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Hannah Rosen hrosen@wm.

edu 305 Blair Hall Office hours: Mon & Wed 3:30-4:40 or by appointment

Race: History and Theory American Studies 570.02/History 716.02 Fall 2013 Thursdays, 12:30-3:20 College Apartments 9 This seminar will explore historical and theoretical approaches to analyzing race. The concept of race is a central and necessary component of scholarship in most disciplines and in interdisciplinary fields. Yet its historical evolution, contingency, and means of reproduction, and its articulation with multiple and changing aspects of various social formations, remain often under-analyzed or even misunderstood. In this seminar we will bring together history and theory in order to develop a better understanding of race. We will examine theoretical works that are in conversation with Marxist, feminist, legal, and poststructuralist theories and that explore concepts key to the study of race, such as class, gender, ideology, identity, culture, and discourse. And we will read historical accounts that make the formation and operation of race their explicit object of study. We will also read historical scholarship that does not foreground the formation of race but which offer us the empirical foundations to develop such analysis ourselves. Although this will be a comparative seminar, taking us across time and place, it will focus primarily on the United States and especially on the histories of slavery, emancipation, segregation, and immigration. It will not of course be possible to cover the history of all racialized groups, experiences, and identities. Our aim will be to investigate the disparate ways historians have drawn on theory and theorists have drawn on history to conceptualize race as well as to develop our own frameworks and tools of analysis for the study of race. Requirements: 1) Close reading of assigned articles and books. 3) Two presentations: Each student will select two weeks during the semester when s/he will open class discussion by briefly detailing the key arguments put forth in each assigned text, identifying the most important issues that the texts, when read together, raise for us to consider, and posing questions for our discussion. (A long and detailed summary of each work is not necessary; the goal is to identify the most crucial issues). Written summaries of these points and questions for discussion should be circulated the night before class by email or posted to our Blackboard site. More than one student may be presenting each week, in which case presentations and questions should be prepared collaboratively. 3) Final paper (10-15 pages) due Friday, December 13: There are two options for final papers.

2 Drawing on one or more topics, concepts, or themes covered in the course, participants may write either an extensive review essay on a body of literature of their choice or prepare a research proposal for a project that they may or may not carry out in the future. In both cases, the paper should incorporate both theoretical and historical scholarship. Participants should discuss their ideas for their final paper with me before Thanksgiving break. Readings: The following books are available for purchase at the William and Mary Bookstore. They are also from multiple online booksellers. Other required readings listed below are available as pdf files on our Blackboard site. Brown, Kathleen. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996 Cell, John W. The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Cambridge University Press, 1982 Hale, Grace Elizabeth. Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940. New York: Pantheon, 1998 Hartman, Saidiya V. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in NineteenthCentury America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997 Holt, Thomas C. The Problem of Race in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000 Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998 Johnson, Walter. Soul By Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999 Ngai, Mae M. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004 Sanchez, George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993 Stoler, Ann Laura. Race and the Education of Desire: Foucaults History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 1995 C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford UP, 2002 (1955)

Class Schedule: Week 1, August 29: Introductions Week 2, September 5: Race and History Thomas C. Holt, The Problem of Race in the Twenty-First Century. Thomas C. Holt, Marking: Race, Race-Making, and the Writing of History, American Historical Review, 100 (February 1995), 1-17

3 Week 3, September 12: Race, Class, and Ideology (Origins of Racial Slavery) Stuart Hall, "The Problem of Ideology: Marxism without Guarantees," in Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, ed. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen (Routledge: 1986), 27-46 Stuart Hall, "Race, Articulation, and Societies Structured in Dominance," in Sociological Theories: Race and Colonialism (UNESCO, 1980), 305-45 Paul Gilroy, Introduction and "Race, Class, and Agency," in There Aint No Black in the Union Jack: The Cultural Politics of Race and Nation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991 (1987)), 11-42 Barbara Jeanne Fields, "Slavery, Race, and Ideology in the United States of America," New Left Review, 181 (May-June 1990), 95-118 Edmund Morgan, "Slavery and Freedom: The American Paradox," Journal of American History 59, no. 1 (June 1972): 5-29 James Sweet, "Iberian Roots of American Racist Thought," William and Mary Quarterly vol. 54, no. 1 (January 1997) 143-66 Supplementary reading: Stuart Hall, "Gramscis Relevance for the Study of Race and Ethnicity," in Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, ed. David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen (Routledge: 1986), 413-40 Barbara Fields, "Ideology and Race in American History," in Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward, ed. J. Morgan Kousser & James McPherson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), 143-77 Winthrop D. Jordan, White over Black: American Attitudes Toward the Negro, 15501812 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968), chapters. 1-2 Mara Elena Martnez, "The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico," The William and Mary Quarterly 61:3 (July 2004), 479-520

Week 4, September 19: Race and Identity W.E.B. Du Bois, "Of Our Spiritual Strivings," The Souls of Black Folk (1903) in W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings (The Library of America, 1986), 363-71 Frantz Fanon, "The Fact of Blackness," Black Skin, White Masks (New York: Grove Wiedenfeld, 1967), 109-40 Kwame Anthony Appiah, "The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race," Critical Inquiry 12 (Autumn 1985), 21-37 Patricia J. Williams, "On Being the Object of Property," in Alchemy of Race and Rights: Diary of a Law Professor (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), 216-36 Michel A. Gomez, Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), chapters 1, 7-8 (pp. 1-16, 154-243)

Supplementary reading: Jean-Paul Sartre, Anti-Semite and Jew: An Exploration of the Etiology of Hate (New York: Schocken Books, 1995 (1948)) W.E.B. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Anthropology of a Race Concept W.E.B. Du Bois, "The Conservation of Races," in W.E.B. Du Bois: Writings ed. Nathan Huggins (New York: Library of America, 1986), 815-26 Gloria E. Anzalda and Analouise Keating, eds. This Bridge We Call Home: Radical Visions for Transformation (New York: Routledge, 2002), 6-20, 106-10, 126-35, 158-65 Rogers Brubaker and Frederick Cooper, "Beyond Identity," Theory and Society 29:1 (February 2000), 1-47 Week 5, September 26: Race, Culture, and Discourse William H. Sewell, Jr. "The Concept(s) of Culture," in Logics of History: Social Theory and Social Transformation (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 152-74 Ann Laura Stoler, Race and the Education of Desire: Foucaults History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995), vii-94 Anne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (NY: Routledge, 1995), 1-17 Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, from Power / Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, ed. Colin Gordon (New York, 1980), 183-93 Supplementary readings: Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality: Volume 1: An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage Books, 1980) Week 6, October 3: Race and Gender (Histories of Slavery) Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, "African-American Womens History and the Metalanguage of Race," Signs 17:2 (Winter 1992), 251-74 Kathleen Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race, and Power in Colonial Virginia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), introduction, chapter 1, and chapters 3-6 (pp. i-41, 75-211) Jennifer L. Morgan, "'Some Could Suckle over Their Shoulder': Male Travelers, Female Bodies, and the Gendering of Racial Ideology, 1500-1700," chapter 1 in Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 12-49 Supplementary reading: Martha Hodes, Marriage: Nell Butler and Charles, chapter 2 in White Women, Black Men: Illicit Sex in the 19th-Century South (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 19-38 Joan Wallach Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis," in Gender and

5 the Politics of History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 28-50 Week 7, October 10: Race as Performance (Histories of Slavery and Emancipation) Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), introduction, chapters 1, 4, 5 (pp. 1-44, 117-161) Saidiya V. Hartman, Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), introduction and chapter 1 (pp. 1-48), and possibly more tba Supplementary reading: Judith Butler, "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory," in Katie Conboy, Nadia Medina, and Sarah Stanbury, eds., Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory (NY: Columbia University Press, 1997), 401-17 Judith Butler, "Preface (1999)," Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (NY: Routledge, 1999 (2nd edition)), vii-xxvi Thursday, October 17: no class (fall break week) Week 8, October 24: Race and the Public Sphere (Postemancipation Societies) Jurgen Habermas, The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article (1964). New German Critique, 1 (Fall 1974), 49-55 Nancy Fraser, Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy. In Habermas and the Public Sphere, ed. Craig Calhoun. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992, 109-42 Thomas C. Holt, "The Essence of the Contract: The Articulation of Race, Gender, and Political Economy in British Emancipation Policy, 1838-1866," in Frederick Cooper, Thomas C. Holt, and Rebecca J. Scott, Beyond Slavery: Explorations of Race, Labor, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Societies (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 33-59 Hannah Rosen, "The Rhetoric of Miscegenation and the Reconstruction of Race: Debating Marriage, Sex, and Citizenship in Postemancipation Arkansas," ed. Pamela Scully and Diana Paton, Gender and Emancipation in the Atlantic World (Durham: Duke University Press, 2005), 289-309 Supplementary reading: Thomas C. Holt, The Problem of Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992) Laurent Dubois, A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804 (Chapel Hill: for Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture by the University of North Carolina Press, 2004) Mary Ryan, Women in Public: Between Banners and Ballots, 1825-1880 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992)

Week 9, October 31: Whiteness Studies (Histories of European Immigration and the White Working Class through the Lens of Race) Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998), introduction and chapters 1-4 (pp. 1-170) James R. Barrett and David Roediger, "Inbetween Peoples: Race, Nationality, and the New Immigrant Working Class," Journal of American Ethnic History (Spring 1997), 3-44 Eric Arnesen, "Whiteness and the Historians Imagination," International Labor and Working Class History 60 (Fall 2001), 3-32 Supplementary reading: David Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (New York: Verso, 1991) Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) Week 10, November 7: Racial Systems (Histories of Segregation in the US in Comparative Perspective) C. Vann Woodward. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 (1955, 1957, 1974), prefaces, introduction, chapters 1-3 (v-109) John W. Cell, The Highest Stage of White Supremacy: The Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982), Chapters 1, 4-6 (pp. 1-20, 82-170) Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890-1940 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1998), introduction, chapter 1, 4-5 (pp. 3-43, 121-239 Supplementary reading: Howard Rabinowitz, "From Exclusion to Segregation: Southern Race Relations, 18651890," Journal of American History 63:2 (September 1976), 325-50 Howard N. Rabinowitz, "More than the Woodward Thesis: Assessing the Strange Career of Jim Crow," Journal of American History 75:3 (December 1988), 842-56 Anthony Marx, Making Race and Nation: A Comparison of the U.S., S. Africa, and Brazil (Cambridge University Pres, 1998), chapter 10, pp. 250-63 Peter Fry, "Politics, Nationality, and the Meanings of Race in Brazil," Daedalus 129:2 (Spring 2000), 83-118 Week 11, November 14: Critical Race Theory (The Law and Racial Determination in the US) From Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (New York:

7 The New Press, 1995): "Introduction," xiii-xxxii Gary Peller, "Race-Consciousness," 127-58 Cheryl I. Harris, "Whiteness as Property," 257-75 Kimberl Williams Crenshaw, "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color," 357-83 Jayne Chong-Soon Lee, "Navigating the Topology of Race," 441-49 Ariela Gross, "Litigating Whiteness: Trials of Racial Determination in the NineteenthCentury South," The Yale Law Journal, 108:1 (October 1998), 109-88 Peggy Pascoe, "Miscegenation Law, Court Cases, and Ideologies of 'Race' in TwentiethCentury America," Journal of American History, 9l. 83, no. 1 (June 1996), 44-69 Supplementary reading: Adrien Katherine Wing, ed., Critical Race Feminism: A Reader (New York: New York University press, 2003) Ian F. Haney Lpez, White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race (New York: NYU Press, 1996 Week 12, November 21: Race and "Ethnicity" (Immigration and Racialized Immigrant Communities in the 20th-Century US) Mae M. Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004, introduction, chapters 1 and 4 (pp. 155, 127-66) George J. Sanchez, Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), introduction, chapters 4-6, 8, 11-12, conclusion (3-16, 87-150, 171-87, 227-75) Supplementary reading: Toms Almaguer, Racial Fault Lines: The Historical Origins of White Supremacy in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994) Thursday, November 28 Thanksgiving break Week 13, December 5: Diaspora and Identity Revisited Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), preface, chapters 1 and 6 (xi-40, 187-223) Sandra Gunning, "Nancy Prince and the Politics of Mobility, Home, and Diasporic (Mis)Identification," American Quarterly 53:1 (March 2001), 32-69 Paul Gilroy, Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000), introduction, chapters 1 and 3 (1-53, 97-133)