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European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.33 No.2 (2009), pp.358-364 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

Modeling of An Arm Via Kane’s Method: An Inverse Dynamic Approach

Fadiah Hirza Mohammad Ariff Fundamental Engineering Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia E-mail: fadiah@eng.ukm.my

Azmin Sham Rambely Centre of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science &Technology University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor,Malaysia E-mail: asr@ukm.my

Abstract

An arm segment with three joints, namely shoulder, elbow and wrist joints, which comprises upper arm, lower arm and hand- racket segments model is developed using the Kane’s method. Through the inverse dynamic approach, the unknown torque at each joint is found using kinematic data produced from an observation of a professional badminton player in a Thomas Cup’s Tournament. The subject is 1.80 m in height and weighs 80 kilograms. The result shows that the elbow joint produced the highest value of torque during contact while performing the jumping smash activity.

Keywords: Three Kinematic Chain, Kane’s Method, Inverse Dynamic, Torques

1. Introduction

Badminton is one of the most popular sports in the world. It is the fastest racquet sport in the world with the shuttlecock speeds reaching over 260 km/h (Lee et al, 2005). Smash is known as the most powerful strokes because of its speed and steep trajectory, which contributes to a winning point. Smash is also defined as the most common killing shot, which accounted for 53.9 % of the distribution of the killing shot (Tong and Hong, 2000). Smash can be divided into two types, standing smash (smash) and the jump smash. However, according to Rambely et al. (2005b), jumping while performing a smash is the most popular technique chosen by world top ranking badminton player. When a player performs a smash, arm movement pattern plays an important role in the execution of the stroke. The pattern involved an overarm pattern, which is the flexion of the elbow and medial rotation of the humerus during the forward or force-producing phase of the arm action (Piscopo and Baley, 1981). Biomechanics analysis of badminton smash has revealed that during this phase there is a powerful inward rotation of the arm, followed by inward rotation of the forearm and lastly a flexion of the hand (Badminton-Information.com, 2007). However, the rotation of an arm while performing the stroke is not quantified by researchers. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to construct a 2- dimensional mathematical model of three kinematic chain of an arm that comprises an upper arm, lower arm and hand-racquet segments using Kane’s method and to obtain the unknown torques that caused the rotation movement of each joint using the inverse dynamics method.

Modeling of An Arm Via Kane’s Method: An Inverse Dynamic Approach

359

2. Methods

Video data were collected on badminton games during the men’s singles and doubles semi-final and final events of the Thomas/Uber Cup 2000 competition held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 11 May to 21 May 2000. A world class male badminton player, which is 1.80m in height and weighs 80 kilograms was chosen to be the subject for this study. There were eight trials involved and each trial consisted of, on average, 60 frames starting from the action of getting ready to the landing position after the smashing stroke. The recording system consisted of six sets of 50 Hz shuttered CCTV cameras (WV-CP450/WV-CP454 Panasonic) with color S-video, genlock and 6x zoom capabilities, 6 time-code generators (Norita SR-50), six 9-system portable colour televisions (CA688 Fumiyama), and six Peak-computerized and controlled VCR (NV-SD570AM Panasonic). For calibration, the cameras captured a reference structure (calibration frame) with 25 markers of known coordinates in space encompassing the whole court. The cameras were directly genlocked for video to provide shutter synchronization and identical frame rates. Multiple cameras were used during the video capture. Two cameras (C1 and C4) were positioned with the optical axes approximately perpendicular to the court and another two cameras (C2 and C5) were placed with their optical axes nearly parallel to the court to obtain the front (or back) view of the player. The other cameras (C3 and C6) were placed approximately 45° to the court. Cameras 1, 2 and 3 were used to determine the three dimensional coordinates for the right-hand side of the court while cameras 4, 5 and 6 are to determine those for the left-hand side of the court. The videotapes were edited using an industrial standard NTSC Panasonic AG-7350 VCR and an IBM-compatible personal computer. The Peak Motus 2000 software was used to digitize the trials. Body segment parameters from the Dempster model were used but adjusted to include the shuttlecock and the badminton racket (rear and bottom) (Dempster, 1955). In each video image, 25 control points, 21 anatomical landmarks representing the endpoints of 24 segments, one point for centre of mass, two points on the racket (top and rear), and one point for the shuttlecock were digitized manually. Subsequent to digitizing, the raw data were smoothed using the Butterworth digital filter with the cut-off frequency of 3 Hz. Calculations were done to determine the torques of the joints using the model developed in Section 3 and data obtained from digitizing of captured images.

3. Model

A biomechanics model for three-link kinematic chain of an arm was constructed using Kane’s method (Figure 1). Kane’s method is a vector-based approach which uses vector cross and dot products to determine velocities and acceleration rather than calculus (Yamaguchi, 2001). It creates auxiliary quantities called partial angular velocities and partial velocities, and uses them to form dot product with the forces and torques acting from external and inertial forces. The dot products form quantities called the generalized active forces and the generalized inertia forces, which are the simplified forms of the forces and moments used to write the dynamic equation of motion (Yamaguchi, 2001).

360

Figure 1: Planar three-link kinematic chain of an arm with an endpoint.

Notation:

= joints

centre of mass

=

= segment A (shoulder-elbow)

= segment B (elbow-wrist)

= segment C (wrist-racquet)

A*, B*, C*

= centre of mass of segments A, B and C respectively

1

, nˆ

2

, nˆ

3

, aˆ

1

, aˆ

2

, aˆ

3

ˆ

ˆ

, b , b

1

2

ˆ

, b

3

, cˆ

1

, cˆ

2

, cˆ

3

= mutually orthogonal unit vector

= distances of centre of mass from their proximal ends = length of segments

ρ

A

, ρ , ρ

B

C

A

,

B

,

C

τ

N / A

,

F = f

1

τ

A / B

1

,

+ f

2

τ

B / C

2

= torques of each joints

= endpoint force of arbitrary direction and magnitude

First, the angular velocities of bodies A, B and C with respect to reference frame N are determined to be,

(3.1)

(3.2)

(3.3)

N

ω

A

NB

ω

= q aˆ

1

=

(q

3

N

ω

C(q

1

ˆ

+ qb)

23

= ++

1

q

2

qc) ˆ

33

Likewise, the angular accelerations are,

= q aˆ

A

N

NB

N

α

α

=

1

1

α

C(q

=

1

3

ˆ

(q + qb)

23

++

q

2

qc) ˆ

33

(3.4)

(3.5)

(3.6)

The velocities of points A*, B o , B*, C o , C* and D o are found to be,

N

v

*

A

=ρ q a ˆ

A

1

2

(3.7)

Modeling of An Arm Via Kane’s Method: An Inverse Dynamic Approach

N

N

NC

N

ND

B

v

v

v

v

v

o

o

=

A

A

A

q a ˆ

1

ˆ

2

12

ˆ

qa

12

ˆ

qa

12

ˆ

B* = qa ++ρ q q b

=

C* =

B

(

(

(

1

2

)

ˆ

b

2

(

)

++q

B

1

q

2

)

)

2

ˆ

b

ˆ

b

2

2

+

+ q

q

1

+ q

q

1

2

2

AB

o

=

ˆ

+

qa

12

AB

+ρ ( q ++q q

+

C

1

2

3

( q ++q

C

1

2

q

3

) c ˆ

2

) c ˆ

2

The accelerations of mass location A*, B* and C* are,

N

N

N

a

a

a

2

A* =−ρ q a ˆ +ρ qa ˆ

1

2

A

A

1

2

1

A

q

1

a

1

1

A

12

12

B* =− q a ˆ + qa ˆ

C* =−

ˆ + ˆ

AB

qa

AB 12

(

(

ρ

C

(

q

1

++

q

2

q

3

)

2

c ˆ

1

+

q

q

1

1

ρ

C

+ q

+

q

(

q

1

2

2

)

)

2

2

b ˆ

b ˆ

1

1

+ρ ( q

+

+ q

q + q

B

1

B

(

1

++

q

2

qc ) ˆ

32

2

2

)

)

b ˆ

b ˆ

2

2

361

(3.8)

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

(3.12)

(3.13)

(3.14)

(3.15)

Using Kane’s method, the angular velocities and the velocities of points can be factored out to obtain partial angular velocities and partial velocity vectors. To factor these velocities, quantities called u i q i ( i = 1, 2, 3 ) are introduced. u i is known as the i-th generalized speed of the system. From equation (3.1), (3.2), and (3.3), the first, second and third partial angular velocities for segment A, B and C are then obtained respectively as,

A

N

N

ω

ω

1

N

ω

A

B

NB

ω

1

 = (au) 31 (0)u ++ (0)u 2 3

=

;

a

3

NA0

ω

2

=

;

NA0

ω

3

=

=+ (bu) ˆ

31

(b ˆ

ˆ

=

NB

ω

=

b

23

3

;

)u

2

+

(0)u

NB0

ω

3

=

3

N C()cuˆˆˆ()cu

ω

=++

31

32

()cu

33

NC

===

NC

NC

cˆ

ωωω

1

2

33

(3.16)

(3.17, 3.18 & 3.19)

(3.20)

(3.21, 3.22 & 3.23)

(3.24)

(3.25, 3.26 & 3.27)

The partial velocity vectors are determined in the same way as the partial angular velocities.

A *

N

N

N B*

v

v

1

v

ˆ

=ρ au ++u

A

21

2

(

A

2

;

N

v

2

A*

ˆ

)

=

0

;

N

(

v

3

u

3

A*

ˆ

)

=

0

(

)

(0)

(0)

A* =ρ a ˆ

ˆ

=+a ρ bu +ρ bu + u

2

AB

21

B

22

(0)

3

N

v

1

ˆ

B* = a +ρ b

A

ˆ

22

B

;

N

v

2

B* =ρ b

B

2

;

ˆ

= 0

N

v

3

B*

ˆ

ˆ

N C*

N

ND ( a ˆ ++b ˆ

v

=

(

a ++b ρ cu + b +ρρcu +

ABC

2

2

21

2

BC

22

N

C* =

v

2 B

ˆ

ˆ

b +ρ c ˆ

22

C

; N

v

3

ˆˆ)

C

ˆ

ˆ

)

(

ˆˆ)

(

cu )

23

v 1

v

ˆ

C* = abc++ρ ˆ ˆ

22

ABC

2

;

o

=

A

2

2

BC

C* =ρ c ˆ

C

cu ˆ + b + cu + cu

) (

21

2

BC

22

(

C

)

23

2

N

v

1

D

o

=

ˆ

ˆ

abc++

ˆ

A

222

BC

;

N

v

2

D

o

=

B

ˆ

b

+

c ˆ

22

C

;

N

v

3

D

o

=

C

c ˆ

2

(3.28)

(3.29, 3.30 & 3.31)

(3.32)

(3.33, 3.34 & 3.35)

(3.36)

(3.37, 3.38 & 3.39)

(3.40)

(3.41, 3.42 & 3.43)

Generalized active forces and generalized inertia forces are then formulated for segments A, B and C. To form the generalized active forces, vector dot products between the partial velocities of points and the forces acting at those points are computed and added together. Additionally, dot products between partial angular velocities and torques are added together and summed together with the previous result. After computing the generalized active forces, the generalized inertia forces are calculated next. These are composed of the dot products between the partial velocities of the mass centre and the inertial forces there, as well as the dot products between the partial angular velocities

362

and the inertial torques. The generalized active forces and the generalized inertial forces represented by the equations are summarized as follows,

F 1 + F 1 * = 0; F 1 = - F 1 * F 2 + F 2 * = 0; F 2 = -F 2 * F 3 + F 3 * = 0; F 3 = -F 3 *

(3.44 & 3.45) (3.46 & 3.47) (3.48 & 3.49)

where F 1 , F 2 and F 3 are generalized active forces and F 1 *, F 2 * and F 3 * are generalized inertia forces. These dynamics equations can be represented in matrices form,

MQ = G ++E

T

,

where M: mass matrix

 Q : angular acceleration vectors G : vector of moments from gravitational forces E : vector of moments from external forces, and T : vector of applied torques.

(3.50)

4. Result and Discussion

The torque of the joints is obtained from the model developed above by using the kinematic data obtained from a world-class badminton player while performing a jumping badminton smash. In order to describe the rotational movement, four significant points are identified, which represent a point in the phases while a player performs a jumping smash activity, which are the planting of foot, taking off, contact and landing. These four significant points occur in the five phases during the execution of the smash; the getting into position, back swing, forward swing, contact and follow-through phases. The motion of the player during the smash stroke is shown in Figure 2 (Rambely et al, 2005a). The numbered points represent the shuttlecock and they are marked in accordance with the respective motions: getting into position (1), back swing (2-4), forward swing (4-5), contact (5), and follow- through (6-9). The first point identified is the planting of foot point, which occurs in the getting into position phase (Figure 2). Then a player will lower down his body before the taking off point. The player will then push himself upward and jump. During this airborne phase, the arm segment is in the force producing phase and at contact, the racket touches the shuttlecock. Then the player is in a follow through phase and his body moves downward and he lands.

Figure 2: The motion of the smash stroke

Table 1 shows the value of torques obtained at each joint while the subject is performing the jumping smash stroke and Figure 3 illustrates the changes of torques on the joints in each position. This information helps to describe the movement of the subject while performing the smash stroke.

Modeling of An Arm Via Kane’s Method: An Inverse Dynamic Approach 363

The negative and positive signs of the torques represent the direction of the rotation as well as the movement. In the getting into position phase, when the player is in position of planting of his foot, the joints of shoulder, elbow and wrist will rotate clockwise, thus the segments are medially rotated. When he is taking off, the joints of shoulder, elbow and wrist are still rotated clockwise and the segments are still rotated medially. In position of airborne and contact, all the joints rotate counterclockwise as the torques show positive values. The movement of the arm in this phase will change from medial rotation to lateral rotation. Finally, when the player is landing, the joints rotate clockwise and the arm movement changes from lateral rotation to medial rotation.

Table 1:

Torques of the joints produced for the arm segment at the specific joint

 Joint Planting of foot (Frame 7) Take off Airborne Landing (Frame 18) (Frame 24) (Frame 28) Shoulder -8.20E+04 -1.06E+06 4.35E+05 -1.59E+06 Elbow -7.98E+04 -3.63E+05 5.99E+05 -8.52E+05 Wrist -3.54E+02 -3.60E+03 3.16E+03 -2.90E+03

Figure 3:

Torques of joints at each segment from planting of foot (7), taking-off (18), contact during airborne (24) and landing position (28)

Through the value of torques showed in Table 1, there are changes in the value of torque as movements change. In a study of momentum transfer between segments in a throwing motion, Shih et al. (1990) reported that the momentum does transfer from proximal segment to distal segment. When the player is in the position of planting his foot, forces to make next movement are generated by lowering his body to generate the upward vertical component of force (Piscopo and Baley, 1981). The force gained is transferred from the ground to the lower limb and transferred sequentially to the trunk. As the trunk rotates, the force is transmitted to the shoulder, which is the proximal limb. When the force at the proximal limb achieves its maximum, the distal limb (hand and racket segment) starts to accelerate. This will continue until the racket makes contact with the shuttlecock. At this point, the value of torque for elbow joint is greater than that of the shoulder joint which is 5.99E+05 Nm and 4.35E+05 Nm respectively. The greater value of torque at the elbow joint contributes to the speed of the racket. During this force-producing phase, the arm has full force to execute the smash stroke. Hence the transfer of force from the racket to the shuttlecock accelerates the shuttlecock in the opposite direction. Finally, in the follow through phase, the value of torques at each joint decrease as the player lands to the ground.

364

4. Conclusion