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An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

GENERAL STUDIES
Science & Technology
by

Special Module of

Dr. S.S. Kumar

Targeted to .........

Separate Batches for Mains - 2012 & Pre-cum-Mains - 2013 Batches Begin in Every 15 Days at Both the Centres.
Old Rajender Nagar Centre : English Medium Only.

Mukherjee Nagar Centre : English Medium Only.


Head office: 25/8, Old Rajender Nagar Market, Delhi - 110060 Branch Office: 105-106, Top Floor, Mukherjee Tower, Mukherjee Nagar, Delhi - 110009

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

Table of Contents
Science and Technology (Module)
For Civil Services Prelims and Mains Examination

Why is it Important ........... How we can help you ........... This is how we plan for you........ From last years question paper............ Our Schedule for the Subject........... Highlighted Article: Origin of Universe in context to gods particle What we suggest you to study..........................

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


for Civil Services Prelims and M ains Ex amination
Why is it Important ...........
Science and Technology in years have grown in relevance and has groomed a great width in its dynamics in the civil services examination. The role that general science plays in day to day life and hence with the development of the system has been marked majorly in both the pattern of UPSC civil services exams that is prelims and mains. Thus, science and technology and general science have developed as a core prospect in the success story of the aspirants. Understanding the concept of general science and applying dynamics with science and technology brings forth a challenging aspect of the subject. Therefore, the study of science and technology needs in-depth coverage of the concepts with tedious outlook of the vast applied and current topics. Although understanding science is as easier as other subjects, but a vacuum of proper directions makes the aspirants fear the most for the subject.

Exclusive Module on

How we can help you ...........


What adds more problems to deal with Science & Technology is its dynamic nature in the examination. Since, science and technology is a dynamic subject to deal with, the strategy to tackle it should include a broad dimension of study and a continuous interlinking of the subject. Every year new aspects are targeted in the subject, which makes the relevance of current affairs more prominant for the subject. But, as with the every other subjects the concepts in General science and Science & Technology remains unchanged. The winning strategy for science and Technology comes from a triumph over the concepts of the subject. Once, the very basic concepts of Science & Technology are indulged in the thought process interlinking the current affairs becomes as easy as drinking a glass of water. Previous year question papers, have reflected that an indepth insight of the subjct is strongly needed to write a winning answer. Achieving good marks in science and technology is just a matter of good thought process and learning rather than just a collection of facts. We at VVR IAS bring forward a new dimension of learning and infact not teaching science and technology with focused approach and innovative methods. A new dimension thus promises a new direction to tackle and solve the most challenging questions of the Civil Services Exam with a confidence by: Focused approach on concept building and understanding of the subject. Innovative teaching with emphasis on learning and development of thought process with indepth descriptive printed study material. Special emphasis on non-science background students. Regular updates of the topics with current affairs and their correlation with the concepts. Regular objective & subjective tests. Study material before regular classroom teaching.
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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

This is how we plan for you........

General science and science & technology are so closely interlinked that they are merely inseparable, it can be understood by the figure. We plan our strategy in such a way so as to provide you maximum benefit in minimum time input in both General Science and Sci. & Tech. Our strategy would be based on an innovative teaching to build up your confidence, brush-up your concepts, rearrange the dynamics of current affairs, enhance your performance in objective type question papers and focus on writing a good answer in Mains Examinations.
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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

From last years question paper............


The International Year of Chemistry
The International Year of Chemistry 2011 has been announced by the United Nations in December 2008 to honor the achievements of chemistry, and its contributions to humankind with a theme of Chemistryour life, our future. It is coordinated by IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and by UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. probe, and manned mission has the potential to create space debris. As the number of satellites in orbit grows and old satellites become obsolete, the risk of a cascading Kessler syndrome becomes greater. It was proposed by NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler in 1978. One implication is that the distribution of debris in orbit could render space exploration, and even the use of satellites, unfeasible for many generations. To minimize the chances that the debris can damage other vehicles, designers of a new vehicle or satellite are frequently required to demonstrate that it can be safely disposed of at the end of its life.

E-waste
Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Display units (CRT, LCD, LED monitors), Processors (CPU chips, RAM), and audio components are the major components of e-waste. Informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries may cause serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, may contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominated flame retardants. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied.

Omega 3 fatty acids


Omega 3 fatty acids are fats commonly found in marine and plant oils. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are considered essential fatty acids, meaning that they cannot be synthesized by the human body but are vital for normal metabolism. Common sources of n3 fatty acids include fish oils, algal oil, squid oil, and some plant oils such as echium oil and flaxseed oil etc. Research have shown that the intake of Omega 3 fatty acids minimizes the risk of cancer, heart diseases, development disorder like autism, psychiatric disorders like depression and aging etc.

Designer eggs
Designer eggs are those in which the nutritional content has been modified from the standard chicken egg. These are produced to add more nutritional values like vitamins, minerals like selenium, iodine, chromium, healthy fats like omega-3 fatty acids, pharmaceuticals like insulin, pigments like carotene etc and to reduce the ill contents like cholesterol and lipids from the egg. Designer eggs have been produced that contain higher concentrations of several vitamins like A, E, D and C etc. Many eggs have been developed to lower the cholesterol level and to enhance omega-3 fatty acids. New biotechnology is being used to develop genetically modified chickens that produce compounds like insulin for the treatment of diabetes that can be harvested from the eggs.

Solar Energy
Concentrated solar energy systems use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area. Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat, which drives a heat engine usually a steam turbine connected to an electrical power generator, which can generate electricity from solar power. Photovoltaic solar energy is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide or sulfide.

INSPIRE
Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (INSPIRE) is an innovative programme sponsored and managed by the Department of Science & Technology for attraction of talent to Science. The basic objective of INSPIRE is to communicate to the youth of the country the excitements of creative pursuit of science, attract talent to the study of science at an early age and thus build the required critical human resource pool for strengthening and expanding the Science & Technology system and R&D base. A feature of the programme is that it does not believe in conducting competitive exams for identification of talent at any level. It believes in and relies on the efficacy of the existing educational structure for identification of talent.

Gliese 581 g
Gliese 581 g or GJ 581 g, is an unconfirmed extra solar planet of the red dwarf star Gliese 581 which is 22 lightyears from Earth in the constellation of Libra. It is the sixth planet discovered in the Gliese 581 planetary system and the fourth in order of increasing distance from the star. Gliese 581 g has attracted attention because it is near the middle of the habitable zone of its parent star. It means that it could sustain liquid water on its surface and could potentially host life similar to that on Earth. The planet is expected to have temperatures around -37 to -12C. It has a mass 3.1 to 4.3 times and radius 1.3 to 2.0 times higher than that of Earth. Gliese 581 g has an orbital period of 37 days, orbiting at a distance of 0.146 AU from its parent star. Gliese 581 g is considered a super-Earth and is the planet closest to size to Earth which is known. The planet was detected by astronomers in the LickCarnegie Exoplanet Survey at the University of California. The discovery was made using radial velocity measurements obtained from the High Resolut ion Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) instrument of the Keck 1 telescope.

The Kessler syndrome


The Kessler syndrome is a scenario in which the density of objects in low Earth orbit (LEO) is high enough that collisions between objects could cause a cascade such that each collision would generate alot debris. This increases the likelihood of further collisions also. Every satellite, space

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

Our Schedule for the Subject...........


MODULE: 1 Space S&T Concepts of motion and gravitation Concepts of space flight and motion Concepts of evolution of universe wrt Big bang Satellite systems Launch vehicle systems Space research missions Remote sensing- LiDAR, SONAR and RADAR NASA space mission Space telescope Research related to origin of space- neutrino observatory etc and Hydro power Recent trends of energy- Solar, Wind, Nuclear, Hydrogen, Bioenergy Energy conservation techniques LED, LCD, Plasma technology, CFL, Mercury vapour lamps Wireless energy transfer Fuel cells Artificial photosynthesis Nanowire battery Hydrogen economy Nantenna MODULE: 6 Telecommunications and computers Concepts of Electricity and Electromegnetism Concepts of electronics and semiconductors Basics of computers- intra and inter connections in computers, buses,SATA, Computer networking and Internet Internet governance Types of computers- super computers Storage and computer memory- internal and external memory, optical disc, Blu ray disc, Protien coated disc Computer security- Bugs virus, malware Cyber laws and internet security Communication tecnology- Mobile technology- 1G. 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G Wireless technology- Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, WiDi, WLAN Artificial Brain and Intelligance Virtual reality Quantam computing Cloud computing Spintronics Display Technology MODULE: 7 Biotechnology and Medicine Concepts of Life, Cell, DNA and Genetics Human biology and behaviours Basics of Biotech techniques Clonning: Cell, Animal, Therapeutic Applications in Industry Genetically Modified Organisms Personalised Medicine and Regenerative Medicine Stem Cell technology Robotics surgery Tissue engineering Vitrification and cryopreservation 6

MODULE: 2 Defence S&T Concepts of motion and projectile Indian military strength and strategy Missiles, Tanks, Submarines, Helicopter and Aircraft Direct energy weapons Particle beam weapon Electromegnetic weapons Laser and Electrolaser Indian Militatry deals

MODULE: 3 Nuclear Technology Basics of atomic structure Basics of Radioactivity Nuclear reactions fusion and fission Nuclear reactors India nuclear programmes Nuclear policy Nuclear energy generation

MODULE: 4 Robotics Basics of semiconductors and superconductors Basics of electronics Swarm robots Other types of robots Nano robotics Robotic surgery Robotic computing Chiptronics etc

MODULE: 5 Energy S&T Concepts of Thermodynamics, Gas kinetics Renewable and Non renewable sources Fuel and fuel quotient Traditional sources of energy- Fossil fuel, Thermal

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

Nanomedicine Telemedicine Organ transplant MODULE: 8 Agriculture Basics and processes of plants Economics of animals and plants New crops Agriculture improvement strategies and policies Green revolution C-4 mission IARI trends and techniques

Applications of nanomaterials in pollution managements Neuronanotechnology Nanomedicine MODULE: 10 Other recent trends New types satellite systems and space mission, Miniaturised satellites, Manuver rocket system Manuver space flights Magnetic levitation of trains Nanofibre concepts Digital Scent technology Antigravity and space elevators Solar sail and solar roadways Synthetic genomics Alternative fuel Vehicles Supersonic transport and spaceplane Neuroprosthetics High temperature super conductivity, super fluidity 3-D Printing and Claytronics

MODULE: 9 Nano technology Concepts of matter, elements, atomic structure, bonding etc Nano science Molecular manufacturing Nanomaterials Nanocarbon, Graphene

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

HIGHLIGHTED ARTICLE

ORIGIN OF UNIVERSE IN CONTEXT OF GODS PARTICLE


Dr S.S. Kumar
VVR- IAS The recent researches of the particle physics and space science have figured out a very exciting discovery which claims to change our view and challenges the identity of GOD and has been termed as GODs PARTICLE. It has been said to have solved the mystery of how does the universe originated. Higgs Boson has gained a lot of attraction and has created a lot chaos and virtual air in the understandings of a common man. What exactly is the gods particle? Why is Gods particle the center of all the attraction? How it can solve one of the biggest mysteries of universe? We simplify the basic idea and try to understand the perplexity
From the Media: The New York Times (July 5, 2012)

The Gods Partical Discovered


The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is a proposed elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. The Higgs bosons existence would have profound importance in particle physics because it would prove the existence of the hypothetical Higgs field. It is the simplest of several proposed explanations for the origin of the symmetrybreaking mechanism by which elementary particles acquire mass. The leading explanation is that a field exists that has non-zero strength everywhere, even in otherwise empty space and that particles acquire mass by interacting with this so-called Higgs field. it has been the target of a long search in particle physics. One of the primary goals of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerlandthe most powerful particle accelerator and one of the most complicated scientific instruments ever builtis to test the existence of the Higgs boson and measure its properties which would allow physicists to confirm this cornerstone of modern theory. The Higgs boson is named for Peter Higgs who, along with two other teams, proposed the mechanism that suggested such a particle in 1964. According to the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson, a type of particle that allows multiple identical particles to exist in the same place in the same quantum state. It has no spin, electric charge, or colour charge. It is also very unstable, decaying into other particles almost immediately. Some extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of more than one kind of Higgs boson. On 4 July 2012, the CMS and the ATLAS experimental teams at the LHC independently announced that they each confirmed the formal discovery of a previously unknown boson of mass between 125127 GeV/ c 2, whose behaviour so far has been consistent with a Higgs boson.

niverse as a term can be defined as a sphere or area in which something takes place. In real sense, universe is a big accumulation of defined and also undefined substances. It can be understood as the totality of everything that exist or is known to exist, thus, universe include all matter and energy. The matter of universe is marked as planets, stars, galaxies and the contents of intergalactic space and of course, the energy exist in between these matter forms in many undefined ways. Origin of Universe: The most popular belief

regarding the origin of the universe is the Big Bang Theory. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. According to the big bang theory at the beginning, all the matter forming the universe existed in one place forming a single atom or a single tiny sphere like structure. This sphere had an unbelievably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density. This dense matter was called as Planc epoch in which all the concentrated matter and energy existed. In this hot and dense single state universe started to expand rapidly. This expansion was started some 13.7 billion years ago and it

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

continues even today. Expansion of Universe & Concept of Matter: Universe was initially hot and dense and matter and antimatter collided together. Matter is typically defined as something which has mass and which also occupies some volume. Matter is basically made up of small spheres sym bolized as atoms and molecules. Although, atoms and molecules are not the actual basic unit of any matter rather there are particles like electron, proton and neutron which are the elementary building units of the matter. The detailed study of atom and molecule shows that every particle of the atom that is electron, proton and neutron has some fundamental properties in itself. These properties indicate to having specific

cosmic patterns matter is differentiated into Normal matter and Dark matter. Normal matter is the one which reflects light and is the one which we see all around us. Dark matter is that which does not interacts with light. That is, it does not interact electromagnetically and therefore it appears dark (i.e. it will not reflect light). The exact nature of dark matter is not well known. The most talked about dark matter of the current astro-physics is the Black hole and neutron stars etc. Matter, Mass & the standard model of particle physics: In the recent years detailed study of atom and elementary particles has given a new idea of elementary particles. It has brought into view of constituent particles of the electrons, protons and neutrons also. It is now elaborated that electrons are made up of small composite particles called as Lepton and neutrons and protons are made up of small particles known as quarks. Together the leptons and quarks are called as ferminos.

This modern picture of the fundamental particles is now understood as Standard model of the particle physics . In this model 12 Higgs Boson depicted in Large Hedron Colider fundamental particles of matter mass, charge, direction of movement (clockwise or are talked about. These particles include Electron, anticlockwise), magnetic properties etc. The protron, neutron, positron, neutrino, muon, tau, combination of these properties of the particles also ferminos, boson and their antiparticles etc. It is defines the specific characters of any atom and also also added in this model that the relations and interactions between these particles is mediated by of the matter. A particle may acquire a defined set of these some another particle or particles. These mediating properties and any elementary unit having equal but particles are still undefined. opposite set of these properties is the Antiparticle. Corresponding to most kinds of particles, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opp osite electric charge. For example, the antiparticle of the electron is the positively charged anti-electron, or positron. Similarly, antimatter is material composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but have opposite charge and spin. An interaction of particle and antiparticle leads to annihilation or complete destruction of the matter and formation of new particles. Universe and Cosmology: In the study of So, it is as straight as it could be that composite particles combine to form the elementary particles, elementary particles combine together in different patterns to form an atom, many atoms combine to form a molecule and many molecules of same or different substances combine to form a matter. Hence everything around us that we see that is any type of solid, liquid, gas or plasma are all in fact kinds of matter which are composed of atoms and indeed the elementary particles. The basis of the mass of the matter is defined by the interactions of the fundamental particles of the matter.

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

Universe & the standard model of particle physics: ISince the generation of the concept of big bang the formation of new particles and their interaction has been a basis of a lot curiosity to understand the origin of universe. At the most elementary level the universe is managed by a definite pattern or symmetry. This concept that the universe is symmetrical also means that there should be a defined way on to how the fundamental particles interact and dance around each other. The standard model of particle though gave an idea of presence of 12 different particles but the exact pattern of their interaction remained uncertain. Thus, the way out that the standard model could have justified the reliability and steadiness of the universe in the light of symmetry was that all the elementary particles are assumed to be having no mass. This idea is practically not possible in the real world as all the matter which we come across do have a definite mass and volume and it would ultimately mean the fundamental unit of the matter that is the atom also does not have any mass. This creates a feeling of absurdness..........!!! How to solve the problem? To give an answer to this problem it is assumed that the mass of all these particles and ultimately the matter comes from a separate particle. It is said that the fundamental particles do not have mass as an inherent property. Rather, mass comes from their interaction with another particle which is termed as the God Particle or the Higgs boson. Of course, when the Standard Model was finalized in the mid-1970s, the Higgs boson had not been discovered, and no-one knew what energies would be needed to create one. Therefore, many particle accelerators were designed, built, and run, to slowly narrow down the possible energy scales at which the Higgs boson could be created and viewed. Question for Future: Now a great question arises that how god particle does explains origin of the universe. The existence of the Higgs boson explains how spontaneous breaking of electroweak

sym metry takes place in nature. The Higgs mechanism does not unbelievably create mass out of nothing. Rather, the mass is transferred to the particle from the Higgs field, which contained this mass in the form of energy. The Higgs field stretch up everywhere in the universe. A particle which has no mass would just glide through, not interacting with the field. A heavier particle would collect more mass. Its like a skier skimming over the top of a field of snow. The snow would barely be affected, but someone with just boots on would sink deeply into the snow. The Higgs field is the area of snow, while the Higgs bosons are the snowflakes that make up the snow covering the ground Einstein confirmed that space and time are just as physical as matter. Thats why space and time can be altered by gravity, and space produces particles. Einsteins equations show that space, mass, and time are all various forms of energy and are inter-convertible. Einstein showed that the universe couldnt be endless and also it had a beginning. Universe & correlation of Gods particle: Big bang theory believes that universe was created from collisions of particles which formed some pure energy. As it grew, some energy was converted into matter. As the mystery of mass of the matter is solved the patterns of interchange of the mass and energy could be very well be understood. This understanding will bring answers to many unsolved questions of universe like its origin, the nature of dark matter and dark energy, black-hole and where has all the antimatter gone? Conclusion: Once we know enough about the Higgs-like boson to confirm that it either is the Standard Model Higgs boson or it isnt, there will be studies to examine exactly how the boson interacts with other particles giving us more clues to the origin of mass and the beginning of the universe. And if this new boson is not the Standard Model Higgs boson, thats a sign of new physics beyond the Standard Model.

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VVR (An Institute For IAS Examination) An Associate of IMS (Institute of Mathematical Sciences)

What we suggest you to study..........................


Source of Materials (Apart from class study)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. NCERT Books for Science Class VIII, IX, X and also XI & XII for selected topics The Hindu Science Reporter and Vigyan Pragati Yojana and Kurukshetra (for selected topics only) India year Book (for selected topics only) The Frontline (selected articles or issues) All India Radio (Current Affairs Programmes)

Useful links:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. www.dst.gov.in www.isro.org dbtindia.nic.in www.dae.gov.in www.nasa.gov www.iari.res.in www.dot.gov.in

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