 A 1 was largely replaced by M 102. Specially designed for light weight and
air transportation, the M 102 features a strong box-trail layout which permits a low silhouette, good stability and all-round, on-carriage traverse.
strike
tubular trail
tapered
sustained
replace
layout
hinge
mil

Notes
()

,


( )

UNIT 8

I. .
Counter, counterrecoil, counterrecoil mechanism, recoil mechanism; components, the
main components, the main components of the recoil mechanism, the main components of
the counterrecoil mechanism; special, specially, specially designed, specially designed for
this purpose; cylinder, recoil cylinder, recuperator cylinder; sleigh, recoil sleigh; conjunction, in conjunction, in conjunction with one another, pneumatic, hydropneumatic.
II. , counter:
battery() counterbattery, act () counteract, action ()
counteraction, recoil () counterrecoil, balance () counterbalance.
III. , .
: high () highly ()
Strong (), full (), special (), final (), primary ().
IV. :
The rifling causes the projectile to rotate.
( ).
1.The gas causes the oil () to move.
2.The elevating mechanism causes the barrel to elevate at the desired () angle.
3.The action of the firing mechanism causes the weapon to fire.
V. .
.
Mechanism, cylinder, special, result, component, gas, function, compress, control.
VI. :
) :
in order to provide , .
1.Elevating mechanism is used in order to elevate or depress the gun to a definite angle.
2.In order to balance the overweight of the tipping part the gun is equipped with an equilibrator.
3.Split trails were developed in order to increase the angle of elevation of the barrel.
) , in order to:
1. ,
.
2. , , .
3. , .
VII. :
) .

: It is necessary that - ,
It is

important
necessary
required
essential

that

the weapon

be equipped with; recoil mech.


have
equilibrator
trails
wheels
elevating mech.
traversing mechanism.

;
-

;
;
;

VIII. ,
.
: if + Past + would (could, might).

1.If the equilibrator were not used, the tipping parts would overweight and depress.
2.If the breech mechanism did not contain safety arrangements, accidental firing could
take place.
3.If the barrel contained no rifling the weapon might be loaded through the muzzle.

reduce
violent
recoil mechanism
recoil cylinder
recuperator cylinder
recoil sleigh
recoil piston
floating piston
recoil oil
return (back)
attach
compress
hold (held, held)
cause
specially
move
movement
motion
essential
above
below

New words
,
,
()






() ()

,
,

: RM: recoil mechanism -


I. ) ):
) violent, motion, house, back, reduce, be equipped, operate, attach, located, essential,
purpose;
) contain, decrease, connect, strong, rear, act, be provided, situated, movement, important, mission.
II. ) ):
)reduce, violent, in conjunction, is attached, front, to move, above,
b)individually, increase, back, to stop, below, kind, is separated..
III. ; .
cylinder
violent
piston
recoil
part
recuperator
components
floating
mechanism
front
movement
essential
IV. ) ), .
) to reduce, to contain, to compress, to house;
) recoil oil, recoil mechanism, violent movement, gas.
V. o :
) .
recoil cylinder
piston
sleigh

recoil
recuperator

cylinder

) , :
Recoil mechanism is equipped with
VI. .
) ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; () .
)to reduce the violent movement; specially designed for this purpose; is filled with nitrogen gas; to cause the oil to move; both recoil cylinder and the recuperator cylinder; located
below the gun; located above the gun; to control the motion.
VII. .

Text 9
Recoil Mechanism
In order to reduce violent movement of the gun during firing, it is necessary that an
arty weapon should be equipped with a recoil mechanism specially designed for this purpose. If the recoil mechanism were not used, the displacement of the carriage would be the
result.
The RM is usually located in the cradle, its essential components are recoil sleigh,
recoil cylinder and recuperator cylinder.
The recoil sleigh houses and supports the recuperator cylinder, the recoil cylinder
and the tube.
The recoil cylinder may be filled with gas, the front part of it containing recoil oil
which can be moved from the recoil cylinder to the recuperator cylinder and returned back
into the recoil cylinder.
The recoil piston moving in the recoil cylinder is attached to the cradle. Its function
is to compress the gas and to hold the oil.
The recuperator cylinder is filled with nitrogen gas, the front part of it may be filled
with oil. The recuperator cylinder contains a floating piston to compress the gas and to
hold and cause the oil to move.
Both the recoil cylinder located below the gun tube and the recuperator cylinder located above the gun tube operate in conjunction with one another to control the motion of
the weapon in recoil and counterrecoil.
Notes
nitrogen
in conjunction with one another -
VIII. .
1. An artillery weapon must be equipped with recoil mechanism in order to
2 .If the RM were not used,
3. The essential components of the RM are:
4. houses and supports the recuperator cylinder, the recoil cylinder, and the tube.
5. The recoil cylinder may be filled with and
6. The recoil oil can be moved from to
7. The function of the recoil piston is ..
8 .The recuperator cylinder is filled with
9. The function of the floating piston is
10. Both and operate in conjunction with one another.
IX. .
1.For what purpose is the arty weapon equipped with a recoil mechanism?
2.What would be the result if the RM were not used?
3.What are the essential components of the RM?
4.What part of the RM houses the recoil cylinder, the recuperator cylinder, the tube?
5.What may be the recoil cylinder filled with?
6.What function can the recoil oil perform?

7.What is the function of the recoil piston?


8.What is the recuperator cylinder filled with?
9.What is the function of the floating piston?
10.Do the recoil cylinder and the counterrecoil cylinder operate individually?
X. .
a)
The function of the piston
is to reduce the violent movement of the
purpose
the RM
gun;
the recoil sleigh
to support the tube and the RM cylinders;
to compress gas and hold the oil
1. .
2. .
3. .
)
The

arty weapon
recoil mech.
recoil cylinder
recuperator cylinder

is

equipped
filled

with

1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
XI. .

recoil oil and gas;


nitrogen gas and
oil;
recoil mechanism;
recoil cylinder and
recuperator cylinder

UNIT 9

I. .
Thrust, the rearward thrust, the rearward thrust of the weapon; absorb, absorb and control,
absorb and control the rearward thrust;
With, with shock, without, without shock; excessive, excessive shock, with excessive
shock, without excessive shock; phase, recoiling phase, during the recoiling phase; pneumatic, pneumatic type, hydro, hydropneumatic, hydropneumatic type.
II. ,
:
absorb, displace, action, compression, regulate, displacement, accomplish, movement, act,
move, absorbtion, compress, accomplishment, regulator.
III. , with without:
1.The weapon fires with violent shock () of the carriage.
2.The RM causes the weapon to fire without violent movement of the carriage.
3.The weapon has a barrel with rifling.
4.Some weapons are equipped with barrels without rifling.
IV. means .

: means

( to mean )

1.Flash reducer is a means of reducing the muzzle flash.


2.The term Flash Reducer means a device used to reduce the muzzle flash.
3.The equilibrator is the means of balancing the overweight of the tipping parts.
4.The overweight of the tipping parts means too heavy weight of the barrel assembly.
V. . : by, by means of () () .
1.The barrel is elevated by means of the elevating mechanism.
2.The firing is performed by the firing mechanism.
3.The oil is compressed by gas.
4.The violent movement of the gun is reduced by means of the RM.
VI. .
1.By means of the elevating mechanism the barrel may be moved upward and downward.
2.During firing the gun moves backward.
3.The rearward motion of the recoiling parts is stopped by means of the RM.
4.Artillery units occupied the forward positions.

VII. . .
Position, reserve, regulator, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, shock, absorb, expansion
VIII. , :
. .: if is used -
..: if were used + would -
1. If arty helps infantry it breaks through the enemy line of resistance.
2. If arty helped infantry it would break through the enemy line of resistance.
3. If the trails are not split, the angle of elevation is limited.
4. If the trails were not split, the angle of elevation would be limited.

recoiling parts
absorb
rearward thrust
excessive
shock
friction
in-battery position
expansion
phase
prevent
few
last
counterrecoil buffer
reserve
between
regulator
pneumatic RM
hydropneumatic RM
length
vary
variable RM
spring
spring assembly
spring type RM
actuate
air
liquid


New words

()

I. :
firing position
shock
to change the length
to accomplish mission
oil
in-battery position
to perform mission
liquid
violent movement
to vary the length
II. .
to stop
the recoiling
to return parts
to hold

variable type
pneumatic tape
hydropneumatic type
spring type

recoil mechanism

III. .
recoil cylinder
recoil
counterrecoil buffer
counterrecoil
recuperator cylinder
recuperator
reserve oil
reserve
regulator assembly
regulator
spring assembly
spring
nitrogen gas
nitrogen
IV. .
) friction of moving parts, by means of compression of gas, motion of recoil oil, without
displacement, cause the parts to return, to prevent the excessive shock, during, during the
recoiling phase, be returned to their in-battery position, by a counterrecoil buffer, must be
held in the in-battery position.
) , , , , ,
, , , , , ().
V. .
Text 10
Functions of Recoil Mechanism. Its Types
As you know, recoil mechanism is the means of controlling the motion of the
weapon in recoil and counterrecoil. If it were not used, the violent movement of the
weapon couldnt be reduced.
The functions of the RM are:
a. To stop the recoiling parts. The recoil mechanism must absorb and control the
rearward thrust of the weapon during firing without displacement of the carriage or excessive shock. This action is accomplished by means of the motion of the recoil oil, the com-

pression of the nitrogen gas, and the friction of the moving parts.
b. To return the recoiling parts. The recoil mechanism must cause the recoiling parts
to move backward to return to the in-battery position. This is accomplished by the expansion of the nitrogen gas which was compressed in the recuperator cylinder during the recoiling phase.
. To prevent excessive shock. The recoiling parts must be returned to their inbattery positions without excessive shock. This is accomplished during the last few inches
of counterrecoil by a counterrecoil buffer.
d. To hold the recoiling parts. The tube of the weapon must be held in the in-battery
position during travel and when the barrel is moved upward. This is accomplished by the
reserve oil located between the piston and the regulator assembly in the recuperator cylinder.
The recoil mechanism described is hydropneumatic type. Hydro means that liquid
is used. Pneumatic means that gas is used. If the length of the recoil may be varied, the
recoil mechanism is known as variable type recoil mechanism.
There are other types of recoil mechanism. If the RM is actuated by compressed air
or gas, it is called pneumatic type RM. If it is actuated by means of spring assembly, it is
called spring type RM.
Notes
inch

(2,5 )

VI. .
1.The RM is the means of
2.The functions of the RM are: a , b , c , d .
3.The RM must absorb and control
4.The RM stops the recoiling parts by means of
5.The RM must cause the recoiling parts
6.The recoiling parts are returned to the in-battery position by which was compressed
during
7.The RM must return back the recoiling parts without
8.The excessive shock of the recoiling parts is prevented by
9.The RM must hold the recoiling parts in during travel and elevation.
10.The tube is held in the in-battery position by means of
11.There are the following types of RM:
12.The hydropneumatic type RM is actuated by and
13.The pneumatic type RM is actuated by
14.The spring type RM is actuated by
VII. .
1.What are the functions of the RM?
2.By what means must the RM absorb and control the rearward thrust of the weapon?
3.By what means must the RM return the recoiling parts to the in-battery position?
4.By what means must the RM prevent the excessive shock?
5.By what means must the tube be held in the in-battery position during travel and elevation?
6.What are the types of the RM?

7.What is the hydropneumatic RM actuated by?


8.What is the pneumatic RM actuated by?
9.What is the spring type RM actuated by?
VIII. .
a)
The recoil
must absorb and control
the tube in the in-battery pomechanism
return
sition;
prevent
the excessive shock
hold
the rec.parts to the firing position;
the rearward thrust of the
weapon
1). .
2)
.
3). .
4). , .
)
absorbed and controlled
by

The rearward is
are
prevented
by means of

thrust
held in firing position
during

The recoiling
return to firing position

parts
The excessive
shock
The tube
5). , .
6). , .
7). () .
8).
.
)
The pneumatic
RM is actuated
hydropneumatic
spring

by;
by means of

spring assembly
air or gas
gas and oil

9). .
10). .
11). .

IX. .
a)
What

is

the function
the purpose

of

the piston
the RM
the recoil sleigh

b)
What

is

the arty weapon


the RM
the recoil cylinder
the recuper. cylinder

filled
equipped

with

X. , .

Unit 10

I. .
1.It is essential that an arty weapon be equipped with recoil mechanism in order to prevent
the overweight of the tipping parts.
2.The essential components of the recoil mechanism are cylinders filled with gas and oil.
3.The recoil piston is located in the recuperator cylinder.
4.The function of the pistons is to compress gas and cause the oil to move.
5.The RM performs 4 functions.
6.The rearward thrust is absorbed by means of the recoil piston.
7.The recoiling parts are returned to the in-battery position by means of the compressed
nitrogen gas.
8.The excessive shock of the returning parts is prevented by regulator assembly.
9.The tube is held in firing position by counterrecoil buffer.
10.There are various types of RM.
II. .
a)
As far as I know, the RM is designed .
.
: What are ?
;
, ;
;
.
I think the main parts of the RM are . ,
, .
.

What is the function of ?
.
)
, - You are not quite right.
Only hydropneumatic type RM
(As far as I know )
There are various
?
(What are )
- The spring type RM is
? (How is )

III. .
) :
It is not necessary that an arty weapon be equipped with recoil mechanism.
, , :
Im afraid you are mistaken
The recoil mechanism performs important functions:
If the recoil mechanism were not used,
) .
.
) . , .
IV. 10.4.
1). , 105- 102 .
2)
, .

I. 11:
1. 11 , ( 3).
2. ,
. , :
1). , .
2). .
3). .
3. . :
) .
)
.
:
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
:
/O


Text 11
Recoil of Weapons
In the early 14 th century an artillery man established his gun on blocks of wood.
Firing from such a weapon was more dangerous for the crew than for the target. When the
weapon was fired the cannoneers found it some distance to the rear.
Three hundred years later, Isaak Newton discovered the principle of his third law of
motion: for every action there is an equal force exerted in the opposite direction. Understanding the principle and wanting to build a stable and mobile weapon, the designers
came up with a solution which we know as recoil mechanism (RM). The function of the
early recoil mechanism was to stop the recoiling parts of the weapon. After the recoil force
had completely stopped the rearward movement of the tube, it was necessary to return it to
its original position, ready for firing again. This we know today as counterrecoil. It was
also necessary to avoid the excessive shock of the firing weapon. Finnaly, there was the
fourth requirement: that the mechanism held the tube and its recoiling parts in firing position, during travel, and at all angles of elevation of the weapon.
All these four functions are performed by the modern RM. There are various types
of the RM: hydropneumatic type, hydrospring type, pneumatic type.
The name of the hydropneumatic type derives from two words. The Greek hydro
means water, or liquid. The word pneumatic comes from the Greek pneumatico, and it
means air or wind or any gaseous substance. Applied then to the recoil mechanism which
bears this name, we can see that this type of mechanism is filled partly with liquid and
partly with gas. This type of RM is primarily used in towed artillery permitting long recoil.
In the hydrospring RM, like in the hydropneumatic type, the tube is stopped by the
piston moving in the cylinder with oil. But the force that returns the gun back into its firing
position is the force of the compressed spring. The hydrospring RM is used primarily
where the space of recoil is limited as in some self-propelled weapons.
Notes

dangerous

exert

solution

rearward

spring

space

hydrospring
recoil

mechanism
II. 12:
1) 0,5 . 3 , .
2) 10 . ,
.

Text 12
155-mm Howitzer M 114, Towed,
Recoil Mechanism
The recoil mechanism used by the towed 155-mm howitzer M 114 is the hydropneumatic, with moving piston.
Hydro means that liquid is used. This liquid is recoil oil. Recoil oil may be of various types, such as hydraulic fluid MIL-0-5606 or hydraulic fluid MIL-0-6083. The MIL-06083 is more suitable because it provides greater protection against corrosion.
Pneumatic means that a gas is used. Nitrogen gas is used because it can be highly
compressed and not explode. Nitrogen does not cause the corrosion of the metal parts.
The recoil mechanism of the M 114 is of variable type. It means that the length
() of recoil may be varied. The length of recoil can vary from 30 inches to 50 inches.
The recoil mechanism in 155-mm howitzer M 114 is of dependent type. It means
that the recoil oil may move from the recoil cylinder to the recuperator cylinder, and return
from the recuperator cylinder back into the recoil cylinder.
The piston separates the oil from the gas in the recuperator cylinder.
The recoil mechanism of the 155-mm howitzer M 114 performs the following functions:
a)it stops the recoiling parts;
b)returns the recoiling parts to the firing position;
c)prevents shock;
d)holds the recoiling parts in the firing position at all angles of elevation.
The recoil mechanism includes the following components: sleigh that houses and
supports the parts of the recoil mechanism; recuperator cylinder containing compressed
nitrogen gas; recoil cylinder filled with recoil oil which can move backward and forward
between the recoil cylinder and the recuperator cylinder; variable recoil actuator by means
of which the length of recoil may be varied.

I. 30 , .
Text 13
Recoil Mechanism
The recoil cylinder of the hydropneumatic type RM is filled with gas, the front part
of it containing recoil oil which can move from the recoil cylinder to the recuperator cylinder. The recoil piston moving in the recoil cylinder is attached to the cradle. The gas to
be compressed by the recoil piston and the oil to be moved by the piston accomplish the
mission of stopping the recoiling parts without violent movement of the gun.
The recuperator cylinder is also filled with gas to be compressed during the recoiling phase. When the weapon has finished the recoil, the gas begins to expand returning the
recoiling parts to the in-battery position. In order to prevent the excessive shock during
counterrecoil the counterrecoil buffer is used.
It is necessary that the recoiling parts be held in the in-battery position during traveling at all angels of elevation. To hold the recoiling parts is also the mission of the recoil
mechanism.

UNIT 11

I. .
Smooth, smoothbore, smoothbore weapon; weight, great weight, having great weight;
back end, back end of the barrel; mechanism, firing mechanism, there is a firing mechanism; through, through the muzzle, is loaded through the muzzle.
II. , ; :
Mortar, breechblock, fire, primer, support, muzzle, load, change, provide, design, attach,
close, direct, direction, provision, attachment.
III. : through, from, for, with.
1.The projectile is fired the weapon.
2.The mortar projectile is loaded the muzzle.
3.The bottom carriage provides support the top carriage.
4.The piston moves the cradle.
5.The mortar fires the platform.
IV.
.
1.The main part of the weapon is the barrel to propel a projectile in a definite direction.
2.The cylinder is known to contain a recoil piston.
3.It is necessary that the weapon be equipped with recoil mechanism.
4.If a weapon had no recoil mechanism, it would displace.
5.If a weapon is self-propelled it is equipped with motor vehicle.
6.The breech mechanism contains a firing mechanism in order to detonate ammunition.
7.The breech mechanism contains a firing mechanism, its function being to detonate ammunition.

smoothbore
propel
base plate
mount
provide means
lateral
primer
mine
to give direction
explode
changes
change

New words

I. .
) .
is loaded through the muzzle
from the breech

is designed

to give direction
to support
to explode

) .
1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) .
II. , .
smoothbore
mechanism
base
charge
battery
weapon
firing
changes
vertical
plate
propelling
lateral
position
III. :
) :
parts
of
barrel
direction
mortar
changes
direction
) :
, , .
IV. .
a)to propel a projectile in a definite direction; to provide support; to provide means of lateral changes; in order to fire the weapon;
) ; , ;
; .
V. .
Text 14
Smoothbore Weapons. Mortar
Mortar may be a smoothbore weapon which is usually loaded through the muzzle.
The main parts of the mortar are: the barrel to propel a projectile in a definite direction; the base plate to provide support for the mortar barrel in firing; the mount to support

the weapon in firing position and to provide means of lateral and vertical changes in the
direction of the barrel. The barrel assembly is composed of the barrel and the breech. In
the breech there is a firing mechanism to explode the primer of the ammunition in order to
fire the weapon.
The projectile fired from the mortar is called mine. The mine with the propelling
charge attached to it is loaded through the muzzle.
If a mortar has greater weight, it is necessary that it be loaded from the breech. The
breech is known to contain the breechblock, its function being to close and lock the back
end of the barrel.
VI. , .
1.Mortar may be a weapon.
2.Mortar is usually loaded through
3.Mortars having greater weight are loaded from
4.The main parts of the mortar are:
5.The barrel is designed to
6. is designed to provide support for the barrel in firing.
7.The mount is designed to and to provide means of
8. is composed of the barrel and the breech.
9.The firing mechanism explodes
10.The projectile fired from the mortar is called
VII. .
1.What type of weapon is mortar?
2.How may the mortar be loaded?
3.What are the main parts of the mortar?
4.What is the barrel designed for?
5.What part is designed to provide support for the barrel in firing?
6.What part is intended to support the weapon in firing position and to provide
lateral and vertical changes in the direction of the bore?
7.What does the barrel assembly consist of?
8.What is the function of the firing mechanism?
9.How is the mortar projectile called?
VIII. :
) .
The

barrel
base plate
mount
firing mechanism
breechblock

is designed
is intended

to

explode primer
support the weapon in firing position
close and lock the barrel
support the barrel
propel a projectile

) .
What
is the barrel
the base plate
the mount
the firing mechanism
the breechblock

designed
intended

IX. .

for

UNIT 12

I. .
:
Quite right
,
You are not quite right
,
No such thing
,
You are mistaken

1.All mortars are loaded through the muzzle.
2.Mortar has no breech.
3.Mortar having greater weight has a breechblock.
4.Mortar consists of the same parts as gun and howitzer.
5.The mortar projectile is called mine.
6.The mount and the base plate are supporting members (parts).
II. .
a)
. I think all mortars
.
.
To my mind mortars have no

, ,
Do they have?
.
I think these mortars are loaded from .

)
,
, .

?
(so)
,
?

Mortars have such parts as base


plate, mount.
The base plate is designed to
The mount is designed to
The base plate and the mount are
supporting members.

III. :
) ,
. .
) : .
. ,
.
) .
, .


15.
1. , .
The 2B9 in firing and in traveling positions.
Combat characteristics.
The 82-mm mortar a new Russian weapon.
Technical characteristics.
SP version of the 2B9.
2. , .
3. , , .
Text 15
The 82-mm Automatic Mortar
The Russian 82-mm automatic mortar, officially designated 2B9 but also nicknamed
Vasilyok, is known to replace conventional 82-mm mortars in the western Military Districts of the country.
The 2B9 is breech-loaded. Ammunition is fed from the right using clips of four
bombs each. A clip is expected to be fired off in 1-2 seconds. The mortar can be aimed
both directly and indirectly, its angle of elevation varying from 0 to 80.
It has an effective range of about 1.000 m for direct fire and about 5.000 m for indirect fire. Because of its high rate and weight of fire, the 2B9 is far superior to conventional
mortars.
The 2B9 in firing position is supported on a base plate, and the wings are raised up
and forward.
In the traveling position, the base plate is jacked up, and the wheels are brought
back down.
There is also a self-propelled version of the Vasilyok, based on an MT-LB armoured
transport vehicle.
Notes

nickname

replace

conventional
.:
is fed

clip

raise up

wings

jack up

UNIT 13

( )
I. , :
1.Mortar is known to be loaded from muzzle.
2.Breechblock is expected to be closed and locked automatically.
3.The barrel is smoothbore, its length being 46 calibers.
4.Mortar containing smooth bore, the mine is loaded from the muzzle.
5.In order to prevent accidental firing the breech mechanism is provided with safety arrangements.
II. , Infinitive.
1.The part to be used for detonation of ammo is called firing mechanism.
2.The breechblock is pushed into the breech to close and lock the back end of the barrel.
3.To control the movement of the weapon in firing, recoil mechanism is used.
4.To stop recoiling parts is the function of the recoil mechanism.
III. , Participle 1 Gerund.
1.Mortars having great weight are loaded from breech.
2.Moving in the recoil cylinder the piston compresses gas.
3.Moving of the oil between the recoil cylinder and the recuperator cylinder is provided in
many types of recoil mechanisms.
4.The recoiling parts may be stopped by compressing the gas in the recoil cylinder.
IV. , Participle 2.
1.This weapon is designed to be loaded through the muzzle.
2.The weapon designed to be loaded through the muzzle is smoothbore.
3.Split trails are used in the weapon.
4.Split trails used in the weapon permit to increase the elevation of the tube.
5.When elevated the tube must be held in firing position.
V. , .
1.It is necessary that a weapon be equipped with safety arrangements.
2.It is required that the shock of fire be reduced.
3.If the shock of fire were not reduced, the weapon would (could) be displaced to the rear.
VI. 16 ( 15 .).
1. . :
characteristics, tactical, technical, combat, parts, construction, constructional characteristics.
2. ,
.

Text 16
Mecars 90-mm Kenerga Gun
The Kenerga manufactured by Mecar (USA) is a new gun which has been designed
jointly with a new kinetic-energy ammunition. The Kenerga is a smoothbore weapon
weighing 582.0 kg. The barrel is made of steel and resists a pressure up to 4.000 kg/cm2.
The barrel is 414 cm long (including the 51.6 cm chamber), or 46 calibers.
The guns breech has a horizontal sliding breechblock operated by a breech-opening
mechanism. Ammunition is loaded by hand, the breech closing automatically.
The gun has a hydraulic recuperator and a buffer. Recoil length is no more than 350
mm. The oil used in the recoil system is normal recoil liquid. The recoil mechanism can be
changed in less that 15 min, this fact indicating that the gun is very simple in design. An
equilibrator used in the Kenerga balances the overweight of the tipping part.
The projectile is fired at a muzzle velocity of 1.380 m/s, the highest point of the trajectory being 2.87 m. It is known to fire 10 rounds per minute and when conducting sustained fire 7 rounds per minute at a distance of 2.000 m.
sustained fire
jointly
buffer

Notes

VII. 45 , .
Text 17
The SP 70 155-mm Howitzer
The United Kingdom and West Germany developed a new towed field howitzer,
the FH 70, and a new SP howitzer, the SP 70.
The SP 70 has a hull and a turret made of aluminium.
The elevating mass is made up of the cradle, the recoil mechanism, and the gun.
The cradle is a device to support the recoiling mass in recoil and counterrecoil. The breech
opening mechanism is known to open the breech automatically. The breech mechanism
has a vertically sliding breechblock, the breech ring being opened automatically.
The elevating mechanism contains a balancing device, its function being to balance
the overweight of the barrel. It is required that the gun be returned to an original angle of
elevation after firing.
This mission is performed by a device called compensator.
sliding breechblock

Notes

Text
GHN -45 a new towed 155-mm gun-howitzer from Austria.
The GHN-45 /Gun-Howitzer Noricum, 45 calibers/ entered series production at
Voest-Alpine facilities in Austria in late 1981. It can fire all NATO 155 mm ammunition
types and fires ERFB /Extanded Range Full Bore/ projectiles to a guaranteed maximum
range of at least 30 km at standard atmospheric conditions. Under the same contitions, it
fires ERFB Base

UNIT 14

I. .
1.Cannon. Barrel assembly
What is a cannon?
What are the main parts of a cannon?
What is the carriage designed for?
What is the barrel designed for?
What does the barrel assembly consist of?
What types of rifling are used?
2.Breech mechanism
What is the breech mechanism designed for?
What are the principal parts of the breech mechanism?
What is the function of the breechblock?
What is the firing mechanism used for?
What is the function of the safety devices?
3.Crriage
What two parts does the carriage consist of?
What does the bottom carriage include?
What does the top carriage include?
What is the cradle designed for?
What is the function of the elevating mechanism?
What is the function of the traversing mechanism?
What is the equilibrator used for?
4.Recoil mechanism
What are the functions of the RM?
What parts does the RM include?
What are the types of the RM?
What is the hydropneumatic type RM actuated by?
What is the spring type RM actuated by?

II. , .
smoothbore -
barrel assembly-
chamber -
breech ring -
combustion ,
carriage
breechblock -
impart -
operate ,
muzzle -
operation -
muzzle velocity
flash ,
muzzle brake
aiming-mechanism absorb -
certain -
fit ,
take place
cradle -
force ,
bore
force out -
rifled bore
force into -
rifling -
elevating mechanism - production -
permit -

traversing mechanism stability -


influence -

rate of fire -
forward -
speed -
rearward -
apply -
surface -
application -
raise ,
life of weapon
portion -
provide -
groove ,
ammunition ()
land
entry of ammunition flight -

rotate -
sealing -
rotation -
lever ,
motion ,
rotational motion latch -
prevent -
movement (-)
lock -
stabilize -
close -
rotating band
twist of rifling , screw breechblock
wedge breechblock -

breech mechanism angle -


uniform twist
carry ,

increasing twist - carrier


breech recess

opposite -
constant -
blank ,
equalize -
engage ;
pressure -
firing mechanism
advantage -
require -
war -
requirement -
simple -

produce -
accidental -
trail -
axle
axis -
connect
split trails
block trail
box trail
expect -
elevate -
depress -
slide -
attach -
portion -
tipping portion
turn (),
trunnion -
angle of elevation ,

various -
variable -
compose -
overweight ,
balance -
equilibrator
laying -
mount -
expand ()
expansion -
prevent -
few -
last ;
length -
spring -
actuate /
propel

base plate
means
by means of -
mean ,

meet a requirement

reduce ,
violent -
recoil -
counterrecoil -
recoil mechanism

recoil brake
recoil cylinder
recoil sleigh
recuperator cylinder
counterrecoil buffer
recoil piston
recoil oil
floating piston
return ,
compress -
hold (held, held) -
cause ,
essential ,
above the gun
below the gun
recoiling parts
rearward thrust
excessive shock
shock ,
friction -
in-battery position
firing position ,
primer -
explode ()
change ,
weapon -
cannon
equip ,
equipment ,
projectile -
important
necessary -


Text 3.1
The 8-inch SP howitzer M 110 is a highly mobile weapon of combat support. It can
be transported by air. The elevation of 65 degrees and the depression limit of two degrees
above horizontal are permitted by the elevating mechanism.
The principal parts of the barrel are the tube and the breech ring. The tube is made
of the highest quality steel alloy. The length of the bore is 25 calibers. The rifled bore contains 64 grooves and lands. The twist of rifling is of uniform type, right-hand. The barrel
throws the projectile at maximum range of 16.800 meters, the muzzle velocity being 1.950
feet per second.
The barrel should be regularly cleaned, because the main purpose is to reduce the
wear of the tube and erosion.
The 6-inch M 114 medium towed howitzer fires ammunition at a highest velocity of
1.850 feet per second and a range of 14.600 meters. It fires high explosive, chemical,
smoke, and illuminating shells, and has rate of fire of about 40 rounds per hour. But the
rate is higher for short periods of fire. The length of the weapon is 24 feet, the total weight
is 12.700 pounds (). The traversing mechanism permits the traverse of 25 degrees
to the left and to the right of the center. The elevation goes from 2 to 63 degrees.
The weapon is normally towed by a five-ton truck or an 18-ton high-speed tractor.
The barrel assembly of the M 114 155-mm howitzer consists of the tube, the breech
ring and some other parts.
The characteristics of the barrel assembly are as follows: Caliber is 155-mm or
6.102 inches.
Length of tube from the muzzle to the rear end is 23 calibers or 140.336 inches.
Length of rifling is 113.10 inches.
The rifling contains 48 lands and grooves.
The rifling is of uniform twist type, right-hand.
The two main enemies of the cannon are corrosion and erosion. To prevent corrosion and erosion the tube must be regularly cleaned.
Text 5.2
Breech assembly of the 155-mm howitzer M 114 consists of two principal parts:
breech mechanism and firing mechanism.
The breech mechanism is a mechanical opening and closing device located in the
rear end of the barrel. It provides for entry and sealing the ammunition in the weapon.
The 155-mm howitzer M 114 uses breech ring with a threaded breech recess. The
breechblock is of screw type. It is equipped with an obturator device that serves to prevent
gases from escaping to the rear.
The breech mechanism contains safety devices to prevent the accidental functioning
of the gun before, the breechblock is fully closed. The safety devices contain levers and
latches which function automatically.
The firing mechanism used in the M 114 is the firing mechanism M 1. It is a device
which fires the ammunition and thus the weapon fires.

Text 7.3
Modern arty must be capable to move rapidly and to shift its fires quickly from one
part of the front to another as required. The requirement of high mobility and flexibility is
the requirement of modern combat.
The modern two-part artillery carriages are able to meet these requirements.
As a rule, the bottom carriage of the towed artillery weapon is fixed to the axle.
The wheels are mounted on the axle. This gives artillery high mobility. In addition
to this function, the bottom carriage supports the top carriage. The traversing mechanism
is also attached to the bottom carriage. The traversing mechanism is designed for traversing the top carriage. Trails may be also attached to the bottom carriage.
Flexibility requires rapid traverse of the top carriage on the bottom carriage. Rapid
traverse is performed by means of a simple little element made of metal. This element is
called pintle pin.
In old times the cannoneers made the shift of fire by moving the whole weapon right
or left.
When the new carriage was developed it consisted of a top and bottom carriage and
contained the pintle pin, which permitted shift to over 800 mils.
Text 10.4
The 105-mm howitzer, light, M 102, towed, is a lightweight, towed weapon, which
has a very low silhouette when in firing position. It can be airlifted, dropped by parachute,
or towed into position by a prime mover.
The carriage consists of a welded aluminium box trail and cradle, traversing mechanism, firing mechanism, elevating mechanism, and recoil mechanism.
The recoil mechanism employed on the towed 105-mm howitzer M 102 is the hydropneumatic, variable type with floating piston. Nitrogen gas is used because it can be
highly compressed without exploding and it will not corrode the metals. Recoil oil is a petroleum-base hydraulic liquid.
In the recoil mechanism there is a mechanical device for varying the length of recoil. Under normal operating conditions, the maximum length of recoil can vary from 30
inches to 50 inches. The length of recoil may be regulated by a variable recoil actuator.
Floating piston separates the liquid from the gas in the recuperator cylinder.
The recoil mechanism must: a)absorb and control the rearward thrust of the weapon
preventing displacement of the weapon or excessive shock; b)cause the recoiling parts to
return to the in-battery position; c)prevent excessive shock while the recoiling parts are returning to the in-battery position; d)hold the tube in the in-battery position during travel
and at all angles of elevation.
The main components of the recoil mechanism are recuperator cylinder, recoil cylinder, recoil sleigh assembly, variable recoil actuator.
The elevating mechanism is designed to give the barrel a definite angle of elevation.
Total elevation is from 0 to 75 (1.333 mils). Total depression is from 0 to 5 (89 mils).
The equilibrator is used in order to balance the overweight of the tipping parts and
to reduce the force required to elevate the tube.
The traversing mechanism controls the movement of the weapon in azimuth (horizontal angle). The Barrel assembly consists of the tube, breech ring.
Fire control instruments include: panoramic telescope M 113, telescope mount M
134 and others.


: International Military Review, Military technology, Armada,
Military Parade 1988 1999.
.. . , 1987.