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By Dharmendra & Vishal

Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas (CTARA) Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay April 2013



Usage of nutrient by animals Role of Macro-nutrients Role of Micro-nutrients Feed quality Basic Types of feeds Ingredients commonly used in animal feeds BIS standards, dairy feed requirements BIS standards, poultry feed requirements By products used in animal feeds Nutrient requirements for 1 Kg of milk of various fat contents Total mixed rations (TMRs): Need TMRs: Scope and limitations Annual Raw material requirements Animal feed production process Total annual working capital Summary of Financial Analysis

Animal Feeds

Total mixed rations, TMRs

Financial Analysis

Future scope Conclusions

Livestock: Major source of income all over India Major concern in this sector: Livestock Feeding &

Inadequate nutrition: Low live-weight gains, infertility

and low yield.

In this report, we have restricted our discussions to cattle

& poultry feed only

Usage of nutrient by animals

Construction of body tissues (growth and

maintenance) Synthesis of products such as milk and eggs Use as sources of energy for work done: the work done include both metabolic (heat increment and maintenance) and physical e.g. walking and feeding

Role of Macro-nutrients
Animal feed composition depends on type of animal to be fed
and stage of growth
Proteins: Body weight gain & milk production Carbohydrates: Provides energy Fats: Provide energy and the excess is deposited as fat layer. Water: Body building, heat regulation, biological

processes, large constituent of milk and eggs

Role of Micro-nutrients
Vitamins: Regulate the biological processes in the

body and become a source of nutrients in milk

Minerals: Help in body building as well as in

biological regulation of growth & reproduction (major source of nutrients in milk)

Feed quality
Physical indicators of feed quality
Stage of growth of animal

Ratio of stem and foliage Processing

Appearance and Colour


Basic types of feeds

Concentrates: High in energy value, including fat,

cereal grains and their by-products (barley, corn, oats, rye, wheat) Oil meals or cakes: High in protein (soybean, canola, cottonseed and peanut) By-products: Processing of sugar beets, sugarcane, animals, and fish, and roughages, including pasture grasses, hays, silage, root crops, straw, and stover (cornstalks)

Ingredients commonly used in animal feeds (Source: ICAR)

Maize, Sorghum, Bajra Soyabean meal Rice Bran, Wheat Bran Rice Bran extractions Groundnut meal Rapeseed meal, Sesame meal Sunflower meal, Cottonseed meal Copra meal, Guar meal Meat meal, Meat-cumbone meal Fish Meal Horse Gram Chuni Black Gram Chuni Pigeon pea Chuni


Di calcium phosphate Bone origin Mineral Based

BIS standards, dairy feed requirements

(Source: ICAR)
25 20


Type I (IS: 2052, 1979, reaffirmed 1990)

10 Type II (IS: 2052, 1979, reaffirmed 1990)

0 Moisture (maximum %) Crude protein (maximum %) Crude fat (minimum %) Crude fibre (maximum) Acid-insoluble ash (maximum %)

BIS standards, poultry feed requirements

(Source: ICAR)
Broiler starter feed 25 20 15 Broiler finisher feed Chick feed

Growing chicken feed Laying chicken feed

10 Breeder layer feed 5 Laying chicken feed 0 Chick feed Broiler starter feed

By-products used in animal feed

Forest produce: Babul seed, dhaincha seed, puwad seed, patwa seed,

sagaon seed, san seed, tulsi seed, tamarind seed, babul falli Food industry: Biscuit waste, cocoa-shell powder, cocoa beans, maize dust, macaroni waste, issapgul chhala Gum and starch industry: Guar seeds, guar kurma and chuni, dhaincha kurma, tapioca milk powder, tapioca spent pulp, maize gluten, maize cake Fruit and vegetable processing: Orange peel, spent lemon, orange waste, jamun seed, potato waste, tomato waste, mango kernel, pineapple waste, mango seed extraction, coffee waste, extracted tea leaves. Alcohol industry: Barley waste, yeast sludge, grape extractions, penicillin residue Oil industry: Spent residue of pepper, cardamom and ginger, ajwan seed, spent seed cake

Nutrient requirements for 1 Kg of milk of various fat contents

ME Energy (MJ) 120 78 100 80 60 40 20 0 Milk Fat (%) 3 2.7 4.5 4.8 84 90 96 101 107 Calcium (g) Phosphorous (g) Crude Protein (g)

1.7 3

1.8 3.2 5.2

2 3.5

2.1 3.7 5.9

2.3 3.9 6.2


Crude Protein (g) Phosphorous (g) Calcium (g) ME Energy (MJ)



Total mixed rations (TMRs): Need

Dairy cattle feeding as practiced by most farmers may

not meet all the nutrient requirements of the animal Fluctuations in rumen fermentation and supply of nutrients to the mammary glands occur when basal diet and concentrates are offered to dairy cattle at different times This has a negative effect on productivity of the animal because requirements are met mostly for one nutrient and not the other nutrient and thus the ration is not balanced To overcome this problem, a total mixed ration can be formulated

TMRs: Scope and limitations

Scope Nutritional balanced diet is supplied to the animal 24 hours a day for maximum productivity Convenience of feeding a single meal per day Minimise selection and hence wastage of feed by the animal Limitations Lack of technical skills and knowledge by farmer and extension officers Narrow feed resource base at farm level Cost of feed ingredients, processing and mixing equipment may be high for small scale farmers

Annual Raw material requirements*

Sr.No. 1 Description Oil Seed cakes Quantity (ton) 1168 Cost (,000) 2336


NaOH (50% sol.)




Wheat Bran
Jute bags Total


144 14151.5

*As per the prescribed formula and for a plant of capacity 2 Tons/hr for 8 hrs a day

Animal feed production process

Total annual working capital

Annual Raw material requirements Annual Utilities requirements Annual manpower requirements Total 14 151 500 2 098 000 996 000 17 245 500

Summary of Financial Analysis

Annual production
Annual expense Sales Revenue Simple payback period Minimum profits

4800 ton/annum
21 745 500 28 800 000 7 054 500 1.5 years >20%

Future Aspects
The livestock industry in India is the second largest

contributor to gross domestic product (GDP), after agriculture, and accounts for 9 percent of the total Consumption is likely to increase as follows:
per capita milk from 240 to 450 g per year per capita eggs from 40 to 100 per year per capita broiler meat from 1000 to 2000 g/year

Expected rise in per capita consumption will lead to

increase in demand for good quality feed and fodder

The Indian feed industry will increasingly use

biotechnology, more scientific formulations, new molecules and natural and herbal products to improve animal productivity Indian agriculture will also use biotechnology and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to support the feed industry (very exciting phase of growth for the next decade)