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37

2002


.., ..

37. : , 2002.
3- ,
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.

UNIT I
Artillery Complete Round
LESSON 1
1. certain
2. essential
3. essentially
4. to leave
5. to remain
6. to burn
7. to describe
8. except (for)
9. shot
10. increment
11. practice ground
12. to deliver
13. to fire fur effect
14. actual
15. to handle
16. to change
17. item
18. unit

New words:

,
,
, ( )

,
,
;


,
( , - )

,
.:

1. :
necessary; necessary for firing; all the components necessary for firing; comprizes
all the components necessary for firing; complete round comprizes all components necessary for firing;
function; special function; performs its special function; each component performs
its special function;
produce; producing; producing powder gases; burns producing powder gases; the
propelling charge burns producing powder gases;
mechanical; mechanical device, a mechanical device used with projectile; fuze is a
mechanical device used with projectile;
essential; essential components; essential components of artillery round; all the elements are essential components of artillery round;
adjust; adjustable; either adjustable or fixed; the propelling | charge can be either adjustable or fixed.

2. :|
a fuzed projectile
) ,
) , .
an unfused projectile
) ,
) , .
a nose-fuzed projectile, a base-fuzed projectile,
a boat-tailed base, a banded shell, a capped shell,
a thin-walled shell, an unfuzed projectile, an uncapped shell,
ah unhanded projectile, bagged charge
3. ) "case":
case = cartridge case, container
case = situation
1. The primary function of the case is to hold the propelling charge.
2. In case of fixed ammunition the cartridge case serves as a container for the charge.
) "case" .
4. :
a certain weapon; zone of fire; special function; separate items; in the first case;
fixed charge; on the base of; at the time desired; under the conditions desired; in the second case;, adjustable charge upon firing; either or; to produce powder gases; as separate
items.
; ; ; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; () ; ; ; ; .
5. ,
:
1. The first part is larger than the second one.
2. The filler of HE shell is larger than that of AP projectile.
.
6. ; (. 4):
1. Artillery primer (to design) to ignite the propelling charge.
2. The parts of the fixed round (to load) into the weapon as a unit.
3. Projectile (to deliver) to the target and destroys or neutralizes it.
4. The propelling charge (to adjust) in semi-fixed ammo.
5. Practice projectiles (to use) for training personnel in firing on practice grounds.
6. Non-adjustable charge (to call) fixed charge.

7. I, II (. 7, 8):
) :
1. Cartridge case contains primer igniting the propelling charge,
2. The charge used to propel the projectile out of the weapon is called propelling
charge.
) II :
The primer used = the used primer
1. The powder used is smokeless.
2. The projectile bursts at the time desired.
3. The elements (described) are very important.
) :
1. The propelling charge burns producing powder gases.
2. When located in bags the charge can be adjusted to the zone of fire desired.
3. If used for superquick action the fuze is located in the nose of the shell.
) I :
being used = when used
1. Being designed to penetrate armour the AP projectile is made of high-carbon steel.
2. Being made of copper rotating band is readify engraved by rifling.
) .
8. , II
; (. 17); ?
?
1. The propelling charge is assembled in bags located in the cartridge case.
?
?
2. The propelling charge assembled in bags is located in the cartridge case.
9. II ; :
1. Service projectile () to fire for effect.
2. The projectiles () to fire for effect () service projectiles.
3. Primer (/) in the cartridge case.
4. Primer () in the cartridge case () to ignite the propelling
charge.
10. , ,
. :
1. Primer (. . .) ignites the charge.
2. The fuze (. . .) bursts after penetrating the target.
3. Ammunition (. . .) is called fixed ammo.
4. According to the type of projectile (. . .) ammo is classified as HE, AP, HEAT, etc.
:
loaded into the weapon as a unit;
used with a round;
located in the base of the case;

fitted in the base of the shell.


11. , :
1. The propelling charge assembled loosely in the cae cannot be adjusted.
2. The detonator located in the fuze ignites the bursting charge located in the shell body.
3. The propelling charge is divided into parts known as increments.

Text A
Artillery Complete Round
A Complete Round of artillery ammunition includes all the components necessary for
firing a certain weapon once. Essentially^ it can be divided into two fundamental parts: the
part leaving the weapon upon firing and that remaining in the weapon upon firing.
The first part comprises a fuzed projectile with filler, the second one includes a propelling charge assembled in a case or bags and a primer. Each component performs its special
function. The primer either located in the cartridge case or used separately of it is designed
to initiate the propelling charge. When ignited the propelling charge burns producing
powder gases. The projectile is fired from the gun by the force of powder gases. It is delivered to the target and destroys or neutralizes it. The fuze is a mechanical device used
with the projectile to explode it at the time and under the conditions desired.
All the elements (described) are essential components of any type of artillery rounds
except armour-piercing shot. They may either be assembled together so that the round is
loaded as a unit or they may be loaded into the cannon as separate items. In the first, case
the propelling charge can either be fixed (in FIXED ammunition) or adjustable (in SEMIFIXED ammunition). In the case of SEPARATE - LOADING ammunition there is no cartridge case. Tire propelling charge is contained in bags, so that the weight of the powder
charge can be changed in accordance with the zone of fire desired.
Another classification of rounds is made on the base. of service use. It includes service
ammunition used in actual combat for fire for effect; practice ammunition used for training
personnel in handling, loading and firing it on practice grounds; drill ammunition used for
training personnel in service of an artillery weapon without actual firing; blank ammunition principally used for artillery saluting; special ammunition carrying chemical, smoke,
illuminating, propaganda or other shells.
According, to, the type of projectile used with service round service ammunition is
classified 'as high-explosive (HE), armour-piercing (AP), armour-piercing with tracer
(APT), high-explosive antitank (HEAT), canister, shrapnel and other types.

1. , .
2. 1- :
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3. 2- :
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,
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.

LESSON 2

1. :
1. Complete round of artillery ammunition includes all
2. A complete round can be divided into two parts:. . .
3. The first part comprizes...
4. The second part includes...
5. The projectile is fired from the gun by. . .
6. The powder gases are produced when . . .
7. The propelling charge is ingnited by. . .
8. The primer is located in . . . or ...
9. Fuze is a device used ...
10. Artillery ammunition is classified according to . . .
11. According to service use. . .
12. According to the type of projectile. . .
13. According to the method of loading.. .
14. The components of ... ... ammunition are loaded as a unit.
15. The components of ... ...... are loaded as separate items.
16. The propelling charge is fixed in . . .
17. In semifixed and separate-loading rounds, the propelling charge...
18. Service ammunition is used. . .
19. Drill ammunition is designed for training personnel. . .
20. ... is used on practice grounds for training personnel in actual firing.
21. ... is used for saluting.
22. Special ammunition includes: ...
2. :
:
Yes, it is /does/ can
No, it isn't /doesn't/ can't
Yes, they are /do/ can
No, they arent /don t/ can t
1. The complete round of artillery ammunition is the part leaving the weapon upon firing, isn't it?
2. The projectile is fired from the gun by the force of powder gases, isn't it?
3. The propelling charge is ignited by the fuze, isn't it?
4. The filler of the shell is exploded by the artillery primer, isn't it?
5. The components of all artillery rounds are loaded into the gun as separate items,
aren't they?
6. The weight of the propelling charge cannot be changed, can it?
7. According to the types of projectiles artillery rounds are classified as service, drill,
practice, blank and special, aren't they?
8. Practice ammunition is used for the same purpose as drill ammunition, isn't it?
9. Illuminating shell is used for saluting, isn't it?
3. -

:
What is the function of . . . ?
The function of ... is to ....
4. ,
:
According to ... artillery ammunition is classified as ... . ..
1. service use;
2. fixed; HE; shrapnel; drill;
types of projectiles;
separate-loading; blank; ser vice; AP;
method of loading into
canister; APT; prac tice; HEAT; special;
the weapon,
semifixed.
5. . (fixed; semifixed; separateloading), :
1. type of propelling charge: fixed/adjustable
2. location of propelling charge: in bags/in a metal case
3. loading of components into the weapon: as a unit/as separate items.
6. , :
artillery saluting; fire for
service ammunition;
effect in actual combat
drill ammunition;
training in actual firing;
practice ammunition;
training in service of weapons;
blank ammunition;
without actual firing;
special ammunition.
special missions in warfare.
7. :
: , .
. . , . .
.
8. ; :
) - Yes, it does. It also inclu des ... ...
,
?
?
The primer . . .

The fuze ... ... ... .
) What is the classification

I think in fixed rounds the propelling ,

charge ...
...
Where . . . ?

How is . . .
I think in semifixed rounds the propel- , . . . . .. .
ling charge... ... ... ... ... ... .

9. :
Hi! Have you been to the lecture of , . colonel Brown .today?
, ,
.
Is the classification the same as that of , .
the Russian rounds?
(a little different).
As far as I remember, our classification, , .
includes fixed, semifixed and separate-
loading rounds.
.
(haven't heard) ,
.
Semifixed round is characterized by an , .
adjustable charge, isn't it?
,
.
Where is the propelling charge as-
sembled in Russian separate-loading .
rounds: in bags or in cases?
. ,
(by the way), , , ?
We call it case-loaded round. Now I . see, that Russian complete rouds are classified as fixed and separate-loading (in its turn) ones, aren't they?
.
my mind, both Russian and Ameri- .
can ammunition classifications have
much in common ( ).
10. :
) .
".
, .
) . . ,

, . . .
) , . , ,
, . .

Word list:
breech
cheap
easy
case-loaded ammunition
advantages
rate of fire

:
1. - , .
2. , :
;
- ;
.
3. - .
Review questions
1. What does the complete round of artillery ammunition include?
2. What two parts can be a complete round divided into?
3. What does the part leaving tile weapon on firing consist of?
4. What does the part remaining in the Weapon on firing consist of?
5. What is the function of each part of the complete round?
6. What are the types of rounds classified according to the method of loading into the
weapon?
7. The components of which types of rounds are loaded into the weapon as a unit?
8. The components of which types of rounds are loaded into the weapon as separate
items?
9. Can the propelling charge be adjusted to the zone of fire with all the types of
rounds?
10. What is the classification of rounds according to service use?
11. Which type is used in actual combat for fire for effect?
12. What types does service ammunition include?
13. What purposes is drill and practice ammunition used for?
14. What is blank ammunition used for?
15. What are the types of special ammunition?

LESSON 3
-
Text B
Artillery Rounds from NIMI*, from Journal "Military Parade", 1999
The Research Engineering Institute (NIMI) is the leading enterfrise in Russia which
produces artillery rounds for towed and self-propelled artillery of the Ground Forces.
While developing new artillery rounds, their developers try to increase their target effect, range of fire and accuracy. Research and design are carried out in accordance with
the present-day science and technology.
The Institute's specialists have been developing and improving ammunition for field artillery systems ranging from 76 mm to 203 mm to destroy manpower, armour targets and
various fortifications. They develop HE projectiles, full-caliber armour-piercing cavity and
solid projectiles, spin- and fin-stabilized HEAT projectiles, illumination and, smoke projectiles, concrete-piercing projectiles (152-mm and more), training projectiles and other
types.
All artillery rounds of up to 100 nun are developed as fixed-loaded projectiles; artillery
rounds of 120mm, 130mm and 152mm are developed as case-loaded and artillery rounds
greater than 125 mm are separate-loaded ammunition.
Artillery rounds greater than 100 mm incorporate variable propelling charges designed
to meet the requirements of ballistic velocities, ensuring the ranges desired.
All artillery rounds for the field .artillery of Russia's armed forces are developed employing state-it-the-art materials and high technology: high fragmentation shell, .powerful
explosive charges, weld-on driving bands. During their development and serial production,
a number of advanced techniques and know how are introduced.
_______________________
* NIMI . - .

The Institute offers all interested countries deliveries of 100152 mm field artillery
rounds, licenses and know how for their production, as well as technical assistance In their
serial production and joint () work to develop new artillery rounds to fully satisfy the customer's demand. Joint work to develop rounds for NATO artillery systems is
possible.
The Institute works jointly with other enterprises to ensure the utilization of ammunition. New methods of disassembly and utilization of ammunition have been developed.
They include the rolling projectile bodies into tube-shaped pieces to produce parts for
automotive industry, the processing of gun powder and combat explosives in commercial
explosives .and consumer goods such as paints, vanishes and the like, the rolling of cartridges into foil to manufacture radiators for automotive cooling systems and contact elements for radioelectronic devices and the manufacture of brass wire for machines and so
on.

Word list:

cavity projectile

solid projectile

spin-stabilized

fin-stabilized
variable propelling charge = adjustable
propelling charge driving band = rotat- ( )
ing Band weld-on

rolling

consumer goods

paints

vanishes

foil

brass wire

customer
3:
1. () ():
) ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ();
b) join work to offer all interested countries; the leading enter-prise; state-of-the-art
materials and high technology; present-day science and technology; satisfy the customer's
damands; advanced techniques; to meet the requirements.

I. , :
1. .
2.
3. - .
4. .
5. , .
6. .
2. 1, :
1. , ...
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2.

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3.

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4. , IV. :
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Dear Sir!
In response to your Setter of () I am pleased to inform, you that our enterprise .
. . ( ).
The specialists of the company have been developing and improving . . . (
).
In our work we employ : . . ( ).
We also offer to all interested enterprises . . .
Joint work is possible in . . .
We look forward to beginning the dialogue and we would welcome the opportunity
to co-operate with you.
Yours taitfully,
...(, )
Hotes:
in response to

to offer

joint work

We look forward to
...
We would welcome the rtunity
yours fairthfully
c

UNIT II
ARTILLERY
PROJECTILE
LESSON 4
major
to affect
initial thrust
air drag

0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
0.

total
body drag
wave drag
forebody
base drag
drag force rearward
to taper
to extend
full ogive body
hollow
base bleed unit
Base Bleed projectile
combustible material
to eject
propulsion effect
to incorporate
Rocket-Assisted Projectile
(RAP)

New words:
,

( . )
,


()


,
,



, ,
-


1. :
produce; produced; produced by the propelling charge; cylindrical, cylindrical part, cylindrical body, cylindrical base; a cylindrical body and an ogival head; dynamic; aerodynamic, aerodynamic wave, aerodynamic wave drag, to reduce aerodynamic wave drag;
stabilize, stabilize in flight, stabilization in flight, stabilization of projectile in flight.
2. ()
():
(a) the same general shape; factors affecting ballistics, total drag; due to rotation; unassisted projectile; rocket motor; partial vacuum; the same general shape; all the way from ...

to; boat tail is added to the base; is readily engraved; transmitting rotational force; past the
projectile-the problem; of extending range.
(6) ; ; , ; ; . ;
. . . ; (); ;
.: ; ; :, .
3.
; .
.
.
:
1). . . 2) . . .

1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
/:
1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
:
1). . . 2) . . .
4. to result.
from -/
to result
in -
1. The drag results in the decrease of range.
2. The initial thrust results from the propellant powder pressure.
to result .
5. ,
(. 9, 10):
) :
1. (In order) to impart rotation to the projectile the rotating band is used.
2. Some projectiles have boat-tailed base to reduce the base drag.
) :
1. center the projectile in the bore is the mission of the bourrelet.
2. To improve the shape of the projectile is necessary for increasing range.
) :
1. Mine is a projectile to be fired from mortal.
2. High-explosive ammunition has a fuze to be fitted before firing.
) -

, , .
6. , (.
11):
a) for centering the projectile in the bore; for imparting the rotational motion, for
stabilizing it in flight; for preventing the contact;
b) by using a streamlined form; by reducing the base drag; by increasing the pressure;
by developing a new shape; with using the motor, with incorporating the rocket motor;
c) without using the motor; without increasing the propulsion effect, without reducing
the base drag.
7. , : c ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
; ; .
8. II (. 17):
) :
1. We see the enemy ammunition dumps (c) to be destroyed.
2. We see the enemy ammuinition dumps destroyed by our artillery.
) , II :
, ;
, ; , ; , ,
; - , .
9. . (. 14):
)
:
1. In order to adjust the propelling charge it is assembled in bags.
2. All artillery projectile are made strearmlined to reduce the air drag.
3. To improve the ballistic performance a boat tail is used.
6) ,
:
; ,
; ; , ; ; ; .

10. (.
15);
, ;
1. Centering the projectile in the bore is the function at bourrelet.
2. Adjusting the propelling charge is necessary for changing the range of fire.
3. Generating powder gases is necessary for propelling a projectile.

Text A
Artillery Projectile
Artillery projectile is a part of the complete round to be fired from a gun and delivered
to a certain point.
Two major factors affecting the range of a shell are its initial thrust and air drag. Total
drag is the sum of three components: body drag due to rotation and friction; wave drag due
to the shape of the projectile forebody; and base drag resulting from the partial vacuum
formed at the base of the shell in flight, producing a drag force rearward.
The problem of improving the ballistic characteristics and extending range has been
solved by improving the streamlined form of projectiles. All standard artillery projectiles
have the same general shape, that is a cylindrical body, an ogival head and a cylindrical or
tapering base, also called square, base or boat-tailed base.
Some modern projectiles used in the NATO armed forces are made with full-ogive
body tapering all the way from the driving band to the nose in order to further reduce
aerodynamic wave-drag. This results in improved flight stability and extended range. A
tapering boat tail is added to the base behind the driving band to reduce the area of vacuum behind the shell base, thus decreasing the amount of the base drag.
In so-called Base Bleed projectiles the boattail contains a base bleed unit instead of the
hollow base. Special combustible material contained in the unit produces the gases to be
ejected through the port in the base, thus reducing the base drag, without increasing the
propulsion effect. Reducing the base drag results in greater increase in range.
Near the base of the projectile there is one or more rotating bands, also called driving
bands, pressed into a groove6 or welded6 on the body. Being made of copper or some
other soft material it is readily engraved by lands of rifling in the bore, thus transmitting
rotational force to the projectile. To center the rear part of the projectile and to prevent escape of past the projectile are also functions of the driving band.
Supporting the forward part of the projectile in the bore is the function of a bourrelet located in the front portion of the body. Bourrelet is a raised pail to be accurately machined
to a slightly larger diameter than that of the body. Only the bourrelet and the rotating band
bear on the lands of rifling while the projectile is travelling through the bore.
Longer range was also achieved with incorporating a rocket motor in the base of a so
called Rocket-Assisted projectile (RAP) The motor functions for some minutes after, the
projectile has left the bore and gives a better range than that of unassisted projectiles.

Notes:
1. partial
2. further
3. instead of
4. port
5. groove
6. to weld
7. soft
8. lands of rifling
9 raised

, e

,
,


1. .
2. - - ,
, , , .
3. , .
4. , , - .
5. ,
.
6. , ? -.
7. ?
8. - .

LESSON 5

1. :
1. Artillery projectile is a part of . . .
2. The major factors affecting ballistics of the shell are:
3. Total drag is the sum of three components: ...
4. The problem of improving ballistics has been solved by ...
5. All standard artillery projectiles have the same general shape: ...
6. Some modern NATO projectiles have body.
7. The full-ogive body is designed . . .
8. A tapering boat tail is added to . .
9. Base bleed projectiles contain . . .
10. The base bleed unit provides ...
11. The rotating band is located . . .
12. It is made of .. . .
13. The functions of the rotating band are: 1) ... 2) ... 3)
14. ... is the function of bourrelet.
15. Only ... bear on the lands of rifling.
16. Rocket-Assisted projectiles are equipped with , . .
2. , :
I agree with you;
You are not (quite) right;
That's right.
You are mistaken.
, : in.-order to ( , )
because ( ).
: Rotating bands are made of copper.
I agree with you. Rotating bands are made f copper in order to be readily engraved by rifling.

You are not quite right, because the rotating bands;


may be made of copper or some other materials.
1. All artillery projectiles are of streamlined form.
2. Some NATO projectiles have a full-ogive body.
3. Base-bleed unit is used to increase the propulsion effect.
4. The body of the shell bears on the Sands of rifling.
5. The rotating band is made of soft material.
6. The rocket motor of the RAP -works while the projectile is In the bore.
3. , ,
.
a) A: I wonder, what . . . results from?
: It results from . . . of the projectile.

A:
wave drag
base drag
body drag

B:
partial vacuum at the base
friction and rotation
air resistance to the forebody

b) A: By what means can . . . be reduced?


B: It can be reduced by means of ...
A:
B:
wave drag
ogival head base drag
base drag
cylindrical body
body drag
boat-tailed base
c) A: Tell me please which part is used for ...
B: ... is used for . . .
A:
B:
centering the projectile
bourrelet
in the bore
boat tail
imparting rotation to the
rotating band
projectile
reducing base drag
d) A: I wonder what the use of ... results in
B: The use of ... results in ....
A:
B:
full-ogive body
reducing the aerodynamic drag
base-bleed unit
greater increase in range
rocket motor
4. :
) , - The rotating band is used for.
...
...
, You are right, it ... in order to . . .
...
?
Rotation results in ...
. . . ?
Rotating band is located ...
, The bourrelet . . .
...
) I wonder, what the wave drag . . . ?

( ) . . .
How can the wave drag be
..
I wonder, what the body drag . . etc.

5. :
) , This is 355-mm Full Bore Extended
.
Range projectile developed by engineers
at Space Research Corporation.
, You are right. It has a full-ogive body in

order to reduce the wave drag by about
30 percent.
By means of the hollow boat tail.
?
, Quite right. When fired from Howitzer
- . ? GHN-45, it flies to a distance of 30.000
meters, while the 155-mm M107 projectile has a range of 17,800 m, if fired
from the same howitzer.
b) This is an extended range projectile, , 152- -
isnt it?
o , , .
What is base bleed"?
,
. .
What firing range does it result .in?
- 29 .
6. :
) .
" .
)
, .
. (. ).
:
3 OF61 152-mm base-bleed projectile is equipped with ....
The base bleed unit is designed to . . . .
The 3 OF61 is intended for firing from ...
Its purpose is to engage . . .
The projectile is fired with the muzzle velocity of . . . at max range . . . ,
at temperature from ... to . . . .
The body is made of ....
The weight of the projectile is ....
The length is ... .
For transportation it is packed in . . . -

1. Russian Artillery Rounds , ; (, ).


2. , .
Tank rounds
rounds
Field rounds
APFS
HE

3. aim 152- , .
4. . :
What types of rounds does the NIMI develop and research ?
What are the examples of Tank rounds. Antiaircraft and Field rounds?
What are the characteristics of some of them?
Word list
variable time fuze

RDX-based explosive

Enhanced-effect proj.

weld on driving band
.

: . , 1985 .
- .
, . , .
, . . , .
,
, .

: 10 .
1
Rotating Bands
Usually artillery projectiles are fitted with rotating bands to be pressed in a groove or

welded on the body near its rear end. The rotating bands are designed to impart rotation to
the projectiles. thus stabilizing them in flight. Rotating bands are usually made of copper
or other soft metal in order to ensure completely filling the grooves of the rifling.
. 2
Bourrelet
Artillery projectiles are provided with bourrelets ia order to center their forward part in
the bore. Bourrelet is a raised part to be accurately machined. It is made of a slightly less
diameter than the bore of a gun to minimize the surface contacting with the lands. Only
bourrelet and rotating band bear on the lands of rifling.
Review Questions
1. What is an artillery projectile?
2. What forces act on the projectile in ifs flight?
3. By what means are the drag forces reduced?
4. What are the new methods of improving the ballistics?
5. What is the result of using full-ogive body?
6. What is the name of the projectile having full ogive body?
7. What are the characteristics of the Base-Bleed Projectile?
8. What are the functions of the rotating band?
9. What material is the rotating tend made of?
10. What the bourrelet designed for?
11. What are the characteristics of the Rocket Assisted projectile?

LESSON 6
-
Text
New approaches to the Problem of Range
It was in the late 1960s, when the Soviet 130 mm M46 howitzer began to prove its
range (27-30 km) and accuracy in hands of Soviet clients in Africa, Middle East, South
Asia and South Fast Asia Since that time the West began to recognize its inferiority of its
less numerous conventional arti11ery systems as-compared to those of the Russians. In the
USA, there was no equal to the Soviet l30 mm as a long- range counterbattery weapon.
The problem of extending range was solved with the Rocket Assisted Projectiles
(RAP). The RAP provides a high percent of range increase as compared to standard projectiles. The increased range capability is obtained through the use of a composite propellant rocket motor, which functions some seconds alter leaving the gun tube, giving the
greatest range capability. For example, the-maximum range of the Ml 10 A2 SP 8 inch
howitzer using the M650 5 rocket-assisted projectile specially developed for it is 29, 300
meters. This low-drag projectile is tilted with a solid-propellant rocket motor which functions for 11 seconds after firing.
RAPs have two fundamental drawbacks, however: the space taken up by the rocket motor reduces the payload or explosive capacity (and thus lethality) of the projectile by some
30 percent; the rocket boost adds new elements of dispersion lo the ballistic trajectory,
thus reducing accuracy.
Engineers at the Space Research Corporation (SRC) took a different, fully ballistic approach to improving the range of conventional 155 mm tube artillery.
They concentrated on streamlined projectiles in order to limit their aerodynamic wave
drag. With the new Extended Range Full Bore (ERFB) projectiles this was achieved by
eliminating the cylindrical center Section used in standard shells, and incorporating a
longer, full ogive body, tapering all the way from the driving hand at the base to the nose
fuze. This resulted in reducing the aerodynamic wave drag by about 30 percent and improved flight stability. A tapering boat tail behind the driving band reduced the area of
vacuum behind the shell base thus cutting down the amount of base drag. Four fixed
nubs" of aerodynamically streamlined form provided bourrelet support at the midsection. The increase in lethal effect resulted from the ERFB maximum payload capacity.
The family of ERFB rounds includes High Explosive, illuminating, Smoke, Base Bleed
and Cargo. The Cargo projectile is designed to deliver a number of grenades to be ejected
through the base.
The researches in the field of improving artillery ammunitioin performances are still going on.
Engineers are looking for new approaches to the problem of extending range.
From International Defense Revrew USA.
* adds new elements of dispersion - .

Word list:
approach
( )
to recognize inferiority

conventional

RAP (Rocket-Assirted Projectile)


-
composite propellant rocket motor
,

payload

capacity

rocket boost

to add
,
lethality

ERFB (Extended Range Full Bore) proj.

()
eliminating
,
incorporating
, ,
Cargo projectile
c
to eject


1. 1 : .
2. , . .
3. ;
4. - () , 2, 3:
()

( )

()

5. - . :


() . . .
. . . .

...
. . .
. . .
...
. . .
6. :
60- ?
?
- - .
.
?
,
.
7. :
- ?
) ?
) ?
) ?
8. :
"Approaches to Extending Range in the US Army" ,
:
In the 60s the West Armies recognized ...
The problem was solved with . . .
With the RAP the increased range was obtained through . . .
This resulted in . . .
With the ERFB rounds the extended range was achieved through . . .
The result was . . .
The increase in lethality resulted from ...
Text
155 mm Improved Conventional Munitions (ICM)
The US Army is promoting ICM program of coordinating and development of technologies connected with cargo-carrying projectiles.
The cargo-carrying projectiles include submissiles, scatterablemines and reconnaissance devices. Submissiles are used for direct action against troops or armour as well as in
the operation in which whole areas are seeded with mines (to deny the territory to the enemy) or sensors (to keep track of the enemy movements).
The basic 155 mm cargo-carrying shell is 4831 which contains 88 miniature dual-

purpose shaped-charge mines that are effective against light armour, vehicles and personnel.
Ballistically similar to the 4831 are the M718 and M741 remote antiarmour mine
system (RAAMS) 155 mm projectiles which carry nine magnetically-fuzed antiarmour
mines, each capable of stopping any known tank. If not detonated, the mines self-destruct
after certain time. Five-pound mines carried by the M718 have a long self-destruction
time, while those in M741 have a shorter active life. A certain number of mines in each
shell can be set off by disturbance. They are used to neutralize enemy mineclearing operations.
A similar principle is in the base of the operation of the M692 (long-life) and M 731
(short life) area denial artillery ammunition (ADAM). Each of the ADAM contains 36 antipersonnel mines within a 155 mm shell.
The Army is testing other Dew rounds in accordance with the ICM program.
from .Army", Oct., 1980.
Word list:
submissile
,
scatterable mines

whole area

to seed with mines
"
reconnaissance device

to deny a territory/area

to keep track of

dual purpose
,
remote system

to be set off

disturbance
:
to self-distruct

within

five-pound


1. . .
2.
- :
dual-purpose shaped-charge mines;
a long self-destruction time;
a short active life;
mine-clearing operations;
to deny territory to the enemy;
area denial artillery ammunition (denial to deny);
whole areas are seeded with mines.
3. , -

.
4. , . .
5. :
The Basic 155 nun Cargo-Carrying Shells of the US Army
Name of shell
Number of bomblets
Objective
M483A1
88
light armour, vehicles, personnel
M718
...
...
M741
...
...
M692
...
...
731
...
...
6. , .


, , . .
Dear Sir!
Our firm will be exhibiting the samples of rounds that are in your field of interest at the
upcoming international Exhibition of Weapons and Military Technology in Frankturt. I
look forward to seeing you to discuss our project.
I enclose the least of our samples for your information: . . . ( ).
It will be a pleasure for me to see you and your collegues at the exhibition.
Sincerely Yours,
... (, )
Notes
samples

in your field of interest



upcoming

enclose

for your information



sincerely yours

UNIT III
HIGH EXPLOSIVE PROJECTILE
LESSON 7

1. forging
2. to set (at)
3. quantity
4. materiel
5. mining effect
6. amount
7. cavity
8. fuze cavity
9. enough
10. inside
11. proper
12. Composition
13. Fragmentation shell
14. Dual-purpose HE shell
15. High Explosive

New Words:

( - )



,
()

;


( ) - () ()
-
Demolition shell


1. :
air, aircraft, antiaircraft, antiaircraft guns;
lethal, lethal effect, lethality, high lethality;
quantity; quantity of fragments;
character, characteristics, characterize, characterized by thick wells;
purpose, primary purpose; disperse, dispersion, being dispersed above ground; burst, to
burst on impact bursting charge.
2. ()
():
) low drag shape; rather thick wails; enough bursting charge;
is set at delay; to allow proper penetration; high order detonation;
angle of impact; shifting the center of gravity; a hollow steel forging;
) ; ();
; ; ; ; ;
; .

3. ) :
as well as

both . . . and
. . .
that is

either ... or
. . .
the ... the . . .
. . .
in order (to)
,
1. HE shells are used against firing points, personnel light armoured targets.
2. Some projectiles have . . . point . . . base fuze.
3. The fuze is set at delay ... to allow proper penetration.
4. The projectile is fitted with . . . TNT . . . Amatol.
5. The shell is fitted with superquick type of fuze, . . . the fuze functioning immediately
on impact.
6. ... longer the ogive, . . . less is the air resistance.
) , .
4. :
depending n

as compared to

due to
-,
by
,
depending on the size of fragments, depending on combat situation; depending on the
size of cavity; as compared to HE shell, compared to the fixed round, as compared to conventional () projectile; due to air resistance, due to combination of two effects;
due to high pressure; by reducing the base drag, by shifting the center of gravity, by blast
effect, by fragmentation, by combination of actions.
5. ) there is/are:
1. There are many types of artillery projectiles.
2. In the shell there is a cavity for the bursting charge.
3 There is a base charge and some increments in the cartridge case?
) :
1. :
, .
2. , .
3. .
6. ) ,
(. 13);
: (, ): (,
); , ; ( ).
1. Artillery projectiles are known to have a streamlined shape.
2. The shape of the projectile is considered to be a very important factor.
3. The base-bleed unit is expected to reduce the base drag.

4. Delay fuzes are expected to function alter penetration.


) ,
(. 13):
1. We know HE shells to be used against personnel amd materiel.
2. The article reported the rocket-assisted projectiles to have 40% increase in range.
) .
7. , (. 12);
1. Artillery projectiles- having a streamlined form, the aerodynamic drag is reduced.
2. The propelling charge can he adjusted, different zones of fire being obtained.
6)
.
8.
(. 16):
1. A projectile equipped with a base fuze is exploded after penetration.
2. HE shell has a cavity containing a large bursting charge.
3. On explosion the projectile produces fragments to he dispersed above the ground.
6) , 1 II ,

High Explosive Projectiles
projectiles are known to be effective against enemy personnel, field fortifications
and materiel due to combination of fragmentation and blast actions.
A typical dual-purpose HE shell has a lew-drag shape, that is a pointed nose., a cylindrical body and a boat-tailed base. The hollow base of the boat tail is designed to improve
stability of the projectile by reducing the base drag and shifting the center of gravity forward. There is a base cover below the base which prevents penetration of powder gases
into the projectile.
The projectile is issued unfuzed, its body being a hollow steel forging with a fuze cavity
in the nose. The fuze which is assembled in the field may be set at delay, nondelay or superquick action, depending on combat situation. If equipped with time fuze, the HE shell
is used for firing from antiaircraft guns. The fillers employed are TNT, Amatol or Composition B*.
There are HE shells that are generally designed for fragmentation effect against personnel, weapons and aerial targets, those shell being called FRAGMENTATION grenades.
The lethal effect f fragmentation grenades depends on the size, weight and quantity of
fragments produced by explosion. The angle of impact is also considered to be one of the
most important factors. The lower the angle, the less is the destructive effect. The fuze
must be set at superquick action.

There are types of high-explosive shells primarily intended for demolition effect against
enemy fortifications, firing points and command posts, as well as light armoured targets,
such as APCs, IFVs, helicopters, etc. The demolition power of these projectiles depends
on the amount of bursting charge located in the cavity.
As compared to the fragmenation projectiles, the high-explosive demolition projectiles
have a thinner body and a larger cavity to contain enough bursting charge to produce blast
effect. This type HE shell is expected to burst inside the target and defeat personnel and
materiel. The point fuze used with it is set at delay action in order to allow proper penetration before detonation. Larger calibers are equipped with both point and base fuze.
Composition B: 60% Hexagen, 38% TNT, 1% desensitizing wax (desensitizing wax
).


1. , .
2.
.
3.
, .
4. : , .
5. , ,
, ( ,
) .
6. .
7. , , :
) ;
) . ;
) ;
) .

LESSON 8.

1. :
1. E shell is effective against
2. It combines ...
3. HE shell has a low drag shape, that is ...
There is a base cover below the base to prevent
4 The HE shell is issued . . .
5. In its nose there is ...
6. The fuze used in the HE shell is ...
7. It is set at . . .
8. The fillers employed are . . .
9. Fragmentation grenades are designed against . . .
10. The lethal effect of fragmentation grenades depend on . . .
11. The angle of impact influences . . ..
12. Fragmentation projectiles are characterized by . . .
13. They are equipped with . . .
14. Demolition types of HE shells are used against .
15. Demolition types of HE shells produce . . .
The demolition power depends on ...
16. They are characterized by. . . .
17. The fuze used in the demolition types is . . .
18. It is set at ...
19. Larger calibers are fitted with ....
2. ,
. ( because, in order to):
1. HE projectiles are effective against personnel and materiel.
2. HE projectile has improved ballistics.
3. HE projectile is provided with a hollow boat-tailed base.
4. HE projectiles are issued with a fuze fitted a the nose.
5. Fragmentation grenades are characterized by thin wails and a large bursting charge.
6. The high explosive shells of demolition type have a small cavity for the bursting
charge.
7. The fuze of the demolition type of HE shell is set at delay.
3. :
The Fragmentation
shell
has
The
Demolition
shell

thinner walls
thicker walls
larger HE
smaller HE

The Demolition shell


than
The Fragmentation
shell

4. ) :
1. HE Dual Purpose projectile.
2. Fragmentation projectile.
3. Demolition projectile.
Point fuze; delay action; nondelay action; superquick action; small cavity; larger cavity;
thick walls; thin walls; TNT; Amatol;
Composition B; blast effect; mining effect; fragmentation effect;
personnel; light fortifications; tanks; light armoured targets.
) , () :
1. .
is characterized by
2. .
destroyes
3. .
is equipped with
4. .
it has
5. , :
a)
A: As far as I know the - projectIle is used against. . .
B: You are right/you are mistaken. The ... projectile is designed to destroy
A:
B:
personnel
HE Dual Purpose
Fragmentation
firing positions
Demolition
fortifications
materiel
b) A: Tell me please what are the characteristic features of ...
B: The . . . projectile is characterized by . . .
A:
B:
Dual Purpose
thick walls
Fragmentation
small bursting charge
Demolition
thin walls
large bursting charge
low-drag shape
c) A: I wonder what the power of the... projectile depends on
B: The power of the . . . projectile depends on
A:
B:
Dual Purpose
size of fragments
Fragmentation
weight of fragments
Demolition
quantity of fragments
amount of bursting
charge
the angle of impact

d) A: 1 think the fuze of the . . . projectile is set at


B: Quite right/u are mistaken. It is set at
action in order . . .
A:
B:
Dual Purpose
delay
to allow penetration before detonation
Fragmentation
nondelay
to function immediately on impact
Superquick
superquick to function in accordance with combat
situation

6. . :
) , - You are right. It is used
...
?

It produces ..

, , - characterized by
?
, As far as I know, the power of the
?
Dual-purpose HE shell on
, .
....

b) is the HH shell . . . ?

, 0 .

Is the shell issued . . . ?

, .

.

I guess, the fuze is set at. . .

. ...

Is the demolition type of HE ...


shell issued . . . ? ...:... ... ... ...

7. :
What organization do you repre- -
sent?
(),

.
Does the Institute develop pro- , , jectiles defeating fire-support helicopters?
, .
What are the constructional char-
acteristics of these projectiles?
,
c .
.
What type of fuze is used with
these projectiles?
- (combination
fuze).
What effect is the anti-helicopter
projectile designed for?

.
8. :
152 45.
, , . .
. 2.

1. ; .
2.
:
?
) 75 ;
) 131 .
?
) ;
) .
?

) ;
) .
?
) ;
) .
?
) ;
) .
?
) :
) ,
?
) ;
) .
Word list:
adapter
earthworks

, . . ,
, 1985.
, (trenches)
.
. , . , . , .
, . , , , ,
. , , (way of dispersion). .
, . , , .
-

30 .
1
155 mm Gun and Howitzer Cannons Ammunitions
155 mm Gun ammunition is designed for use with the gun cannons M2, A2A1 and

M46, 155 mm Howitzer Ml, M1A1 and M45.


The individual components projectile, primer, propelling charge and fuze being loaded
separately, these ammunitions are considered to be separate-loading.
HE Projectiles are used both for fragmentation and for blast. The projectile consists of a
forged steel body containing an explosive charge of TNT.
When issued, the projectile is unfuzed. There is a deep fuze cavity in the nose containing a supplementary charge of TNT.
Being of boat tailed form the base is fitted with a base cover in order to prevent the
propellant gases from penetrating the base.
Notes:
supplementary charge

2
8-inch Howitzer Ammunition
8-inch 106 ammunition is designed for use with howitzer cannons M2, M2A1, M2A
1E1 and M47, these weapons being used to provide long-range artillery fire in mobile
combat.
Being handled and loaded in separate items, this ammunitions is classified as separateloading.
High Explosive round is used against personnel and materiel, producing blast and fragmentation effect.
The projectile consists of a hollow steel forging with a boat-tailed base and a base cover
as well as a streamlined ogive. A rotating band made of gilding metal is pressed into a
groove near the base. The projectile is fitted with a nose fuze to be set to explode on impact or after a short delay in order to allow penetration of the target before detonation.
Notes:
in separate items

gilding metal

groove
,
Review Questions
1. What purpose is HE projectile designed for?
2. What effects does it combine?
3. By what means is the improved ballistics obtained?
4. What type of fuze is used with HE projectile?
5. What type of action can the fuze be set at?
6. What are the characteristics of the Fragmentation projectiles?
7. What does the lethal effect of the Fragmentation shell depend on?
8. What are the characteristic features of the High-Explosive projectile designed for
demolition effect?
9. What does its demolition effect depend upon?
10. What actions are the fuzes set at (in the fragmentation and high-explosive shells)?

LESSON 9
-
Text
The 155 mm ERFB HE Projectile
The 155 mm Extended-Range Full-Bore High Explosive projectile MK 10 Mod 2, as it
is officially designated, was developed by SRC* to achieve a maximum range of more
than 30 km with the 45 caliber barrel of the GC 45 towed gun-howitzer.
The filler employed by the ERFB HE is Composition characterized dy good density.
The ERFB's low drag aerodynamic profile reduces time of flight, makes the trajectory
less susceptible to meteorological changes and improves accuracy.
The ERFB HE has a full-ogive body. A lifting plug is used for packaging and transport
of the projectile and is screwed into the faze cavity. The lifting plug is replaced by fuze in
the field. AH standard point-detonating mechanical time. superquick and combination
fuzes may be fitted to meet tactical requirements.
The shell body is of high fragmentation steel, with the nubs replacing the forward bourrelet. This provides a full ogive body of She projectile.
The driving band us made of copper. Only the nubs. and the driving band form the
bearing surface.
Behind the driving band is the obturator which provides more efficient sealing of the
propelling gases.
The boat tail is made of aluminium, its hollow base shifts the center of gravity forward,
thus improving the stability of the projectile in its flight.
The MK 10 Mod 2 is fired by GC 45 and GHN 45 gun-howitzers. Ml 14/39
andM109Al howitzers, FH70, FH77B gun. howitzers.
*

SRC - Space Research Corporation

ERFB projectile
density
less susceptible
lifting plug
to screw
to replace
dearing surface
sealing
hollow
nub

Word list:
, ;


1. - (). :
) , ;
) .

()

( )

()

2. , 6.
3. - 10 .
4. :
- , 10 Mod 2 ?
- ?
- ?
- ?
?
- ?
5. 155mm ERFB HE projectile .
1 .

UNIT IV
ANTI -ARMOUR AMMUNITION

1. observation of fire
2. strength
3. penetrative power
4. piercing/penetrating effect
5. to permit
6. adequate
7. to heat
8. heat-treated
9. full bore projectile
10. subcaliber projectile
11. solid
12 armour-piercing shot
13. blunt
14. Armour-Piercing High-Explosive (APHE) projectile
15. to impose stresses
16. impact stress
l7. prefragmented (body)
18. screw
19. splinters
20. spin
21. fins
22. core, penetrator
23. to lessen

LESSON 10
New words

, ,
,


()



,
() -
( )


1. :
sufficient, sufficiently, sufficiently strong;
prior, priority, high priority, high priority factor;
adequate, adequate strength, to ensure adequate strength:
enough, hard enough, to be hard enough to ensure effect;
tough, be sufficiently tough; if it were not tough;
partial, partially, partially destroying armour surface:
forge, forged/forged alloy steel.

2. , , ; :
a thin-walled ballistic cap; penetrating effect; hard enough; to destroy the crew by fragments; a hard core; to permit observation of fire; to provide improved ballistics; to destroy
manpower; proper strength: to reduce the penetrative power.
: to lessen; to ensure; to allow; penetrator; piercing; sufficiently; splinters; to defeat; adequate; windshield.
3. :
hence

however

thus

yet
,
1) projectile is equipped with a base fuze, . . . it bursts after penetrating armour.
2) The head of the AP shell must be hard to ensure penetrative effect, ... it must be
sufficiently tough.
3) AP shot has a high penetrative power, ... it is lessened with the increase in range.
4) The AP projectile bursts inside the tank, . . . destroying the crew.
4. (ensures, permits,
allows, causes):
1. Base fuze ( ) the projectile to penetrate armour before it bursts.
2. Tracer () observation of fife.
3. The high temperature of splinters () fire and explosion.
4. The strong head of the AP projectile () it to pierce a thick armour plate.
5. () ():
a) a high priority factor; high carbon forged alloy steel; to be hard enough; to be sufficiently tough; to ensure adequate strength; with or without the AP cap; the uncapped ap
projectile; an increased penetrative effect; a comparatively small amount; to cause and
explosion.
) , ;
; ; : ; ;
; ; ; .
6. ) (. 5).
1. It is essential that the penetrator be made of hard metal.
2. In order to provide improved ballistics it is required that a ballistic cap should be fitted over the armour piercing cap.

) .
7. ) ,
; (. 18).
1. If the head were not hard enough, it would break on impact.
2. If AP shot Is fired at extended range, it loses its penetrative effect.
) .

Text A
Armour-Piercing Projectile
projectile is known to be used for direct fire against tanks, APCs, IFVs and other
armoured objectives. Its main purpose is to penetrate armour plate and destroy the crew
and equipment inside the target. It is often provided with a tracer to permit observation of
fire.
Strength of the AP projectile is a high priority factor because it influences the penetrative power. Hence, it is required that the shell be made of high carbon forged steel
which is heat-treated to ensure adequate strength.
Full bore AP projectiles may be solid shots or they may have a cavity to contain the
bursting charge. They may be used with or without Armour-Piercing Caps.
A common Armour Piercing High Explosive () projectile has thick walls and
a comparatively small amount of high explosive. It is essential that the head have blunt
nose and be hard enough (o ensure proper piercing effect, yet be sufficiently tough. If it
were act tough, it would crack or shatter on impact against the hard armour plate. A blunt
Armour Piercing Cap made of forged alloy steel is fitted over the head. The AP cap performs several functions: partially destroys armour surface; prevents ricochet; reduces the
impact stresses imposed on the head; protects the forward part of the shell from shattering
or breaking. A thin-walled Ballistic Cap, also called Windshield or False Ogive, is fitted
over the AP cap in order to provide a streamlined shape thus ensuring improved ballistics.
The range would be lost if the ballistic cap were not used. The AP projectile is fitted
with Base Fuze which allows it to burst after penetrating the armoured target.
Getting inside the tank, the projectile destroys manpower and equipment by fragmentation and blast effect.
The Uncapped AP projectile often has a prefragmented body and is issued either
point-nosed without ballistic cap or blunt-nosed with ballistic cap.
As to the AP Shot, full bore, it has neither fuze nor cavity. Its strong solid body,
capped or uncapped, provides higher penetrating capability as compared to the APHE
shell of the same caliber. The crew and equipment is defeated by splinters from the shell
and the armour. Heated to a high temperature the splinters car; cause fire and explosion.
Armour-Piercing Subcaliber projectiles are solid, with or without AP caps, some of
them having ballistic caps. The stability in flight is provided by spin (in spin-stabilized
shells) or by fins (in fin-stabilized shells). An increased penetrative effect can be obtained

by means of Core or Penetrator made of heavy metal. However the penetrating capability
of the AP subcaliber projectiles is lessened with the increase In range.

1. high carbon steel


forged steel
2. tough
3. to crack
4.to shatter
5. fire

Notes:

,
,
: .


1. , .
2. 1- -
.
3. , .
4. ,
- .
, .
5. ,
.
6. :
) ,
) ,
) .
7. .

LESSON 11

1. :
1) projectile is used against ...
2) Its main purpose is . . .
3) To permit it observation of fire . . .
4) Strength of AP projectile influences .
..
5) AP projectile is made of ...
6) ... has thick walls and a comparatively small amount of high explosive.
7) The head of the APHE projectile is . . .
8) The AP cap performs several functions: . . .
9) The ballistic cap provides . .
10) The base fuze allows ...
11) The armour piercing projectile destroys the manpower and equipment by
12) ... often has a prefragmented body.
13) ... has neither fuze nor cavity.
14) The solid shot has higher penetrating capability as compared to . . .
15) The penetrative power of the solid shot is provided by ...
16) The solid shot defeats the crew and equipment by ...
17) AP subcaliber projectiles are . . ., without . . .
18) Some AP subcaliber projectiles have . . .
19) An increased penetrative effect can be obtained by means of . ...
20) AP subcaliber shots are stabilized in flight by ...
2. .
( : because,
hence, in order, that is).
1. AP projectiles are effective against armoured targets.
2. AP projectiles destroy tanks and the crew.
3. AP projectiles may be provided with tracers.
4. AP projectile must be strong.
5. All full bore projectiles are capped.
6. Subcaliber projectiles are not provided with AP caps..
7. All subcaliber projectiles have cavities for bursting charge.
3. , , :
a) 1. If the head of AP projectile were not sufficienty tough. . . 2. If the forward part of
AP projectile were not hard enough... L If the AP projectile were not equipped with ballistic cap ... 4, If AP projectile had a point fuze . . .
- it would shatter or crack on impact, .
- it would burst before penetration,

- its piercing effect would be lessened,


- it would loose its range.
b) 1. AP projectile can ricochet . . .
2. An increased penetrative effect can be obtained . . .
3. Fire can be observed ...
- if the projectile is equipped with a tracer,
- if the AP shot is fitted with a penetrator,
- if it is not equipped with AP cap.
4. , , :
)
A: I wonder how the increased penetrative power is obtained with . . . ?
B: It is provided by its . . .
A:
B:
APHE
strong body
AP solid shot
AP cap
AP subcaliber shell
penetrator
b)
A: What is the function of the . . . ?
B: It. is designed . . . .
A:
B:
AP cap
to penetrate armour plate
AP cap
to protect the head
Tracer
to prevent ricochet
Penetrator
to partially destroy armour
to provide observation of fire
to ensure improved ballistics.
c)
A: Tell me why the AP projectile is provided with . . . ?
B: The ... is provided with ... in order ....
A:
B:
a base fuze
to have proper piercing effect
a hard head
to burst before penetrating armour
fins
to be stabilized in flight
5. , :
) I wonder, what type of...?
Does it have . .. . ?
How is . . . ?
I wonder, what type . . . ?


.
, .
.
.

) , ,

.

?
...?

projectile has . . .
It is fitted with . . .

The cap is designed to



6. , :
?
Yes, it is a subcaliber AP projectile.
It is equipped with a penetrator made of hard
?
metal. It n pierce the armour plate of 120
mm in thickness.
- The crew and materiel are destroyed by the
?
penetrator heated up to 900 (degrees) as well
as by armour splinters and fire.
- Yes, it is. The fin stabilization provides in , ? creased range.
7. :
, ,
. . .

1. "Concrete-Piercing Projectile" .
2. :
- ?
?
- ?
- ?

ferro-concrete fortifications
shelters
overhead cover

Word list:


8. , . .
. , 1985 .
, : , . .
, , . , . (is screwed),
- . , .
,
.
,
.

: 20 -.
1
155 mm M483 A1 ICM Projectile
This projectile used to deliver armour-defeating and antipersonnel grenades contains 88
dual purpose submissiles. he fuze propelling charge, primer and projectile are handled
and loaded separately, the round being referred to as separate-loading family of ammunition.
The expulsion charge contained in the cavity in the nose of the shell ejects the grenades.
If it is necessary to detonate the entire projectile, the expulsion charge may be raplaced by
a spotting cbarg.
Notes:
spotting charge

to be referred to
...
2
Armour-Piercing Projectiles
Armour-piercing projectiles intended for penetrating ymowec1 targets are made of high
quality steel and heat-treated. The thickness penetrated depends on many factors, among
them being the characteristics of the armour and the projectile, the impact velocity of the
projectile as well as the angle of impact. Due to the armour-piercing cap used with
projectile, the angle of impact increased. If there is cap, the projectile can ricochet.
Review questions

1. What are projectiles designed for?


2. What material is projectile made of?
3. What are the constructional characteristics of a common armour-piercing high
explosive projectile?
4. Why must APHE projectile have a hard and tough head?
5. What are the functions of cap?
6. What does the ballistic cap provide?
7. What kind of fuze is used with the APHE shell?
8. By what means is the destructive effect obtained inside the tank?
9. What constructional characteristics does the uncapped projectile have?
10. Does the solid shot have a fuze?
11. What provides the penetrative power of the solid shot?
12. Are armour-piercing subcaliber projectiles provided with caps?
13. How can the increased penetrative effect be obtained with the subcaliber shots?

LESSON 12
-
Text
Approaches to the Problem of Defeating Armour
Projectile velocity at the moment of impact is a factor of great importance, alongside
with the angle of impact, accuracy and strength of projectile. At extended ranges projectile
loses its striking velocity, hence its penetrative power is reduced. For example, Russian 57
mm projectile is capable of penetrating 106 mm armour plate at range of 500 m; however
the penetration is reduced to 90 mm at range of 1000 m.
The increased velocity has been obtained with armour piercing subcaliber projectiles,
which have a solid body either of a streamlined shape or reel-shaped to reduce the weight.
One of these types is Armour-Piercing Discarding Sabot (A.P.D.S.) round containing a
subcaliber penetrator made of heavy metal such as tungsten carbide. The other parts: the
body, sabot, ballistic cap are made of light material. On impact against the armour plate,
all the parts except the penetrator are destroyed or discarded. Having received a great deal
of kinetic energy the penetrator pierces the armour and being heated up to 900C defeats
the personnel and materiel. Armour splinters and fire enhance the destructive effect.
As an example, M603 APFSDS T (Armour Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot
round with Tracer) used with Mecar's* 90 mm Kenerga gun** consists of a monoblock
tungsten-alloy penetrator, a three-section discarding sabot and a tail unit with a tracer element. The complete projectile weighs 2.7 kg and is fired at a muzzle velocity 1,380 m/s.
The M603 has sufficient striking velocity to penetrate the NATO medium tank with 120
mm homogeneous armour at a velocity 1.280 m/s.
* Mecar a US company producing armament.
** Kenerga a gun produced by Mecar for arming IFVs.

Improvements in penetrating capacity at long ranges have resulted through development of HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) projectile also called Hollow-Charge or
Shaped-Charge projectile. This projectile has a hollow-charge cone in a metal casing designed to produce a hollow-charge jet during the detonation. The detonation is started by a
point-detonating fuze of superquick action. The explosion is transmitted through a central
tube to the detonator located below and then to the bursting charge. Due to the high-order
detonation the cone forms a jet possessing high kinetic and thermal energy. The jet burns
through thick armour plate and getting inside, destroys personnel and materiel causing fire
and explosion.
HEAT ammunition fired by the Kenerga is the M614 multi-purpose HEATMPT
round in which the hollow-charge cone is surrounded by a prefragmented steel casing. The
projectile weighs 5.1 kg and has a muzzle velocity of 850 m/s. Its effective range is 1,000
m, at which distance it can penetrate up to 550 mm of homogeneous steel.
In Russia, the problem of defeating armoured targets, first of all the modern tanks with
high-resistance steel plate, Is resolved by the state-of-the-art ammunition system for the
125 mm D-81 tank gun, firing 3 BM42 APFSDS projectile and 3 BK18M HEAT projec-

tile. The problem of defeating future armour is resolved by developing 3 BM42M


APFSDS projectile and 3 BK29M HEAT-MP projectile. Some 152 mm Russian artillery
systems may fire 3-0-23 HEAT-bomblet projectiles, that is cargo projectiles carrying a
number of shaped-charge bomblets.
As there has always been a tendency in the armies to improve armour strength, plans
are still underway to improve effectiveness of the existing anti-armour ammunition and to
develop new, more effective samples.
Word list:
casing

striking velocity

reel-shaped

sabot

to discard
:
A.P.D.S. round

tungsten carbide

homogenuous
,
to enhance

hollow-charge cone

hollow-charge jet

bomblets
( )
cargo proj.

bomblets proj.
future armour

APFSDS proj.

- (High

Explosive Anti-Tank
Multi-Purpose) projectile
HEAT-bomblet

projectile

:
1. 6.
2. ,
.
3. : , , .
4.
, :
) ;

) ;
) .
5. :
, , ?
?
?
:
PD fuze ... ... ... ... jet.
(cone, detonator, bursting charge, central tube).
6.
. 2.
Text
155 mm M864 Extended Range Projectiles
A family of extended range ammunition, 155 mm, M864 has demonstrated the increase
in range through drag reduction techniques. A variety of payloads can be added to the
M864, these payloads including AP/AT Mines, Smoke, Illumination, WP, High Explosive,
and others.
A great deal of antiarmour effect is expected from the Cargo Carrying ERDP (Extended
Range Dual Purpose) ICM High Explosive round M864. It is used to carry a cargo of
submunition to a range of 29,2 km. The M864 belongs to a family of Base Bleed rounds.
Upon firing from the weapon the Base Burn Motor is ignited and burns for about 22 seconds. The bleeding of gas behind the boat tail serves to reduce the base drag. Through this
action the projectile achieves 50% range increase over conventional ammunition.
M577 Al mechanical time fuze or M724 electronic time fuze, assembled to the projectile functions over the target area and initiates the expulsion charge contained In a cavity
in the ogive of the projectile. The projectile spins dispersing the grenades in a circular pattern.
The M864 carries 72 dual purpose, armour-defeating anti-personnel grenades. Each
grenade forms a shaped-charge jet directed downward to penetrate up to 4 inches of highresistance armour. The grenade body bursts into a large number of small fragments to provide the antipersonnel effects.
The ICM, being a high priority Army program', has developed a great variety of ammunition defeating armour. The first samples were M483 Al, M692, M731 cargo carrying
shell, M718 and M741 antiarmour mines.
Olin Ordnance, 1991.

WP (White Phosphorus)

Word list:

()
;

:
, :

( )

in a circular pattern
sample

to expect
cargo
cargo carrying
submunition
payload
bleeding of gas
conventional


1. .
: ) , .
. .
) 6 .
2. .
3. , :
The title of the article is ...
It is reprinted from . . .
The author starts with the information of ...
The major part of the article is devoted to ...
The author informs the reader of ...
He also describes . . .
For conclusion the author tells the reader about . . . and lists () . . .
The article is expected to be of interest for specialists in the field of ...
4. :
864 50%- ?
?
.
5. :
"US Armour-Defeating Ammunition". . :
) ,
) ,
)

UNIT V
MORTAR AMMUNITION
LESSON 13
New words:
1. mine
2. service charge
3. smoothbore
4. designation
5. similar
6. teardrop shape
7. perforated tubs
8. vent
9. blade
10. fin
11. stabilizer assembly
12. increment
13. base charge
14. primer
15. passage (of gases)
16. striking effect
17. incendiary mine

()





-
/ ()


1. :
1. Fins provide proper stabilization of the mine in its flight.
2. Bourrelet ensures proper motion of the mine in the bore.
3. Mines have relatively thin walls and large bursting charge.
4. The primer causes ignition of We propelling charge.
5. Bags with propelling charge are attached to the base of mine.
6. Bourrelet is alsn used to prevent escape of gases past the projectile.
7. Artillery shells are superior to mines in their striking effect.
2. :
due to
-,
as compared to

depending on

1. ... mines, artillery shells have greater striking effect.
2. Mines have different fillers . . . their service designation.
3.
the large angle of impact, mines produce high fragmentation effect.
3. ) some (; ) the same (

, ):
1. some types, some calibers, some other filler, some of the mines;
2. the same type, the same caliber, the same filler, one and the same mine.
) :
1. Mines are filled with high explosive or some other filler.
2. As compared to artillery shells, mines of the same or similar calibers have higher
fragmentation effect.
4. , I, II :
) :
1. Powder gases escaping through the vents cause ignition of the propelling charge.
2. The base charge located in the tube is ignited by a primer.
3. Mine is a projectile to be fired from a smoothbore weapon.
) :
1. The body of the mine is provided with a bourrelet ( ?) to ensure its proper
motion in the bore.
2. (?) When completely assembled, the mortar round has a fuze, a primer and a
service charge.
3. ( ? ?) Escaping from the tube, powder gases cruise
the ignition of the propelling charge.

Text A
Mortar Rounds
Mortar round is considered to be a combination of a mine and a service charge. As usually designed, mine is a nonrotating tinned projectile to be fired from smoothbore weapons. Service designation, classification and functioning of mines is similar to that of the
corresponding artillery shells.
There are mines of basic designation (fragmentation, high-explosive, demolition, highexplosive anti-tank) and of special designation (chemical, incendiary, smoke, illuminating).
The mortar round, when completely assembled, consists of a teardrop or shell-shaped
body, a stabilizer assembly, a fuze and a propelling charge attached to the base end of the
mine and a primer to ignite the propelling charge. The body contains a bursting charge of
high explosive or some other filler depending on the designation.
To ensure proper motion of the mine through the bore and to reduce passage of gases,
its body is provided with a bourrelet having a number of grooves.
Stabilizer is designed to steady the mine in its flight. It also contains the propelling
charge and centers the mine in the bore. It consists of a perforated tube and blades or fins
welded to it. The base charge located in the tube is ignited by the primer. Escaping
through the vents in the tube, the powder gases cause ignition of the increments, which are

attached to the base of the mine.


As compared to the artillery shells, mines of the same caliber have a greater fragmentation effect. This is due to the larger angles of impact. Mines are also superior to the shells
in demolition effect became they contain more explosive due to their relatively thin walls.
Yet, the striking effect produced by mines is less powerful than that produced by artillery
shells of the same or similar calibers because the shells have greater weight and higher
striking velocity.
There are also spin-stabilized mines having pre-rifled driving bands or discs near the
base, which impart the mines rotation and hence their stability in flight.
Notes.
1. corresponding
c
2. shell-shaped

3. groove

4. to weld

5. pre-rifled driving band



1. , , .
2. , .
3.
.
4. - - .
5. , :
;
;
.
6. ,
. -, ; ;
.
7. .
?
8. ,
.

LESSON 14

1. :
1. Mortar round is a combination of . . .
2. Mine is ...
3. Mines of basic designation are ...
4. Mines of special designation Include . . .
5. the complete .mortar round consists f . . .
6. The primer is designed . . .
7. The body contains ...
8. The bourrelet is designed ...
9. The bourrelet has . . .
10. The base propelling charge is located . . .
11. The increments of the propelling charge are attached . . .
12. The functions of the stabilizer are ...
13. The stabilizer consists of . . .
14. As compared to artillery shells of the same calibermines have greater . . . due to . . .
15. Mines are superior to shells in . . . due to . . .
16. Shells are superior to mines in . . . due to . . .
2. :
Is mine a rotating projectile?
What weapons is it fired from?
By what means is the mine stabilized in flight?
What types of mines are there?
What parts does a mortar round consist of?
What does the body contain?
What are the functions of the bourrelet?
What parts does the stabilizer consist of?
Where is the propelling charge located?
What are the advantages () of mines as compared to artillery shells of
the same caliber?
What is the advantage of an artillery shell as compared to a mine of the same caliber?
By what means are spin-stabilized mines imparted the motion of rotation?
3. , 2 .

: . .
".

(), , () ,

. .
. , .
, ,
.
-
Text
120 mm Mortar Ammunition
120 mm mortar ammunition has been designed for use with a rifled-bore mortar and
is used against personnel and light materiel creating fragmentation and blast .effect.
General description. This ammunition is spin-stabilized in flight. Depending on the
projectile filler, this ammunition is classified as high explosive, illuminating, smoke (WP)
and target practice.
Common characteristics. Shell body has a pre-rifled driving band. At the rear of
the band there -is a plastic obturating gasket which prevents passage of the propelling
gases between the body of the projectile and the inside wall of the barrel. When the projectile leaves the barrel, the obturating gasket is ejected and falls in front of the weapon.
HE round. The HE cartridge is used against personnel and materiel producing blast
and fragmentation at the target. The projectile consists of a hollow steel forging with a
boattailed base, a streamlined ogive and a pre-rifled rotating band. It is loaded with TNT
and fitted with a nose fuze which can be set to explode on impact or after a short delay 'to
allow penetration of the target before detonation.
Illuminating round. Illuminating cartridge is used for illumination of target and
battlefield at night and during decreased visibility. The projectile consists op illuminating
canister assembly, parachute assembly, parachute holder, expelling charge and a MTSQ
(mechanical time superquick) fuze. The illuminant is expelled through the base of the
mine. While suspended by the parachute the illuminant produces a luminosity of 850.000
candle power for minimum burning time of 60 second.
Smoke WP round. The cartridge is filled with white phosphorus and is used for
screening, incendiary and casualty purposes. It has similar shape to HE mine. it contains a
PD (point-detonating) fuze and a burster assembly. The burster ruptures the projectile and
disperses the filler. WP ignites on contact with the air, producing a dense white smokifc
with some Incendiary effect.
Target Practice (TP) round. TP round, intended for use in training is similar to HE
round except for the projectile filler. The projectile is loaded with an inert material to
simulate the weight of the HE projectile, assembled with a dummy fuze, and has the same
ballistic characteristics.

obturating gasket
illuminant
illuminating canister assembly
visibility
luminosity
candle power
casualty purposes
to rupture
dummy fuze
to simulate

Word list:
-
,


1. , . ( ).
2.
.
3. , ,
120 , .
.
4. ,
.
5. , 120 . .
6. . :
120 mm mortar round, . . . ( )
It is used against/for . . .
The projectile consists of ...
The filler is ...
The fuze is ...
The combat effect consists in . . .

: 20 .
1
Mortar Round
When assembled. Mortar round consists of a body, a stabilizer, a fuze as well as base
and increment propelling charge. The body made of steel contains the filler. The head of
the mine is fitted with a fuze, the base being equipped with a stabilizer.
It is necessary that the mine be centered in the bore. Centering its forward part is the
function of a bourrelet. Bourrelet also prevents passage of gases past the projectile. If

powder gases could pass forward, shorter range and loss of destructive power would result.
2
81 mm Mortar Ammo
Due to its stabilizing assembly, this ammunition fired from smooth-bore mortar is stable in flight and has high accuracy. The mine is fitted with a point-detonating fuze to be
set at superquick or delay action. The propelling charge consisting of ignition Cartridge
and propellent increments is attached to the base end of the projectile.
The propelling charge being adjustable, different zones of fire can be obtained. When
firing from 3-inch mortar, MklA2, it is required that the full propelling charge be reduced
in accordance with the firing table.
Notes.
ignition cartridge

firing fable

base and increment
()

UNIT VI

LESSON 15
-
1. 1
(. 7).
1. The propelling charge burns producing powder gases.
2. The main factors affecting the ballistics of a shell are its initial thrust and air drag.
3. Being made of copper, the rotating band is readily engraved by lands of rifling thus
transmitting rotational force to the projectile.
2. II
(. 8).
1. The bourrelet located in the forward part of the body and the rotating band located
on the rear part of the body bear on the lands.
2. The fillers employed are TNT and Amatol.
3. When completely assembled, the mortar round has a fuze, propelling charge and
stabilizer.
4. Provided with a base fuze the AP shell bursts inside the target.
3.
(. 9, 10).
1. permit observation of fire, AP projectiles are often provided with tracers.
2. HE projectile is fitted with a point fuze to be set at super-quick, delay or nondelay
action.
3. To Impart rotation to the projectile is the function of the rotating band.
4. ,
(. 11).
1. The extended range was obtained with incorporating a base-bleed unit in the base.
2. By using fins, mines are stabilized in flight.
3. Great increase of range was achieved without using a rocket motor.
4. Rotating band is designed for transmitting rotation to the shell.
5. II ;
( 16).
1. The fuze located in the fuze cavity can be set at different actions.
2. The fuze to be assembled in the projectile before firing is transported separately.
3. The propelling charge to be adjusted is attached to the base of the mine, the base
charge is located in the tube,
4. The base charge located in toe tube is ignited by a primer.
5. The base-bleed unit produces gases to be -ejected though the base.
6. Gases ejected through the base reduce base drag.
6. (. 5).
1. It is essential that the head .of AP projectile be hard enough to ensure proper piercing effect.
2. It is required that mines fired from smoothbore weapons should be equipped with
stabilizing fins.
3. It is essential that the body of AP projectile be heat-treated.
4. It is necessary that the penetrater should be made of heavy metal.

7. , (
); (. 18).
1. If projectile were used without ap cap, it could recochet.
2. If the head were not tough, it would crack or shatter.
3. If 81 mm mine is fired from 3 inch mortar MklA2, the full propelling charge is reduced.
4. The striking power of the projectile is lost if the angle of impact is small.
8. , (. 13).
1. HEAT projectile is known to contain a hollow-charge cone,
2. Shape of projectile is considered to be a very important factor for ballistics.
3. With the rocket motor incorporated in the Rocket-Assisted projectile the range is
expected to be increased.
9. ( ) (. 12).
1. An expelling charge of black powder is assembled in the base of the shell, the cavity being filled with bullets.
2. Being filled with grenades, cargo projectiles deliver them to the target.
3. The black powder producing smoke is used as a tracer.
4. The black powder producing smoke, the observation of fire is possible ().
5. The demolition types of HE projectiles having larger amount of bursting charge,
their destructive power is greater.
6. The fragmentation shells having thick walls destroy personnel by splinters.
10. ,
:
1. Being fitted with point fuzes to be set atsuperquick action, fragmentation shells are
expected to burst immediately on impact, most of the fragments being dispersed above the
ground.
2. Special combustible material () contained in the base-bleed unit produces
gases to be ejected through the base thus reducing base drag.
3. There are demolition types of HE shells, their purpose being to destroy enemy fortifications or destroy tanks located in the open area, as well as personnel and materiel inside.

:
1. : Artillery Complete Round (Lesson 1)
Artillery Projectile (Lesson 4)
High-Explosive Projectiles (Lesson 7)
Armour-Piercing Projectile (Lesson 10)
Mortar Ammunition (Lesson 13)
2. (Review Questions): Lessons 2, 5, 8, 9, 13.
3. : Lessons 2, 5, 8, 9, 13.


LESSON 2
Two types of separate-loading rounds
As usually designed the separate-loading rounds have no cartridge case. The propelling charge is assembled in cloth bags. An artilleryman can adjust the propelling charge to
the zone of fire desired.
The round is loaded into the weapon in two operations: first the projectile and then
the necessary quantity of bags. Primer is used as a separate item, it is placed in the breech.
The round with bagged propelling charge is cheap and easy in manufacture because
it doesn't use the metal case. Being light it is primarily used with heavy artillery weapons.
Another type of separate-loading ammunition is so-called case-loaded ammunition.
It is characterized by adjustable propelling charge assembled in bags which are placed in a
metal case. In the base of the case there is a primer designed to initiate the propelling
charge. The projectile and the case with the propelling charge are loaded into the weapon
as separate items. The cartridge case is a means of obturating powder gases.
Both types of separate-loading ammunitian have advantages over the fixed type in
that the range and the trajectory of fire of separate-loading ammunition can be changed in
accordance with a combat situation. At the same time the rate of Ifre obtained with it is
greatly reduced.
LESSOR 5
Russian Artillery Rounds
The Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (NIMI) was established more than
60 years ago. It is the largest Russian developer of tank, anti-tank, field, naval and air defense artillery rounds. Modern special steels and alloys as well as powerful explosives, are
used to manufacture the round.
The institute researches and develops ammunition for smoothbore tank guns including Armour-Piercing Fin-Stabilized, High Explosive Anti Tank and High Explosive. Ammunition for 100-, 115-, and 125-mm tank guns is constantly being modernized.
The problem of defeating fire-support helicopters is solved by developing High Explosive and High Explosive Shrapnel projectiles equipped with an electronic variable-time
fuze and filled with a powerful explosive.
The institute also develops and modernises various types of field artillery ammunition to increase their target effect, range of fire and accuracy. Modern ammunition can defeat a wide range of targetsfrom personnel to armoured vehicles and fortifications.
The institute has developed highly effective projectiles for field artillery systems,
such as High Explosive projeqtiles with RDX-based explosive for 100 mm and larger
ammunition; High Fxplosive-Rocket Assisted and High Explosive-Base Bleed projectiles
with a 20 to 30% increase in range of fire.
So called Enhanced-effect High Explosive Projectiles may be fired by all 152 mm
artillery systems. They have an improved. aerodynamic-shape standard body made of
high-fragmentation steel and weld-on driving band made of copper-nickel alloy.

Some 152 mm artillery systems may fire 3-0-13 High-Explosive Cargo projectile
which has much higher fragmentation effect as compared to standard high-explosive projectiles.
From journal Military Parade" Russia, 1998.
LESSON 8
The HE shell for the 75 mm gun
The shell weighs 131 pound and is made of .forged steel. The filler used is TNT,
Amatol, Lyddite or some other, filler. A point-detonating fuze is screwed into the adapter
just before Bring. The cartridge case is crimped to the shell and contains a charge of nitrocellulose powder. The primer to be loaded in a cartridge case is of percussion type. The
shell is streamlined and boat-tailed.
The shell has comparatively thin walls and a large cavity, so a large amount of highexplosive charge can be used. When the shell is used with Lyddite, a considerable smoke
is produced permitting observation of fire. When Amatol is used as a filler, a tracer is used
because Amatol doesn't produce smoke. The tracer contains black powder producing
smoke and permitting observation of fire. When used with superquick fuze the projectile is
very effective for wire cutting and for effect against personnel. When used with a delay
action fuze which allows penetration before burst, the shell is effective against light fortifications and earthworks.
LESSON 11
Concrete-Piercing Projectiles
The Concrete-Piercing projectiles are used against ferroconcrete fortifications, stone
buildings and strong shelters.
The purpose of the CP projectile Is not only to penetrate the ferro-concrete covers
but to destroy personnel and equipment inside the structures. That's why the projectile is
characterized by high demolition effect. It combines the characteristics of both high-explosive and armour-piercing projectile. The thickness of the walls and the filler do not differ from those of HE shells of the same caliber.
The Concrete-Piercing projectile has a cylindrical body with a rotating band, as well
as a threaded base of either cylindrical or boat-tailed form. The boat-tailed base reduces
the vacuum round the base that influences the base drag.
The projectile is made with a blunt nose with a hardened point to increase the
strength of the head. It is issued unfuzed. The fuze is assembled in the field and set at delay or non-delay action.
The head and the body are made of high quality heat-treated steel.-The cavity is
filled with Trotyl. The thickness of the walls is from

1
1
to of caliber.
8
3

The penetrative effect depends on the projectile kinetic energy, the angle of impact
and the strength of the target. Depending on these factors the projectile bursts either after
full penetration of the wall or after its partial penetration.


1


..1
.

Did
Was

attack
attacked

our unit
the enemy
unit
the gun
the gun
our unit

Has
Can
Will


.
.

When
did


the enemy at niglit
at night
?

deliver
attack

long range
direct fire
the enemy

our unit

attack

Who
attacked

.
The enemy
unit

the enemy unit

Tell m please

,
If (whether)

I'd like to know


I wonder

When


the gun
stopped
firing

the gun
stopped
firing

3

MUST == have to = be to
CAN (COULD) == be able to/of == be capable to/of
MAY (MIGHT) = be allowed to

?
?

4

be + PARTICIPLE II
.: The house was built.
.: 1. () .
2. . 86
3. .
5

, BE+PARTICIPLE

, (BE + - BE+PARTICIPLE II (BE+) (BE+ )


)
HAVE
HAVE +

(HAVE +- PARTICIPLE II
(HAVE+
)
)

6

1. :

. . .

:
It is important
It is desired that . . . come It is necessary It is required
2. : ...
: If ... Past

.
. . . would (should, coiild,
might).

7
I
(?)
using
(? ?)

8
II
used (?)
(? ?)
when

)
if
used

)
though

)
9

1. (?)
?
To support other arms is the mission... ( ...)
2. ( ?)
Artillery is used to support ... (... ...)
?
3. (?)
?
The parts to be oiled must be cleaned.
designed to be oiled;
which must be oiled
;
;
.
10

(?)
support other arms . . .
( ?)

11

using
,

( )

by
wihuut

12

a) The target being destroyed, the gun stopped firing.


:

13

.

:.

We know I

the gun to fire ...

, . . .
: .

The gun t known

to fire . . .

) , | |, . . .
) , . . .
: to know, to say, to report,
to suppose, to expect, to believe,
to consider.

14

( ?)
for firing /

(in order) to fire
15
(?)
supporting

to support
16
(?)
Participle I containing
Participle II contained
Infinitive to contain 1
Gerund for containing

17
ed forms
Passive Voice: is used

Participle II: ? used


? when , ,
used .
18

1. :
:
:
If + Present
+
Simple
.
2. :
:
:
If +
+ .
Past + would (ehould, could,
.
might).