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Tanya Ward

City of Dublin VEC County Dublin VEC

AA sy l m e ee k e r s ni s lu m S ee r s n A lu m S e e k e rii s A sy y lu u mS k e r s Adult Adult Education AdultEducation Education Adult Education


AStudy Study ofLanguage Language and Literacy Needs A Study of Language and Literacy Needs A of and Literacy Needs

A Study of Language and Literacy

Published by the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC

City of Dublin VEC Administrative Offices Town Hall Ballsbridge Dublin 4

County Dublin VEC Administrative Offices Main Road Tallaght Dublin 24

Published in December 2002

ISBN 0-9536686-4-9

The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC December 2002

Asylum Seekers in

Adult Education
Contents

List of figures List of tables Preface Definitions: Legal terms Definitions: Terms referring to people and practices Definitions: Terms referring to teaching practices Glossary of terms Introduction CHAPTER ONE Policy context 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Introduction White Paper on Adult Education 2000 Lifelong learning as a systemic approach Equality Interculturalism White Paper on asylum seekers Developments since the White Paper on Adult Education Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA) Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) Summary of key points

v v vi viii viii x xi 1

4 4 4 5 7 8 9 9 10 10 11

CHAPTER TWO Language and literacy approaches 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Introduction English Language Teaching (ELT) Communicative approach Learner centred approach Social action approach Literacy The role of literacy in second language teaching Research on language needs of refugees in Ireland Summary of key points 13 13 13 15 15 16 18 21 23

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CHAPTER THREE Asylum seekers in Ireland 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.18.1 3.18.2 3.19 3.19.1 3.19.2 3.19.3 3.20 Introduction The Irish migratory context The asylum seeking phenomenon The procedure for seeking asylum under the Refugee Act 1996 (as amended) Rights and obligations Legal assistance and advice Settlement and support General baseline statistics Nationality Gender Age Postal area Accommodation Marital status Legal status Familial status Mother tongue Educational background Literacy Previous educational experience Experience of language learning English language Previous experience Language learning in Dublin Summary of key points 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 35

CHAPTER FOUR Profile of language and literacy providers 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.4 4.4.1 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.7.4 Introduction Vocational Education Committees (VECs) City of Dublin VEC City of Dublin VEC English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) County Dublin VEC County Dublin VEC English for Speakers for Other Languages (ESOL) FAS Asylum Seeker Unit Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC) Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI) Tallaght Refugee Project Vincentian Refugee Centre 37 37 37 38 40 40 42 43 44 44 45 47 48

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CHAPTER FIVE Reaching the learner 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Introduction Equality and anti-discrimination policy Profiling and consultation Recruitment of learners, marketing and publicity Networking and information exchange Summary of key points Recommendations 49 49 50 51 52 52 53

CHAPTER SIX Planning a programme 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Introduction Initial enrolment and record keeping Needs analysis and planning a programme Initial assessment Summary of key points Recommendations 55 55 55 56 58 58

CHAPTER SEVEN English language tutors 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Introduction Recruitment of tutors Induction Second language teacher education Conditions and support Summary of key points Recommendations 60 60 60 61 63 63 64

CHAPTER EIGHT Language and literacy provision 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 Introduction Organisation of learning Learning sites Accessibility, safety and transport Lesson planning ESOL provision Literacy for ESOL learners Standard English for African English Speakers Difficulties attending programmes for Asylum Seekers Materials and syllabus Monitoring learners progress Evaluation Accreditation Summary of key points Recommendations 65 65 65 66 67 68 69 71 71 72 74 74 75 76 78

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CHAPTER NINE Support services and special needs groups 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Introduction Childcare Guidance, personal and learner supports Torture survivors Role of European initiatives Summary of key points Recommendations 80 80 80 81 83 83 84

CHAPTER TEN Final summary and recommendations Final summary and recommendations APPENDICES Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K Appendix L OTHER References and further reading Country of origin resources Resources and specialist libraries Contact list of statutory and non-statutory agencies Box 1 Subject areas for tutor training 114 119 120 121 62 xiii Research Methodology Management Committee Second language acquisition and cognitive language learning Survey questionnaires Sample frame Statutory agencies visited during research project and issued with guidelines Semi-structured interview Qualitative interviews Mother tongues of respondents Full-time courses with English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in City of Dublin VEC Recommended sample programmes International, European and national Instruments 93 96 97 99 103 104 105 108 109 111 112 113 86

Map 1 Map of asylum seeking population in Dublin 2001

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LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1: Fig 2: Fig 3: Fig 4: Fig 5: Fig 6: Fig 7: Fig 8: Number of asylum seekers 1992-2002 Nationality of respondents Gender of respondents Age of respondents Legal status of respondents Mother tongue of respondents Literacy skills in mother tongue/first languages of respondents Number of respondents to have attended secondary school/technical college Fig 9: Percentage of respondents third level education Fig 10: Venue respondents were studying English Fig 11: Number of survey participants requiring childcare provision LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Nationality of total number of asylum seekers in the Dublin area April 2001 29 Nationality and gender of respondents 29 Age and gender of respondents 30 Postal area of respondents 30 Nationality and accommodation of respondents 31 Nationality and marital status of respondents 31 Nationality of parent and ages of children 31 Top five nationalities of respondents studying English in Dublin 34 Times preferred for future language classes and nationality 34 Sample populations 93 Survey response rate 94 Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in emergency accommodation February 2001 103 Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in private rented accommodation February 2001 103 Asylum seekers with the right to work on Unemployment Assistance February 2001 103 Response rate by each sample population 103 Total sample and overall response rate 103 27 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 80

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PREFACE

uring the last decade Irish society has experienced major changes. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VECs administrative region is representative of these changes in terms of development, demographics and increasing diversity of the population. In accordance with the adult education mission statement and the impetus of the White Paper on Adult Education, we have strived to respond and meet the challenges presented by emerging trends and diverse populations. This includes the delivery of programmes to meet the needs of ethnic minorities residing in the region, which is relatively new territory for education services in Ireland.

This project was a major undertaking and could only have been completed with the assistance and contributions made by many organisations and individuals. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC wish to express their gratitude to the Research Management Committee for providing direct guidance/support to the researcher and advising on the formulation of recommendations. Throughout the project Adult Education Organisers (AEOs) from the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC acted in a day-to-day support, advisory and editorial capacity to the researcher. Shaping the researchers understanding of adult education in Ireland, these VEC staff members offered many ideas for recommendations. We would like to thank: Liam Bane, Kathleen Forde, Fred Goulding, Leonora OReilly, Kevin Smullen and in particular Bernadette Sproule. The contribution by other agencies, stakeholders and their representatives who gave willingly of their time and expertise has contributed a great deal to the project. In the initial phases many individuals met with and advised the researcher. We acknowledge: Inez Bailey, National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA). Michael Begley, SPIRASI. Bernie Brady, AONTAS. Aidan Clifford, Curriculum Development Unit (CDU). Mary Gannon, CDU. Bernadette Freyne, SPIRASI. Breege Keenan, Vincentian Refugee Centre. Barbara Lazenby-Simpson, Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT). Rutilo Lopez, Association of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Ireland (ARASI). Kathleen Lynch, Equality Studies, University College Dublin (UCD). Mary Maher, Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC). Mervyn Morrissey, IILT. Breda Naughtan, Reception and Integration Agency (RIA). Peter OMahony, Irish Refugee Council (IRC). Michael ORiordan, FS Asylum Seeker Unit. Richard Tomkin, Centre for the Care of Survivors of Torture (CCST).

The Further Education Section of the Department of Education and Science (DES) funded this research project which is a timely response to current and future developments in adult education. County Dublin VEC welcomed the opportunity to work in partnership with colleagues in the City of Dublin VEC and hope this level of collaboration will continue. The report is written from the position of those most fully involved: adult learners, staff and education managers, who will inform/implement future actions. The report indicates that language is only one of many issues which need to be developed and planned for. Recommendations from the report will require a high level of commitment and expertise, to ensure they are incorporated into the strategic development of education services in the greater Dublin area.

The project involved a major survey of the asylum seeking population which could only have been carried out with the assistance of the Health Board and the FS Asylum Seeker Unit. We would like to thank: Pat Lennon and Paraig Rehill and the Community Welfare Officers of the Northern Area Health Board and East Coast Area Health Board. The managers and Placement Officers of the FS Asylum Seeker Unit. A special gratitude is due to survey respondents who took the time to complete questionnaires and participated in focus groups, thereby presenting the picture of the diverse reality of the refugee and asylum seeker population Dublin.

Preface | Page vi

Several organisations, agencies and VEC staff members agreed to be interviewed and participated in this project. We wish to acknowledge: Learners and tutors. VEC Adult Literacy Organisers. VEC ESOL Project Support Workers. VEC Further Education Colleges. DALC. FS Asylum Seeker Unit. IILT. SPIRASI. Tallaght Refugee Project. Vincentian Refugee Centre.

We also appreciate the backup and administrative support provided by staff in the Parnell Adult Learning Centre, the City of Dublin VEC Administrative Offices and the County Dublin VEC Co-ordinating Office, in particular we thank: Mark ODoherty, Jessica Wanzenbck, Pearl Crowe, Patricia Doran and Eoin OMahoney from FAQs Research. Louise Lesovitch was the research assistant to the project and was involved in data inputting/analysis, together with contributing to the literature review and providing editorial support. We are most thankful for her invaluable contribution. We wish to extend our thanks to Tanya Ward, who designed, researched and wrote this report. The report demonstrates her dedication, knowledge and interest in the subject. On behalf of our two VEC's we wish to acknowledge the particular support, guidance and direction provided to the project by our respective Education Officers, Fiona Hartley and Jacinta Stewart and, of course, the support and encouragement of the Further Education Section of the Department of Education & Science.

We appreciate the work of Denis Pringle, from the Department of Geography, National University of Ireland, Maynooth (NUIM) for mapping the asylum seeking population for the project. City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC would also like to thank the following people for views and comments on earlier drafts of the report: Management Committee members. Martin Berridge, IILT. Patricia Doran, County Dublin VEC. Fergus Dolan, NALA. Rachel Hegarty, Parnell Adult Learning Centre. Pauline Hensey, City of Dublin VEC. Audrey Kaufman Margaret Kelly, Further Education Section, DES. Mary Kett, Further Education Section, DES. Ronit Lentin, Department of Sociology, Trinity College Dublin. Steven Loyal, Department of Sociology, National University of Ireland, Dublin (NUID). Piaras Macinr, Irish Centre for Migration Studies (ICMS), National University of Ireland, Cork (NUIC). Marie Moreau, CDU. Susan Neill, City of Dublin VEC. Elizabeth OSullivan, City of Dublin VEC. Vera Sheridan, City of Dublin VEC. Karen Sinnott, Parnell Adult Learning Centre. Marina Spiegel, London Language and Literacy Unit (LLLU). Ciara Smyth, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). James Stapleton, IRC. John Stewart, NALA. Patricia Walsh, Parnell Adult Learning Centre.

William J. Arundel Chief Executive Officer City of Dublin VEC

Pat OConnor Chief Executive Officer County Dublin VEC

Page vii | Preface

DEFINITIONS

Legal terms*
Asylum seeker A person who arrives independently in the state seeking to be granted protection under the Refugee Convention. Leave to remain Leave to remain is granted at the discretion of the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform as an exceptional measure to allow a person to remain in the state who does not fully meet the requirements of the Refugee Convention but who may still need protection. Programme refugee A person who has been given leave to enter and remain by the Government, usually in response to a humanitarian crisis, at the request of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Refugee A person who has been recognised as needing protection under the Refugee Convention. In the Convention, a refugee is defined as someone who: has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion; is outside the country they belong to or normally reside in and is unable or unwilling to return home for fear of persecution. Refugee Convention The United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 and 1967 Protocol.

Terms referring to people and practices


Acculturation Acculturation describes a process of adaptation by a person to a new socio-cultural environment s/he is living in and has contact with. However, acculturation does not necessarily imply social integration (Dadzie, 1999). Black Originally used for describing people of African descent; it has evolved into a political umbrella term to encompass second generation Asians, Africans and African-Caribbean, people of dual heritage and refugees from non-white countries (Dadzie, 1999). Bilingual Bilingualism refers to the phenomenon of competence and communication in two languages. A bilingual individual is someone who has the ability to communicate in two languages alternately (Lam, 2001: 93). Most bilingual speakers will have learned two languages within the family from native speakers since infancy (Skuttnabb-Kangas, 1994). Culture shock Culture shock includes feelings of discomfort and maladjustment people experience when cultural norms and role expectations to which they are accustomed from their county of origin no longer hold true in a new culture (Graham & Cookson, 1994: 55). Culture shock can lead to withdrawal from the new society resulting in negative consequences for learning English. Difference Refers to social groups and individuals experiencing exclusion and marginalisation who are differentiated by social processes, for example: women, single mothers, black and ethnic minorities, gays and lesbians, older people and people with disabilities. Dispositional barrier Refers to a persons thoughts, feelings, attitudes or perceptions that impacts negatively on their motivation to engage in educational provision (Bailey & Coleman, 1998). Ethnic minority Ethnic minority is a generic term used to describe people who are identifiably different to the ethnic majority because of their ethnic origin (including language or religion).

*Note on terminology
Within this report, when the terms asylum seeker, refugee and programme refugee are used, it is in accordance with the definitions outlined above.

Definitions | Page viii

Integration Integration means the ability to participate to the extent that a person needs and wishes in all of the major components of society, without having to relinquish his or her own cultural identity(Working Group on the Integration of Refugees in Ireland, 1999). Language shock Language shock involves feelings of doubt as to whether ones words accurately expresses ones feelings, and concerns about making mistakes, sounding strange, or appearing child-like (Graham & Cookson, 1994: 55). A person experiencing language shock may be unwilling to communicate in a new language. Minority linguistic group Minority linguistic group is used to describe people who were born in or have family origins in countries where their mother tongue (s) is a language other than English. Situational barrier An aspect of a persons life situation which makes it difficult for them to access, for example, education provision.

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DEFINITIONS

Terms referring to teaching practices


English for Academic Purposes (EAP) involves teaching learners to use English for academic studies and differs from other forms of English language teaching. Initial needs analysis is fundamental to EAP and most courses focus on reading and writing skills. General EAP approaches consist of study skills practice (for example, listening to lectures, seminar skills, academic writing, reading and note-taking) and academic style (Hamp-Lyons, 2001: 126-128). English as a Foreign Language (EFL) refers to circumstances where English is not the primary Language means of communication and instruction. Most EFL settings offer limited exposure to the target language outside the classroom; syllabuses are carefully structured with extensive recycling of key target language items (Carter & Nunan, 2001). In EFL, accreditation mechanisms usually dictate course direction and the teacher has overall responsibility for introducing a cultural dimension to programmes. In addition, EFL is taught in the learners mother tongue and frequently in private language schools (Jordan, 2001). English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to situations in which English is taught in countries where it is the principal means of communication. In the United States of America, Britain and Australia, ESL programmes were originally developed for immigrants and refugees and modelled on foreign language education. Early classes were needs based and concentrated on Survival English with progression to vocational language programmes. However, the term ESL does not recognise that some language learners originate from polyglot cultures where more than one language is spoken in daily exchanges (Jordan, 2001). English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) is primarily concerned with developing speaking and listening skills in functional language for everyday use. ESOL programmes are learner centred and needs based with attainable short-term goals. ESOL prepares learners for independence and takes account of educational/employment aspirations. ESOL also incorporates communicative language techniques for mixed levels and cross-cultural approaches which recognises a learners other languages/cultures (refer to Adult ESOL Core Curriculum, 2001). Freirean approach is critical of the dominant form of education, the banking model, which presents knowledge as scientifically based, impartial and objective. The Freirean approach originates from Paulo Freires (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which argues knowledge and educational practices are neither objective nor unchanging. They reflect and serve specific interests and are situated in a certain context. Adult educators need to engage learners in a process of conscientization to help them understand and critically reflect on their life circumstances with a view to initiating change.

Definitions | Page x

Glossary of terms
ACELS Advisory Council for English Language Schools: The DES established ACELS to regulate the English Language Teaching sector in Ireland and promote standards. AEO Adult Education Organiser: provides a local adult education service through the VECs. ALO Adult Literacy Organiser: organises literacy programmes through the VECs. AONTAS The Irish National Association of Adult Education: a national membership organisation for statutory/voluntary organisations and individuals involved or interested in adult education. BTEI Back to Education Initiative: a national DES initiative to provide opportunities for young people and adults to return to learning. CALL Computer Assisted Language Learning: programmes and packages for teaching languages through computers. CCST Centre for the Care of Survivors of Torture: an NGO established to provide a multidisciplinary approach for the rehabilitation of survivors of torture. CDU Curriculum Development Unit: established by Trinity College, Dublin, the DES and the City of Dublin VEC, the CDU is a curriculum research and development institute. CDVEC City of Dublin Vocational Education Committee. CEO Chief Executive Officer: most senior VEC management position. COE Council of Europe: a pan European intergovernmental organisation with 43 Member States. Although separate to the European Union, all Member States are part of the Council of Europe. CWO Community Welfare Officer: Health Board staff member responsible for providing care and support to asylum seekers. DALC Dublin Adult Learning Centre: an NGO offering basic education and language support to adults in the inner city. DES Department of Education and Science

EO Education Officer: senior VEC education manager. FS The National Training and Employment Authority: an Irish state agency under the Department of Trade, Enterprise and Employment. FETAC Further Education Training Awards Council: a national statutory award body for further education and training. IALS International Adult Literacy Survey: a study commissioned in 1996 by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to establish the levels of literacy skills in the general population in relation to work, home and the community. IELTS International English Language Testing Service: accreditation mechanism for testing English language skills, recognised in most English speaking countries particularly for higher education. IILT Integrate Ireland Language and Training: established by the DES under the aegis of Trinity College to co-ordinate language support for refugees and others with legal residency. IT Institiid Teangeolaochta ireann (Linguistics Institute of Ireland): The principal function of the Institute is the provision of research and advice services to all organisations working with language issues. IVEA Irish Vocational Education Association: a national representational body for the VECs. L1 First language L2 Second language LLLU London Language and Literacy Unit: a British national consultancy and professional centre for staff working in the areas of literacy, numeracy, dyslexia, family learning and ESOL. NALA National Adult Literacy Agency: a membership based NGO responsible for co-ordinating adult literacy work in Ireland. NALC National Adult Learning Council: an executive agency of the DES, established to advise on policy, promote co-ordination and liaison, engage in research, staff development, support international cooperation and oversee the implementation of the White Paper on Adult Education.
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DEFINITIONS

NAPS National Anti-Poverty Strategy: a government initiative designed to challenge social and economic exclusion. NCGE National Centre for Guidance in Education: an executive agency of the DES that supports and develops guidance practice in all areas of education. NCCRI National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism: a partnership organisation established by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform to develop actions against racism and act in a public policy advisory role. NGO Non-governmental organisation PLC Post Leaving Certificate: the PLC programme provides appropriate education/training for individuals to prepare for work and higher education. PPF Programme for Prosperity and Fairness: a national agreement between Government, employers, trade unions, farmers and the community/voluntary sector outlining areas of work/action for Government focusing on - the national economy, quality of life/living standards and to bring about a fairer/inclusive society. RIA Reception and Integration Agency: established by the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform, the RIA is responsible for coordinating reception and integration for asylum seekers and refugees. SLA Second Language Acquisition: the systematic study of how people acquire a language which is not their mother tongue (Ellis, 2000). SOCRATES European Community action programme in the field of education. SPIRASI Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative: a humanitarian and intercultural NGO that provides services to protection seekers. SWA Supplementary Welfare Allowance: a means tested welfare payment specifically for individuals who are unable to work including asylum seekers. TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language: accreditation mechanism for English language skills, recognised in most English speaking countries particularly for higher education.

UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: an international UN agency mandated to co-ordinate international actions and responses for the protection of refugees and other displaced persons. VEC Vocational Education Committee: a state education provider responsible for managing adult and further education at a city/county level. VTOS Vocational Training Opportunities Scheme: supported by the European Social Fund, VTOS is a targeted intervention by the DES to assist unemployed adults progress into education, training and employment. WIT Waterford Institute of Technology: a third level educational institution.

Definitions | Page xii

MAP 1

Map 1 Map of asylum seeking population in Dublin 2001 by postal area.

11 37 15 165 20 11 10 17 22 78 24 325 12 61 6W 41 8 749 7 675

17 1 9 188 1 704 2 145 6 372 14 27 16 68 3 193 5 20

13 7

4 134

Co. Dublin 357 18 9

Cases

0-100

100-250

250-500

500

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INTRODUCTION

n July 2000, the Irish Government published a White Paper on Adult Education entitled, Learning for Life. Section 8.13 proposed asylum seekers would have free access to adult literacy, English language and mother culture supports(173/4) and the capacity for providing a national programme of language provision through the Vocational Education Committees (VECs)/other education providers should be explored. The number of asylum seekers arriving in Ireland has increased from 39 applications in 1992 to 10,325 applications in 2001. In addition, the number of work permits issued to migrants increased from 3,590 in 1998 to 32,823 in 2001. The White Paper recommended that a study should be undertaken to assess the language/literacy needs of asylum seekers and the City of Dublin VEC initiated this research in response. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC are the biggest state education providers in Ireland and offer a diverse range of programmes designed to meet the needs of learners. Ensuring opportunity of access, adult education practices in the City of Dublin VEC are underpinned by a commitment to equality, diversity of choice and empowerment of the individual (Clarke, 1999). Poverty and social exclusion have been combated through specialised services/initiatives targeting marginalized communities, for example: Adult and Further Education, Adult Literacy, Prison Education, Project with Homeless Services, Youth Services, Traveller Education, EU funded co-operative training programmes and language/literacy provision for minority linguistic groups. County Dublin VEC offers an equally diverse range of programmes. Essentially a rural VEC when it was formed in 1930, unprecedented urban growth in the shape of vast housing developments has led to County Dublin VEC expanding its operation. Predominantly based in community-based settings, County Dublin VECs adult education service also works extensively with marginalized communities. Recognising the need for research into service delivery for asylum seekers, County Dublin VEC was invited to become an associate partner in this project. Both VECs have been involved in service delivery for refugee and migrant groups since 1981 (City of Dublin VEC) and 1996 (County Dublin VEC). For example, English language programmes were organised by the City of Dublin VEC for Vietnamese refugees in 1981 and Bosnian refugees in 1996. County Dublin VECs adult education service first began organising English language programmes in 1996 for

Chinese learners in the Lucan area. Responding with very limited resources, both VECs have experienced a substantial increase in numbers of second language learners accessing adult education services. Findings from this research will be used to develop provision for asylum seekers, together with other non-nationals, as an integral part of the VECs area based adult education service. Considering provision for asylum seekers holistically, this report stresses language/literacy issues are inextricably linked to equality and interculturalism. The research advocates a learner centred and needs based approach for the delivery of programmes through a mainstream state adult education service (with support for community based programmes) with accountable, transparent structures. Written from a gendered perspective, particular attention is also paid to survivors of torture and people with disabilities.

Aims and objectives


The present research was commissioned to: Compile a profile of the asylum seeking population in Dublin based on: age, gender, mother tongue, country of origin, educational background, domestic situation, familial relationships, experience of language learning and location. Evaluate current language/literacy provision for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups, paying particular attention to: co-ordination and referral between agencies, networking and information exchange, learning sites, childcare, teaching programmes and materials, targeted interventions, outreach centres, accreditation and the role of European initiatives. Assess language and literacy needs with a view to formulating an integrated community-based approach.

Methodology
In an effort to compile a representative sample of the asylum seeking population, a survey was conducted with the assistance of the East Coast Area Health Board, the Northern Area Health Board and the FS Asylum Seeker Unit. Divided into three sections, the survey questionnaire was designed to establish: personal information, educational background and language learning experience. Using three sample populations in Dublin 1, Dublin 7, Dublin 6 (Rathmines) and Dublin 24, the questionnaire was distributed using several methods (refer to Appendix A for Methodology).
Page 1 | Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Representing an overall response rate of 27%, 767 questionnaires were returned from a sample population of 2,843. Approximately 39% of asylum seekers in emergency accommodation (hostels and B&Bs) and 24% in private rented accommodation responded to the survey. In addition, a further 12% of asylum seekers with the right to work participated. Promoting the research and survey involved visiting Health Board and FS Asylum Seeker Officers throughout the Dublin area. Officers were issued with guidelines advising how to assist survey participants with completing the questionnaire and promotional posters were displayed in emergency accommodation units. An evaluation was conducted of organisations involved in direct language/literacy service delivery for asylum seekers, together with other ESOL learners, through a broad based semi-structured interview. The main purpose of the interview was to first establish the role of providers and gain an insight from their work. Each interview was carried out with statutory and non-statutory agencies functioning with very limited resources. Operating in Dublin city and county, providers targeted included: Community Groups, the FS Asylum Seeker Unit, the IILT, NGOs, VEC Adult Literacy Schemes, VEC ESOL programmes and the VEC Prison Education Service. A Management Committee was established to support the project made up of representatives from the statutory and voluntary sector. The central role of the Committee was to advise on the undertaking of the research and design of recommendations (refer to Appendix B for membership).

Report structure
Chapter 1 explains the policy context for this study and situates provision for asylum seekers firmly within a national adult learning framework. The White Paper on Adult Education is discussed in relation to asylum seekers focusing on lifelong learning, equality and interculturalism. National developments initiated by the DES, IVEA, IILT and NALA are also included. Chapter 2 introduces principles underlying day-to-day practice of language and literacy provision in Ireland. It examines progress in English language teaching and the role of literacy for second language learners. Concrete definitions on language teaching are provided as well as an overview of research on language needs of refugees in Ireland. Chapter 3 describes the context for asylum seekers in Ireland, charting the Irish Governments legal and social response. Results and analysis from the survey of asylum seekers are also provided with analysis relating to: age, nationality, gender, accommodation, location in the city, marital status, legal status, familial status and mother tongue, education background, literacy levels and prior language learning. Chapter 4 profiles several language and literacy education providers operating in the Dublin area. Describing the background, structure and full scope of provision, the organisations include: City of Dublin VEC, County Dublin VEC, FS Asylum Seeker Unit, Integrate Ireland Language and Training Project (IILT) and several non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Chapter 5 argues reaching potential learners requires multifaceted strategies and reports on providers efforts to: develop an equality/anti-discrimination policy, reach and consult potential learners, recruit new learners, market and publicise new programmes, network between agencies and information exchange. Chapter 6 considers the steps involved in planning programmes based on learners needs. These include: initial enrolment/record keeping, carrying out a needs analysis in conjunction with new adult learners, initial skills assessment and makes recommendations on each.

Introduction | Page 2

Chapter 7 contends that the growth of the ESOL sector will depend on its ability to attract and maintain expertise. Describing tutor recruitment, induction, training and support, this chapter argues tutors need a broad range of skills to enable them to teach asylum seekers. Chapter 8 reveals how programmes for minority linguistic groups are organised and considers different aspects of oncourse provision: lesson planning, materials/syllabus, visits, review/evaluation, monitoring learners progress, accreditation and makes detailed recommendations. Chapter 9 focuses on support services required by asylum seekers to ensure full participation, including: guidance, personal/learner support and childcare. The needs of torture survivors are also discussed and the role of European initiatives relating to language provision. Chapter 10 summarises and makes recommendations to be included in national strategies and for the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC. The recommendations relate to: (1) national co-ordination; (2) promoting equality/interculturalism in Adult and Further Education; (3) national training measures; (4) materials development for ESOL provision; (5) needs analysis and assessment; (6) accreditation; (7) evaluation; (8) translation and interpretation services; (9) the Adult Education Guidance Initiative (AEGI); (10) further research; (11) staffing; (12) infrastructure; (13) learning sites; (14) equality/anti-discrimination in the VECs; (15) co-operation with other agencies; (16) training; (17) supporting the community; (18) the organisation of ESOL; (19) ESOL provision; (20) literacy for ESOL provision; (21) Standard English for African English speakers; (22) torture survivors; (23) childcare; (24) personal/learner support and (25) the implementation of recommendations.

Page 3 | Introduction

CHAPTER ONE Policy Context

1.1

Introduction

1.2.1 Lifelong learning as a systemic approach


A basic tenet of government policy and the White Paper, lifelong learning is a central concept in adult education. Impelled by the EU Employment Strategy and the EU Memorandum on Lifelong Learning, the Government has promoted lifelong learning through a series of strategic developments in order to support an integrated approach to education, training, welfare and employment strategies. In 1997, the Government set up The Expert Group on Future Skills Needs to tackle skills shortages. Lifelong learning was incorporated into the National Development Plan as an essential theme. Following negotiations with the Social Partners, the Government further underlined its commitment in the Programme for Prosperity and Fairness (PPF) (2000). Providing for the development of a strategic framework for lifelong learning, the Task Force on Lifelong Learning was established by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment in conjunction with the DES. The Task Force involves members of other government departments, employer bodies, trade unions, the Community and Voluntary sector and education and training providers. The White Paper on Adult Education defines lifelong learning as a systemic approach which recognises that the interfaces between the different levels of educational provision, and the quality of the early school experience have a critical influence on learners motivation and ability to access and progress in adult education and training. This requires that educational policies must be designed to embrace the life cycle, reflect the multiplicity of sites, both formal and informal, in which learning can take place, provide for appropriate supports such as guidance, counselling and childcare, and for mechanisms to assess learning independent of the context in which it occurs (2000: 12). Lifelong learning is characterised as not only lifelong but also lifewide and voluntary/self-motivated. The White Paper recommends lifelong should encompass the individuals education from the cradle to the grave. Realising this concept is one of the greatest challenges for the education system at present. The DES has initiated new schemes and initiatives designed to lay the foundations for lifelong learning, however, its advancement will be a long-term project. Lifewide as defined in the White Paper refers to adult

dult learning in Ireland is in the process of undergoing dramatic change and expansion. This research is conducted at a time when the foundations are being laid for a national structure for adult education and new legal instruments introduced for governing asylum seekers (refer to Section 3.4 for discussion of Refugee Act 1996 as amended). In explaining the policy context for this research, the objective of this chapter is to situate language/literacy provision for asylum seekers firmly within the national adult learning framework. Three principles frame adult education in the White Paper and are designed to transform adult education in order to accommodate difference, each has particular relevance for asylum seekers. Other policy developments with regard to education are also examined, for example, new measures by the DES, the Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA), Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) and the National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA).

1.2 White Paper on Adult Education 2000


Adult education is the only area of education in Ireland which has never been formally developed. A commitment was made by the Irish Government to develop a national framework for adult learning with the publication of the White Paper on Adult Education Learning for Life. A response to economic concerns, it also incorporates a progressive view of adult education and strives to create a democratic society based on the notion of lifelong learning. The White Paper singles out disadvantaged groups, which for the most part have been neglected by mainstream actions. The main features are: Literacy. Community Education. Workplace Education. Higher Education. Support Services. Co-operation with Northern Ireland. Structures. Priority Areas.

The White Paper on Adult Education provides a coherent and broad vision for the development of adult education. Based on a partnership model, three principles underlie educational practice in the White Paper: (a) Lifelong learning as a systemic approach, (b) Equality and (c) Interculturalism. Reflecting policy developments elsewhere, each principle merits further examination.
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learning in a multiciplicity of sites including: school, conventional education institutes, training centres, the home and community groups. As highlighted by the White Paper, this will present further challenges to the education system in terms of resourcing learning in a variety of settings. It also requires progression between learning sites based on parity of esteem between providers; the development of methods of assessment of learning independently of the context in which such learning occurs; the need to provide the requisite infra-structural supports to the learner in the form of guidance and counselling; the provision of childcare and transport and appropriate mechanisms of accreditation and assessment (32). This has particular significance for asylum seekers who regularly attend programmes in a multiciplicity of learning sites, most of which are located in community-based settings. These initiatives are crucial to ensure participation from individuals who may not be able to attend mainstream institutions. For example, cultural constraints and lack of childcare facilities can be determining factors for participation. Co-ordination and support required for community based learning from the VECs can be considerable and education programmes have floundered where VECs have been unable to offer assistance (see WEERC, 2001). Fundamental to lifelong learning is the concept of a learner centred approach. The White Paper recommends adult learning principles as central to the education process; it should always be voluntary and self-motivated. Rethinking and reshaping policies with adult learners in mind presents challenges to conventional education providers. Learner centred methodologies and practices need to be inclusive to encourage engagement from learners. This will have important ramifications for working with asylum seekers as they often originate from countries where rote learning and teacher centred education is prevalent. This has posed difficulties for language and literacy tutors trying to foster learner autonomy and involving independent learning. Independent learning within the learner centred approach is ethnocentric and rooted in white western society the idea originates from research in adult education within the United States, which in itself is highly individualistic (see Knowles, 1974; Brookfield, 1987). New communities need to become self-sufficient to enhance quality of life. While the learner centred approach to adult learning is based on this premise, providers also need to think about learners in terms of their family and community.

The Employment Equality Act, 1998 prohibits discrimination in relation to employment on nine distinct grounds: Gender Marital status Family status Sexual orientation Religion Age Disability Race Membership of the Traveller Community

All aspects of employment are included and the legislation applies to: public and private sector employment, employment agencies, vocational training bodies, the publication of advertisements, trade unions and professional bodies, fulltime/part-time workers and collective agreements. The Equal Status Act, 2000, prohibits discrimination in the provision of goods, services, disposal of property and access to education, on any of the nine grounds referred to under the Employment Equality Act 1998. The Act prohibits discrimination (subject to certain exceptions) in all public and private services generally available to the public. These include: public state services, provision of accommodation, educational establishments and registered clubs. In order to enforce the new legislation, the Government established two separate agencies: the Office of the Director of Equality Investigations and the Equality Authority (the latter will be discussed here). The Equality Authority has statutory powers and is duty-bound to work towards the elimination of discrimination within the public domain, for example: in all areas of employment, in the provision of
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1.2.2 Equality
High on the political agenda, several factors have guaranteed that equality is now part of common official discourse. The Government made a commitment to promote equality in all spheres of life following the ratification of EU Directives and Treaty provisions on employment equality and the Good Friday Agreement. The Social Partners lobbied for Equality Proofing administrative procedures to be included in the Partnership Agreement 2000 Inclusion, Employment and Competitiveness, which was negotiated with the Government in 1996 and the Programme for Prosperity and Fairness (PPF) 2000. These negotiations and commitments led to the enactment of two different legislative instruments.

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goods and services, education and property. It is responsible for overseeing and monitoring legislation, including the Employment Equality Act, 1998 and the Equal Status Act, 2000. Furthermore, the Equality Authority has a public information role and is responsible for mainstreaming equality throughout the state sponsored sector by promoting and supporting the development of equality structures. There are limitations to the Equality Authoritys power as equality-proofing procedures were not explicitly included in the Equal Status Act. Equality mainstreaming and proofing in the Irish context has not been a transformative process. Mullally (2001) argues experience to date has shown that without legislative underpinning, equality proofing procedures will have little or no impact on policy. However, the Irish Government has made efforts to equality proof public policy (see below). Although the DES has been involved in research on gender equality since 1987, the White Paper marks the first time the DES has made a pledge to promote equality in all sectors of education. For example, there has been an allocation of 19.6m for several equality initiatives which include: The establishment of the Gender Equality Unit within the DES to monitor the participation of learners to ensure gender equity throughout the system. A computerised information system for the Further Education sector to track the progress of specific groups effectively. The Womens Education Initiative was expanded and renamed the Equality Education Initiative in order to address the needs of disadvantaged men who do not traditionally participate in adult education. Established in June 2001, the Gender Equality Unit began work on implementing systems within the education sector to collate statistics according to gender. Funding 18 projects (none currently involving asylum seekers, refugees or other linguistic minority groups), the Education Equality Initiative has been operational since 2000. The White Paper defines equality in terms of: equality of access, participation and outcome for participants in adult education, with pro-active strategies to
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counteract barriers arising from differences of socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity and disability. A key priority in promoting an inclusive society is to target investment towards those most at risk (2000: 13). While the White Paper recommends targeted interventions should be directed at individuals who face barriers accessing adult education, it does not explicitly outline how equality of access (equal rights to participate), participation (enabling and encouraging participation) and outcome (where equality is achieved between marginalized and non-marginalized groups in all aspects of life) will be promoted in a practical sense throughout adult education. Equality of condition was not considered in the White Paper, which necessitates equality of economic and social conditions (living conditions) for all members of society, including citizens and non-citizens (Lynch, 1999). Advancing equality in adult education for asylum seekers involves implementing equality proofing procedures in accordance with the nine grounds in the Equal Status Act (see above). Mullally and Smith (2000) define equality proofing as bringing an equality focus into planning, policy and provision. Equality proofing tools and mechanisms include: legislative reform, codes of practice, sanctions and enforcement procedures, equality audit, monitoring systems, affirmative action and proofing procedures. In 2000, the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform (hereinafter referred to as the Minister for Justice) established a Working Group on Equality Proofing due to a commitment made in the PPF. In 2002, the Government launched impact assessments for public policy makers across the nine grounds in education and training as a pilot initiative. In order to move beyond equality of access, Lynch (2002) presents principles for enforcing equality within education. For example, Lynch believes in eliminating economic inequalities and examining the schooling process to assess how it deals with difference: gender, sexuality, disability, ethnicity, beliefs, abilities and social class. If schools deny or ignore the fact that differences exist, if they denigrate or marginalize those who are different either by exclusion, by silence or by misrepresentation, they are playing a deep role in promoting inequality in the socio-cultural realm (2002: 407). Ensuring marginalized groups are represented within curricula is one step to address the denial of difference, recognised in the White Paper under the heading of interculturalism (see Section 1.2.3). Lynch argues for the democrati-

sation of relations in education. Over centralised hierarchical structures should be abandoned in favour of dialogue and cooperation between management, staff and learners (for example, line management and student councils). This would have far reaching implications for management structures within all schooling and educational institutions, where working practices have remained generally unchanged. Finally, Lynch notes learners are emotional actors, thus account must be taken of their need for trust, care as well as developing relationships.

and community sector on asylum and refugee issues. However, the NCCRI has no statutory power and is currently under resourced. The Irish Governments approach to anti-racism and interculturalism has been described as a top down, liberal and minimalist approach (Lentin, 2001). Critical of multicultural initiatives anchored in liberal politics of recognition of difference, Lentin believes they fail to deconstruct power relations between the host population and new communities, as well as tackling serious harm experienced by minorities. The Government ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in December 2000 and in October 2001 launched a three year National Anti-Racism Awareness Programme. While the programme co-ordinates anti-racist activities, redress for individuals who have been discriminated against can be achieved through the Equality Authority and the Director of Equality Investigations. The White Paper defines interculturalism as: . the need to frame educational policy and practice in the context of serving a diverse population as opposed to a uniform one, and the development of curricula, materials, training and in-service, modes of assessment and delivery methods which accept such diversity as the norm. This refers not only to combating racism and encouraging participation of immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers in education, but also to a recognition that many minority groups such as travellers, people with disabilities, older adults, participants in disadvantaged areas may have distinct needs and cultural patterns which must be respected and reflected in an educational context. It also envisages a more active role by adult educators in the promotion of Irish language and culture (DES, 2000: 13). Taking diversity as the norm, the White Paper acknowledges some special needs groups have difficulties negotiating the education system and recognises the immense challenge this poses to education in terms of: modes of teacher selection and training, language, modes of interaction and nature of inter-relationships between tutor and the learner, curricular, course materials and extra-curricula activities. Noting learners face difficulties with recognition of qualifications/awards, the White Paper proposes marginalized groups should be able to influence and shape policy. However, racism is not revisited; it is essential that antiPage 7 | Chapter One

1.2.3 Interculturalism
Although interculturalism is part of common usage the debate regarding its meaning is in its infancy. The Report on the Task Force on the Travelling Community 1995 sets out, for the first time in an official document, what an intercultural society might look like (Crowley, 2001). However, in contrast to equality, interculturalism has not been given the same degree of consideration, consultation and negotiation. Public debate ignores the societal implications of interculturalism and new communities. There is no common intercultural government strategy for the public and private sector. In 1997, the Government supported the European Year Against Racism - part of a European anti-racism initiative combating racism. The Minister for Justice established the National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (NCCRI) in 1998. A partnership organisation, its central aim is to contribute to the overall development of public policy with regard to anti-racism and encourage integral actions which acknowledge/celebrate cultural diversity in Ireland. The NCCRI defines interculturalism as the: acceptance not only of the principles of equality of rights, values and abilities but also the development of polices to promote interaction, collaboration and exchange with people of different cultures, ethnicity or religion living in the same territoryinterculturalism is an approach that can enrich a society and recognises racism as an issue that needs to be tackled in order to create a more inclusive society (2001:6). The NCCRI has offered anti-racism training to the public sector. Through its issue driven sub committees on asylum, education and women, it has provided a great deal of support and an element of co-ordination for the voluntary

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racism and anti-discrimination measures be at the centre of an intercultural policy. Focusing on racism in Ireland, Amnesty International commissioned a survey of the views of ethnic minorities - research sample involved: Irish Travellers, Black Irish, Europeans, Black Africans, North Africans, South Asians and South East Asians - (FAQs Research/Loyal & Mulcahy, 2001). Approximately, 78% of respondents reported they had experienced racism; 36.2% were exposed to insulting comments because of their skin colour or ethnic background. Amnestys nationwide findings indicate racism is an everyday reality for ethnic minorities living in Ireland. This is an important factor when devising intercultural strategies for asylum seekers. Through focus groups held with asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups in the present research, it was discovered learners in ESOL programmes are frequently subjected to racism and discrimination in the course of accessing provision (this will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 5). The White Paper could have been more comprehensive on interculturalism. In Adult Education in Multi-Ethnic Europe, Dadzie (1999) maintains creating an enabling environment should be the key to developing an intercultural strategy for adult education. An ideal learning environment is one in which learners feel valued and visible. It involves creating a safe, welcoming ethos which takes account of the diversity of staff and learners and gives consistent messages about behavioural boundaries(Dadzie, 1999: 237). Critical features of an intercultural strategy include: 1. A commitment to Race Equality in the organisations mission statement, translated into different languages.
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2. Adherence to the values and spirit of the policy is part of a mutual contract with learners and staff. 3. Race Equality/Anti-discrimination policy objectives in all strategic planning exercises. 4. A well-publicised grievance procedure translated into various languages. 5. Encourage learners and representatives from local, black, migrant and ethnic minority communities and a diversity of backgrounds to participate in policy development and implementation. 6. Monitor the effectiveness of the policy by analysing the number, progress and achievements of black/ethnic minority learners, including exam grades, post-course destinations and any complaints about racial harassment or abuse. 7. Employing ethnic minority workers who have knowledge of the relevant communities to act as advocates. 8. Employing ethnic minorities to work in your organisation. 9. Having posters and images in your building of ethnic minorities (adapted from Dadzie, 1999: 190). Embracing difference involves working with and accepting language diversity. All basic documents and building signs need to be translated into significant language groups (symbols need to be incorporated for non literate learners). Employing staff members and reception staff who are bilingual or multilingual is practical and useful. Anti-racism and language awareness training are essential. The NCCRI (2001) affirm that anti-racism training should be positioned within a whole organisation approach to addressing racism and supporting interculturalism. Backed by strong leadership, all staff members should participate in training on a regular basis.

Since the publication of the White Paper, the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) has established an Intercultural Steering Group. It includes representatives from the DES, FS, the Equality Authority, the NCCRI, the RIA and national programme co-ordinators. However, the group does not include members from non-governmental organisations or refugee groups. Expanding membership of the group would be a valuable exercise, as it would include a broader range of perspectives. The first decision of the Steering Group has been to commission research into intercultural practices within adult education in other countries (due in Autumn 2002), conduct a literature review and produce modules for intercultural education in further education and training.

1.2.4 White Paper on asylum seekers


The White Paper singles out asylum seekers as a group requiring special provision. The Governments interest in exploring the possibility for providing a national programme through the VECs and other further education providers is noted. Highlighting the need for research in this area (for which this study was initiated) it also proposed discussions should be held with relevant stakeholders to assess the recommendations from the study in relation to funding, co-ordination of staff and implementation. The White Paper established new learning opportunities for asylum seekers. For asylum seekers with the right to work it stated: Free access to active labour market programmes such as VTOS or PLC if over 21 and six months registered unemployed, on the same basis as other participants.

Access to free part-time Back to Education Initiative (173). For all asylum seekers: Free access to adult literacy, English language and mother culture supports (173). Although this is a positive development for asylum seekers, the client group would benefit more if this entitlement were on a statutory footing. Congruent with the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), Section 47 of ECRE Position on the Reception of Asylum Seekers June 1997 recommends: State policies should in no way prevent adult asylum seekers from acquiring new education and skills in the host state. All asylum seekers should be supported in these aims. Again, ECRE believes that such a policy if it meets both the asylum seekers needs and those of the host state will prevent exclusion from the host society and facilitate re-integration upon return to the country of origin (authors own emphasis). Taking account of these two possibilities, following the final determination of an asylum seekers application settlement in Ireland or repatriation is a constructive way to conceptualise education policies for asylum seekers. Reception and integration policies in other European countries (Norway, Sweden and Denmark) are shaped around these two realities. ECRE proposes services be integrated with service provision for local citizens. Undoubtedly, the VECs and other education providers, for example community based NGOs, are in a position to ensure that this can happen. In doing so, they would be involved in the first step of integrating the asylum seeking population into local communities.

will work with a number of designated disadvantaged groups, for example: ethnic minorities, people with disabilities and other groups who have difficulties accessing education. Other measures from the DES include: An increase in the adult literacy budget by 21.5% (these funds can be used for language programmes with asylum seekers). Back to Education Initiative (BTEI) providing 6,000 part-time places for PLC, Youthreach, Traveller, and VTOS programmes. Extension of the Adult Education Guidance Service. Appointment of two Further Education Co-ordinators. A computerised Further Education Management Information System.

1.4 Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA)


The Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA) is the representational body for the VECs. In 2001, it issued a policy on Educational Provision for Asylum Seekers, Refugees and other Nonnationals (drafted by a working group). Established by the IVEA Congress 2000, the remit of the group was to examine the educational needs of asylum seekers. It consisted of representatives from the VECs who had experience working with nonnationals. The IVEAs report and policy provides a brief overview of current practice. Drawn up following a national survey of the VECs, it investigated service delivery at Second Level (post-primary) and in Further Education. As it is the first report from the working group, it does not deviate from existing thinking on provision for nonPage 9 | Chapter One

1.3 Developments since the White Paper on Adult Education


Since the publication of the White Paper, major progress in adult education has been made. The DES have issued letters clarifying the legal situation of nonnationals in regard to access for Post Leaving Certificate (PLC), Vocational Training Opportunities Scheme (VTOS) and Youthreach programmes (September 2001 and January 2002 from Peter Kelly, Assistant Principal Officer, Further Education Section). In January 2001, the Minister of State for Adult Education, Willie ODea, announced that the Government would establish a National Adult Learning Council (NALC) as an executive agency of the DES. The Council will advise on policy, promote co-ordination and liaison, engage in research, staff development, support international co-operation and essentially implement the recommendations from the White Paper. Designated staff may have responsibility for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. The Minister also announced the approval of 35 Community Education Facilitators. Directed by existing ad hoc adult education boards (before the introduction of Local Adult Learning Boards), the Facilitators will be expected to support and develop new community-based learning groups and centres. Assistance with accessing funding, sharing good practice, networking, forming partnerships and monitoring quality will also be part of their role. The facilitators

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nationals. Many of the ideas expounded derive from other governmental and non-governmental sources. However, it does make recommendations, which would have significant organisational and resource implications. Framed by ten liberal principles, the IVEA made proposals relating to further research and specific areas of educational provision. The IVEA also recommends structures for co-ordinating at a national, local and community level. Recommendations for educational provision are intended to provide for practitioners basic requirements. Most pertain to resourcing: 1. Additional resources for extra language classes. 2. Intercultural education as a central element of the curriculum of all schools. 3. Cultural and civic education incorporated into all programmes for the target group. 4. An increase in budgets for language and education support for the target group. 5. Ensuring Adult Education Services for asylum seekers and refugees are adequately resourced, the DES should receive individual submissions for specific needs. 6. Asylum seekers and refugees to be consulted and represented on management structures. 7. Support time to provide assistance to asylum seekers. 8. Extra class time for adult learners with special needs. 9. Comprehensive in-service training for all teachers, including country of origin information. 10.Free computer classes for all asylum seekers (adapted from IVEA, 2001: 24). The IVEA proposed recommendations outlining support services for asylum seekers to ensure the holistic nature of educational service delivery. These include: a comprehensive training programme for all personnel working with the target group; counselling services for asylum seekers in schools and centres; increased accessibility of interpretation and translation facilities; more accessible information/legal services for asylum seekers and library resources. In terms of policy development for asylum seekers, refugees and other non-nationals, the IVEA policy is extremely significant. The IVEA has a broad mandate and started promoting its policy. Regular meetings will be held with the DES to act as a single contact point for the VECs. A second IVEA policy document will be published in Autumn 2002 on lifelong learning which will outline a structure for the delivery of educational services to asylum seekers, refugees and other minority linguistic groups.

1.5 Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) (formerly the RLSU)
The DES under the aegis of Trinity College Dublin established the Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) in 1999. The RLSU also incorporated Interact Ireland (formerly the Refugee Language and Training Project) which was supported by European Integra Funds and set up to develop services and language support to assist second language learners access vocational training/work. However, the RLSU had a wider remit and was set up: to establish and maintain a database of the language experience of all non-national pupils and adult refugees and to track their English language training progress. to develop suitable English language programmes for non-nationals. to develop new English language training materials and identify sources of suitable existing materials. to provide training for English language support teachers and their principals at primary and post-primary level. to develop benchmarks of English competence at various levels. to advise the DES on matters relating to the English language provision of non-nationals, as requested. Co-ordinating language support for refugees, the RLSU previously contracted language provision to private language schools (for example, Kosovar programme refugees) and currently deliver courses to adult refugees (and others with legal residency) in conjunction with FS and its centre. In the White Paper, the Government noted its intention to expand the role of the RSLU to include asylum seekers. The DES provided a grant to develop language-teaching materials for adult asylum seekers, together with other nonnationals and training on materials use. A Steering Committee was set up by the DES to oversee the development of these materials and includes representatives from NALA, the IVEA and the City of Dublin VEC (refer to Section 8.10). The RLSU has now become Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) and is a campus company of Trinity College Dublin.

1.6 National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA)


Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are framing policy for language and literacy provision for asylum seekers, together with other ESOL learners. Established in 1980,

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NALA is a co-ordination, training and campaigning body for all those interested or involved in adult literacy in Ireland. Primarily funded by the DES, NALA offers training to tutors and organisers on a wide range of subjects based on good practice principles in Adult Basic Education, together with literacy awareness workshops for the public/private sector. In addition to a research programme (focusing on assessment, training needs analysis, health and literacy), NALA has initiated several projects to expand and enhance literacy provision. In January 2002, NALA established an ESOL Executive Working Group following a resolution from an Annual General Meeting (2001). The terms of reference for the group include: undertaking an audit of current provision and drawing up a discussion document with proposals for the DES. Working group members involve stakeholders from statutory and non-statutory agencies. In addition, under the heading of new approaches to literacy, NALA made a commitment in its Strategic Plan 2002-2006 to develop policy guidelines/supports for practitioners, together with implementing an ESOL policy and development programme for the literacy service (1718). The audit of the literacy service is now complete and NALA will publish the ESOL Working Group report in Autumn/Winter 2002. Working in collaboration with Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT), NALA have developed several professional third level accredited courses for adult literacy practitioners. NALA/WIT intend to develop an ESOL module to be delivered as part of its National Certificate in Adult and Community Education (Tutoring). In 2001, NALA organised one-day sessions

introducing some approaches in ESOL in Dublin, Cork, Athlone and Kilkenny. Finally, the organisation intends to integrate ESOL into all areas of work organisation, including assessment, materials production and other developmental areas.

1.7 Summary of key points


Laying down the foundations for a new national structure for adult learning, the White Paper on Adult Education Learning for Life, singles out areas of education, which traditionally have been neglected. These include: literacy, community education, workplace education, higher education, support services, co-operation with Northern Ireland, structures and priority areas. Three principles frame adult education in the White Paper: (a) Lifelong learning as a systemic approach, (b) Equality and (c) Interculturalism. Designed to transform adult education in order to accommodate difference, each has particular relevance for asylum seekers. Encompassing an individuals education from the the cradle to the grave, lifelong learning is characterised as being lifelong, lifewide, voluntary and selfmotivated. Advancing lifelong learning given the current educational structures will be a long-term project. Recognising adults attend programmes in a multiplicity of learning sites, the White Paper recognises the need to offer support to the community-based sector. Furthermore, ensuring all practices are based on the notion of learner autonomy, active engagement in learning must be encouraged. Recommending targeted interventions directed at learners facing barriers accessing education, the White Paper marks the first time the DES has made a pledge to promote equality in all sectors of education. Defining equality in terms of access, participation and outcome, the White Paper does not explicitly state, how each is to be achieved in a practical sense. Although, the DES has made several efforts to promote equality, advancing equality in adult education for minority linguistic groups demands further measures. Ensuring equality in education requires: implementing equality proofing procedures, enforcing codes of practice, eliminating economic inequalities and an examination of the schooling system. Taking diversity as the norm, the White Paper accepts that special needs groups experience difficulties negotiating the education system. Challenges facing the sector are recognised in terms of modes of teacher selection/training, language, inter-relationships between tutors and learners, curricula, course materials and extra-curricular activities. However, the White Paper does not recommend how interculturalism needs to be promoted. Anti-racism/antidiscrimination should be a central component of an intercultural policy. Creating an enabling environment involves a series of actions: the adoption of a whole organisation approach to address racism; a commitment to race equality; anti-discrimination policy objectives in all strategic planning
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CHAPTER ONE

exercises; a grievance procedure; involving black and ethnic minorities in policy development; monitoring access and participation of marginalized groups; employing minorities to work in organisations; ensuring all documents are translated and ensuring all staff members attend anti-racism/cultural awareness training. The White Paper singles out asylum seekers as a group requiring special provision. Making asylum seekers eligible for language and literacy provision, the White Paper provides for free access to literacy, language provision and mother culture supports. An extremely positive development for asylum seekers, education policies need to be designed to prevent exclusion in the host country and facilitate re-integration upon return to a country of origin. Highlighting the need for research in the area, the White Paper proposes discussions should take place with relevant stakeholders in order to consider recommendations. In 2001, the IVEA Working Group on asylum seekers, refugees and other non-nationals issued a policy. Providing a brief overview of current practice, the IVEA recommends the establishment of a national co-ordinating structure for the reception of asylum seekers. Educational recommendations made by the IVEA predominantly relate to resourcing. Calling for additional resources to be made available for more language classes, computer classes and educational support, the IVEA recommends all programmes should incorporate a cultural civic dimension. Ensuring asylum seekers, together with other non-nationals, are consulted and represented on management structures, the IVEA makes proposals for a whole range of support services: a comprehensive training programme for all personnel working with the target group, counselling services, increased accessibility to translation services, greater availability of information/legal services and library resources. The DES under the aegis of Trinity College Dublin established the Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) in 1999. Interact Ireland (formerly the Refugee Language and Training Project) was incorporated into the RLSU. Supported by European Integra Funds, Interact Ireland began as a two-year project set up to develop services and language training to assist second language learners access vocational training/work. The DES provided a grant to develop language-teaching materials for work with adult asylum seekers, together with other non-nationals and training on materials use.
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Established in 1980, NALA is the national membership organisation for learners and providers involved in adult literacy work. NALA is responsible for national coordination, training and policy development. NALA have initiated a wide range of programmes to expand and enhance current literacy provision in Ireland. NALA established a working group on ESOL in January 2002 to devise policy guidelines for literacy and language providers following a national audit of the Adult Literacy Service. NALA will publish guidelines for practitioners and a discussion document with recommendations for the DES. NALA/WIT intend to develop an ESOL module, which will be delivered as part of its National Certificate in Adult and Community Education (Tutoring). NALA organised one-day sessions introducing some approaches in ESOL on a national basis and intend to integrate ESOL into all areas of work organisation.

CHAPTER TWO Language and literacy approaches

2.1 Introduction
here is no single set of basic assumptions or principles governing the practice of educationalists. The objective of this section is to introduce underlying beliefs informing day-to-day practices of language and literacy providers in Ireland and briefly explain how they relate to asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. This chapter attempts to chart progress in English language teaching and examines the role of literacy in second language education. The fields of language provision and literacy have evolved in isolation of each other. Developments within the study of human psychology have influenced both areas, while ideas from adult education/literacy have infiltrated language teaching. A complete overview of international research on language and literacy theory has not been provided as the following section is meant to be instructive rather than definitive (refer to Appendix C for second language acquisition and cognitive view of language learning). Finally, an overview of research on the language issues for refugees in Ireland is provided as no research, to date, has been undertaken on language issues for asylum seekers.

2.2 English Language Teaching (ELT)


Practices within English Language Teaching (ELT) have developed into a number of distinct groups of methodologies and approaches. Reflecting the diverse contexts and needs of language learners, they fall under the umbrella term English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). Two of the most widely known forms of language teaching are English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL). EFL, ESL and ESOL contrast in the following ways: EFL refers to circumstances where English is not the primary means of communication and instruction. Most EFL settings offer limited exposure to the target language outside the classroom; syllabuses are carefully structured with extensive recycling of key target language items (Carter & Nunan, 2001). In EFL, accreditation mechanisms usually dictate course direction and the teacher has overall responsibility for introducing a cultural dimension to programmes. In addition, EFL is taught in the learners mother tongue and frequently in private language schools (Jordan, 2001). ESL refers to situations where English is being taught in countries in which it is the principal means of communication. In the United States of America, Britain and Australia, ESL programmes were originally developed for migrants and refugees and modelled on foreign language education. Early classes were needs based and concentrated on Survival English with progression to vocational language programmes. However, the term ESL fails to recognise that some language learners originate from polyglot cultures where more than one language is spoken in daily exchanges (Jordan, 2001).

ESOL learners are primarily concerned with developing speaking and listening skills in functional language for everyday use. Programmes are learner centred and needs based with attainable short-term goals. Preparing learners for independence, ESOL takes account of educational/employment aspirations. ESOL also incorporates communicative language techniques for mixed levels and cross-cultural approaches which recognises a learners other languages/cultures. ESOL is used in the UK to describe language teaching to all learners over the age of 16 (Refer to Adult ESOL Core Curriculum, 2001), while English as an Additional Language (EAL) is the accepted term for ELT for learners under 16. In searching for the best method of teaching languages, various methodologies and approaches have been developed. They are grouped into the following broad headings: grammar translation, audio-lingual, communicative, learner centred and the social action approaches (grammar translation and audio-lingual will not be discussed here).

2.2.1 Communicative approach


The communicative approach to language teaching gained prominence in the 1970s. It brought a new understanding of the necessity to make language relevant to the learners needs as well as providing opportunities for language use in the classroom through task-based learning (Willis & Willis, 2001). The communicative approach incorporates a multitude of methodologies and strategies. In its weakest form this approach is concerned with developing the learners communication skills in
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the target language to enable them to deal with everyday situations. With a bias towards oral communication, dialogues and role-play in course books; importance is placed on using authentic materials such as bus timetables, bills, official letters and minimal study of grammar (Little & Lazenby-Simpson, 1996). In its strongest form communication is primarily the means of naturalistic language acquisition. This version of the approach assigns central importance to authentic texts not only for their cultural value but because they are themselves communicative events and as such can stimulate and feed the communicative process of language learning(Little & Lazenby-Simpson, 1996: 10). However, Day and Bamford (1998) have questioned the cult of authenticity and recommend the use of simplified texts in language teaching which incorporate the natural qualities of authenticity (Tomlinson, 2001: 68). One of the driving forces behind the communicative approach has been the Council of Europe. Vigorously promoting this approach, the Councils work in teaching and learning languages is designed to facilitate communication, co-operation, mobility and interaction among Europeans as well as combating prejudice and discrimination. It has successfully introduced the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, the European Language Portfolio, level descriptors for specific languages and drafted policy, together with launching important events such as the European Year of Languages. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages guides practice and policy within the Council of Europe. Devised after wide consulChapter Two | Page 14

tation (with over 1,000 institutions and individuals) and research, it is a planning instrument which provides a common basis for: describing objectives, assessment, planning syllabuses, examinations, textbooks and teacher training programmes. Espousing a communicative language learning approach, the Framework is learner-centred, action orientated, content based, reflective, intercultural and orientated towards learner autonomy (RLSU, 2000). As a linguistic tool, it sets out standards to be attained at successive points in language learning. It details common standards for evaluating outcomes that can be compared internationally. In addition, the Framework outlines the competences or abilities necessary for communication, related knowledge/skills and situations and domains of communication. The Framework and recommendations from the Council relate specifically to: language learning in schools and higher education, language learning for migrants and measures for international co-operation. In addition, the Framework has been used extensively, in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to develop materials. In November 2001, the European Union Council Resolution recommended the Framework be used to set up a validation system of language competence. However, the document pertains solely to language pedagogy and fails to deal with second language learners basic skills/literacy needs. The Framework is a linguistic tool and does not address many of the issues affecting asylum seekers language learning, for example: material/financial const-raints, lack of childcare facilities, cultural issues, racism and inequality. Essentially, the

Councils policies and approaches have been designed with a specific learner in mind a European citizen who is well educated and internationally mobile. (In 2000, the European Centre for Modern Languages, attached to the Council of Europe, initiated a research project Multiliteracy - on developing literacy in first and second languages. The study has yet to be published). Several other European policy instruments have been developed with the same vision. For example, in the EU Memorandum on Lifelong Learning (1996) emphasis is placed on literacy for the workplace, vocational training and technology for economic benefits. It does not acknowledge the value of basic skills for all individuals, even those who are unlikely to find employment (Bailey & Coleman, 1998). In response Ireland, Portugal, the United Kingdom and Denmark founded a working group made up of government departments concerned with education and training. In January 2001, the group published a paper, From Lisbon to Stockholm: Basic Skills for Employability and Citizenship. Emerging as an important discussion document, it outlines actions and targets to promote lifelong learning in a knowledge-based society, improve employment prospects, reduce skills shortages and address social exclusion. The paper examined barriers to basic skills education and training for EU citizens and made EU level proposals such as: an international study to identify approaches for assessment of literacy/basic skills in all contexts, and a European approach for developing a common basic skills/adult literacy survey of the adult population. Moreover, it recommended member states initiate bilateral projects to share practice and experience. These actions

have already been taken with regard to language learning through the Council of Europe. However, basic skills, literacy and social exclusion were not addressed in the Framework or on a Europe-wide basis. The European Union will discuss this document in Autumn/Winter 2002. It is crucial that the literacy and basic skills needs of nonEuropeans are considered and specific approaches developed to take account of the refugee experience.

to make a decision is accepted by Holec (1981) as the main basis for fostering learner autonomy. Positioning autonomy in foreign language learning, Holecs (1981) research is essential to the Council of Europes Framework. However, learning to learn can be an arduous and lengthy undertaking for both the adult learner and tutor, particularly when the learner has little or no formal education. Learner autonomy relies on interdependent variables which adults need to be aware of and learn how to exploit. Learners need to accept responsibility for their own learning in order to develop learner autonomy (Little, 2000). In language teaching, autonomy develops through discussion and involvement in planning a class for the majority of adult learners. Learning is a social process that depends on interaction, and success in the development of learner autonomy will depend partly on the extent to which learners recognise their interdependence and discover how to exploit it(Little, 2000: 7). Holec and Little do not explicitly discuss developing critical thinking as an agent of social change within the language learner (refer to 2.2.3). The Councils European Language Portfolio is centred on developing learner autonomy within the individual. Designed to guide learners towards autonomy, the Portfolio is very sophisticated for new learners. It is comprised of three parts: (1) a language passport, which summarises the owners linguistic diversity and previous language learning experience and qualifications; (2) a language biography outlining learning targets and a record of learning and intercultural experiences; and (3) a dossier for the language learner to collate their work.

2.2.2 Learner centred approach


Learner autonomy originates from adult education theory. Malcolm Knowles (1974) in the Modern Practice of Adult Education proposed the adoption of the term andragogy the science of adult education. Andragogy differs from pedagogy in schooling, which prepares children for adulthood. In contrast, continuing education involves individuals who are already functioning in society. Adult education should lead the adult learner towards a process of individual self-actualisation. One of the basic premises of Knowles argument was the facilitation of the learning experience for adults, which necessitates an understanding of adulthood in conjunction with the learning process. Andragogy is grounded on four assumptions that pinpoint the salient features of adulthood: 1. As a person matures his or her self-concept moves from one of a dependent personality toward one of a selfdirecting human being. 2. An adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experiences and a rich resource of learning. For an adult, personal experiences establish self-identity and are highly valued. 3. The readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her social role. 4. There is a change in perspective as individuals mature, from one of future application of knowledge to immediacy of application, thus an adult is more problemcentred than subject-centred in learning (adapted from Darkenwald & Merriman, 1974). Within communicative language teaching, learner autonomy is encouraged through a variety of measures for example, involving learners in planning classes, negotiating/planning programmes of work and using learner needs profiles to organise classes (Jordan, 2001). Primarily based on the use of appropriate authentic materials (bills, official letters, bus timetables etc.), learners need to become aware of their own learning strategies and styles to enable them to accelerate their own language learning. The ability

2.2.3

Social action approach

Influenced by adult education, linguists are beginning to concentrate on issues of power within language planning and in a teaching setting. Although pedagogical choices about curriculum development, language use and classroom practices appear to be informed by apolitical professional consideration, they have significant personal and socioeconomic implications for adult learners (Auerbach, 1995). The choices educators make play a central role in determining learners choices. Auerbach structures her argument on the theories of Paulo Freire. Teacher, philosopher and activist, Freire stands out as one of the most influential educators of the twentieth century, particularly for adult literacy. In the dominant approach to education, [which Freire (1970) calls the banking model] knowledge is
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presented as being scientifically based, impartial and objective. Learners are viewed as empty vessels. Critics of the banking approach argue that knowledge and education practices are neither objective nor unchanging. They always reflect and serve specific interests and are situated in a certain context. For Auerbach, it is the teachers role to investigate and re-present the reality of their learners in a problematised form. The teacher is not expected to solve problems for the learner, rather s/he engages the learner in a process of conscientization (a term first introduced by Freire), through which learners reflect critically on their circumstances and how to change them. The social action approach is dominant in adult literacy practice in Ireland. North American language and literacy providers have developed an alternative approach to language teaching based on Freires work the participatory approach. Explaining how the method works in terms of curriculum development, Auerbach is critical of curricula and language programmes devised by outside experts where the content is on survival, which generally concentrates on the norms of the host society. There is an underlying assumption that learners should assimilate into pre-existing structures without questioning the power relations and inequalities inherent within them. Proposing the language experience approach [which originates directly from adult literacy practices and forms the basis of literacy practice in Ireland, see NALA (1991) and Hensey (1995)] when developing materials, content should draw from and validate what learners already know. Materials should reflect the lived experiences of the adult learner and content should be problematised so that issues may be addressed in terms of housing shortages or tenants rights (Auerbach, 1995). This can be achieved by working with adult learners through cultural sharing and involving them in materials production. Adapting literacy techniques, learner language can be used to re/create reading texts by using learners writings. In the classroom, it is essential that learners be involved in the selection and evaluation of materials. The approach is learner centred because the tutor does not rely on any one text for teaching and authentic materials are included as required by the learner. American and Canadian refugee and migrant community based organisations have used the social action approach for language teaching successfully. Contemporary teaching strategies have become more flexible and innovative with English language tutors drawing from many of the methodologies described above.
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There has been an explosion of humanistic approaches to language teaching based on developments within human psychology between the 1960-1980s. For example: suggestopedia, the silent way, total physical response, community language learning, the natural approach, language from within and delayed oral practice (Crystal, 2000). However, these are mainly classified as alternative teaching methods. Tutors are increasingly availing of technology and computer software such as Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to foster English language proficiency. It is evident that English language teaching is now a growing area encompassing a multitude of diverse perspectives.

2.3 Literacy
Initiated by professional and volunteer staff in the 1970s, the Adult Literacy Service in Ireland was set up largely under the auspices of the VECs. Previously the service had been delivered in learners homes by tutors predominantly women from non-professional backgrounds. In 1985, the DES introduced funding through the Community Education and Adult Literacy Budget with literacy being given priority (renamed in 1990 the Adult Literacy and Community Education Budget). This budget had previously been lobbied for by volunteers/practitioners from the Adult Literacy Service through NALA. State funding allowed the service to evolve in community group based settings as tuition was moved from learners homes to centres. The DES also funded NALA to support the service, undertake research and develop policy in consultation with its members (which the DES subsequently adopted). Throughout this time period NALA engaged in: consolidating/disseminating models of good literacy practice, promoting awareness of Irelands literacy problem to recruit more learners and campaigning for greater funding to enable literacy to evolve from a movement into a professional sector. Gradually, the literacy service has been professionalised with the introduction of paid literacy organisers throughout the country. In the 1990s, significant national events led to increased recognition of literacy in Ireland. For example, in 1990 the Social Partners and Government made a commitment to tackle literacy in the programme for Social and Economic Progress. The DES (1992) singled out literacy with recommendations for further development in a Green Paper entitled Education for a Changing World. During 1992/93, NALA began to explore mechanisms for accrediting the expertise of literacy organisers, together with developing professional training programmes for tutors and tutor

trainers. Subsequently, events marking the importance of literacy (International Literacy Year, 1990, International Literacy Day in 1994), campaigns (by NGOs and other organisations) and greater political awareness resulted in: the creation of a Junior Ministerial post for Adult Education; a substantial increase in the adult literacy budget; increased funding for NALA and literacy being given a central role in the White Paper on Adult education (for further detail on historical development of literacy, refer to NALA, 2002b). Owing to the literacy services voluntary nature, tuition has frequently been organised on an individualised basis in oneto-one situations, with practitioners free to experiment with new techniques and materials (Du Vivier, 1991). Five distinct approaches (the language experience and social action approach are mentioned above) within literacy provision have been identified by Du Vivier (1991) in Ireland which are used in combination: 1. The traditional approach was formulated for adults who have not completed formal education. Based on the schooling model, childrens learning materials and teaching methods were used for teaching with adults. It follows that reading and writing are thought to be acquired in a step-by-step progression and thus, are traditionally taught in a predetermined order from the basics of phonics to complete mastery of language(1991:8). It relies on the assumption that once the learner is exposed to remedial instruction (intensive classroom techniques), a minimum level of skills will be developed enabling the learner to progress with their own education. 2. Developed within military and industrial settings, the training approach aims to teach functional literacy and vocational skills to enhance employability. Literacy techniques were based on practice and application of component skills in simulated exercises. 3. In response to firsthand experience of literacy tutors, the counselling approach to literacy provision takes account of emotional problems that learners have developed because of social, cultural and educational exclusion experienced in early years. Traditionally, the role of literacy practitioners entailed confidence-building, restoration of self-esteem through listening, reassurance, maintaining trust and incorporating student writing. 4. During the 1970s, a shift in thinking emerged concerning adult education and the way adults learn (see Section 2.2.3). The learner centred approach was developed around the everyday needs of the learner in order to promote their full participation in society. Tutors facil-

itate learning by adapting to the needs of learners using expressive writing to study literacy rules. 5. Finally, the social action approach arises from a classbased analysis of society which interprets educational disadvantage as symptomatic of the inequalities perpetuated by the existing social order(1991:12). Consciousness raising and promoting critical thinking are seen as the key to developing basic skills in order to empower the learner to take action for social change (see Section 2.2.3 for a more detailed discussion of the social action approach) (adapted from Du Vivier, 1991: 7-14). The NALA definition of literacy incorporates both the learner centred and social action approach to literacy provision: NALA defines literacy as the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing and numeracy. It also encompasses aspects of personal development social, economic, emotional and is concerned with improving self-esteem and building confidence. It goes far beyond mere technical skills of communication. The underlying aim of good literacy practice is to enable people to understand and reflect critically on their life circumstances with a view to exploring new possibilities and initiating constructive change (NALA, 2001:1). There are currently 136 VEC Adult Literacy Schemes in Ireland which work on the basis of four principles: 1. Adult literacy work encompasses aspects of personal development social, economic, emotional. It covers much more than reading and writing skills. 2. Adult literacy workers must always recognise and respect the adult status of the learners. All of their work must be developed with this in mind and should never rely on procedures and materials developed for children. 3. Adult literacy learners need to become active not passive learners. They should always be enabled to contribute their skills, knowledge and experience, both to the learning process and to the organisation of provision at all levels. Students not only have the right to learn but also the right to choose how to learn. 4. Learning is a life-long process. Adult literacy provision needs to establish links with other existing educational activities and to initiate new developments in continuing education (NALA, 1991: 9).

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NALAs approach to literacy provision is a valuable starting point for thinking about literacy provision for asylum seekers. Emerging from many years of practice, this rights based ethos would give learners access to a range of learning opportunities, enabling them to understand and constructively change their circumstances. Research in Ireland focusing specifically on literacy issues remains in its infancy. Traditionally, most research has been policy orientated or conducted in response to critical issues for literacy practitioners and adult learners. In 1996, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) commissioned an International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). Assessing literacy skills within the general population in relation to work, home and the community, the IALS reported that 25% of the adult population in Ireland failed to reach higher than Level 1 - indicating a very low level of literacy where the respondents could only complete the simplest of tasks (NALA, 2000). A further 30% did not reach higher than Level 2 respondents dealt with material that was simply and clearly laid out; tasks did not involve a high level of complexity (NALA, 2000). Other literacy research has provided a useful general overview of provision, focusing primarily on assessment, access issues and barriers to participation (Du Vivier, 1991; Bailey & Coleman, 1998; Sullivan, 1998; Owens, 2000). Funded by SOCRATES, NALA working with international partners devised a Quality Framework for Adult Basic Education as part of an action research project in 1999. Recent studies have explored curricula issues linked to adult literacy needs at various levels (Coleman, 2001) and an assessment framework for literacy (Merrifield,
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McDonogh & Coleman, 2001). However, no research to date in Ireland has examined, in detail, the role of non-literate second language learners in literacy provision or the role of literacy in second language teaching.

2.4 The role of literacy in second language teaching


Research on the role of literacy in second language teaching remains scant. Canada and the United States have incorporated adult basic education principles and techniques into ESL programmes with varying degrees of success. Transfer is the key to understanding the difference between basic skills education and ESL (Burnaby & Bell, 1994). The majority of adult learners within a language class have sophisticated life and literacy skills; they are able to transfer their own knowledge and abilities from one context to another (for example, from their country of origin to the host country). In order to communicate in the target language, a language learner needs: English language vocabulary, grammatical patterns, sociolinguistic features and cultural information. Knowledge of how language and literacy actually function is not needed. However, there are other ESL learners with very different needs, they may have no literacy skills in any language and encounter difficulties integrating into an urban, industrialised society (Burnaby and Bell, 1994). The two distinct groups of learners, identified by Burnaby and Bell, requiring ESL with specific literacy needs are: (1) Non-Roman alphabetics and (2) Mother tongue non-literates. Non-Roman alphabetics are literate in a writing system that does not have a Roman alphabet, for example: Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Russian and Hebrew.

Problems faced by learners will depend on which writing system is most commonly used. Hebrew speakers using a syllabic writing system will experience a set of distinct problems in comparison to those faced by learners who are familiar with a logographic system such as Chinese speakers. When non-Roman alphabetics understand how the English language uses letters to represent sounds and words, they are usually able to integrate into a regular ESL class. In the mother tongue non-literate category, two further groups are distinguished by Burnaby and Bell (1994): 1. Individuals who have been grown up in a society with a rich tradition of literacy but are not literate. 2. Individuals who have been grown up in a society where literacy has not played a crucial role in local communications and life. This group may be completely unaware of the potential benefits of literacy and education. Individuals who are not literate in their mother tongue lack the conceptual basis for literacy acquisition. It is difficult for them to become literate in a second language without first mastering literacy in their own (Freire, 1990). However, the decision to become mother tongue literate should always be a matter of self-choice, as some groups of learners will not place any value on learning to be literate in their mother tongue. Individuals who are not literate in their mother tongue are often under represented in adult education/language programmes and the least educated are less likely to participate in educational provision (Graham and Cookson, 1994). Coming

from a society without a strong tradition of literacy and formal education, language provision and training may not be seen as a way of improving their own conditions. This perception of education is not uncommon with marginalized Irish people and other communities in Ireland. Bailey and Coleman (1998) discovered that a surprisingly low number of unemployed people were accessing the literacy service. Learners coming to schemes did not cite employment prospects as their primary reason for attending and many of their study participants questioned the relevance of basic education for their employment prospects. An ethnic group, in Ireland, that does not participate in education and training is the Roma community. Guerin (2001) found that attempts to encourage Roma adults to engage in training and education programmes in County Monaghan were unsuccessful. Service providers believed there was an overwhelming reluctance among Roma adults to partake in formal education. Social-psychological factors may create barriers to second language learning for under-educated language minority adults. Graham and Cookson provide a case study of a 33-year-old Costa Rican migrant, Alberto, living in the United States (Schumann, 1977). Language development was monitored for ten months by researchers who studied language acquisition in a natural environment. Alberto was given seven months of instruction and performed well in various tests. However, he made little progress and returned to pre-instructional levels when using spontaneous speech. Albertos failure to progress was attributed to social distance in that societal factors that either promote or inhibit social solidarity between two groups and, thus, affect the way a second language group acquires the language of a particular target language group(Schumann, 1977: 211 quoted in Graham and Cookson, 1994: 54). Other societal factors as outlined by Graham and Cookson, include: social position of the group, attitudes of one group to another, amount/degree of contact between one group and tendency within the group to integrate into the new society. Alberto was in an unfavourable situation as he occupied a subordinate position within the new society, economically and socially. Enclosed within his own Spanish-speaking community, Alberto had no need or desire to acculturate (or adapt) into American life and culture. Taking into account Schumanns study, Sheridan (1998) has made similar observations in a study of young Vietnamese and Vietnamese/Chinese adults living in Dublin. The language classes were largely attended by programme refugees in the Vietnamese English Language Centre in Hardwick Street, Dublin. Like Alberto, Sheridan found the individuals in her study occupied a subordinate economic and social position in Irish society. Many worked in fast food establishments and were unable to secure other employment. Social distance hindered language learning because of poor mother tongue/culture maintenance, lack of childcare facilities and economic hardship. Irish society was completely unaware of Vietnamese and Chinese culture, language and social structures. Indifference and hostility did not motivate the learners to acquire the target language (Sheridan, 1998: 64). Language shock and culture shock make language learning extremely difficult for non-literate learners. Language shock involves feelings of doubt as to whether

ones words accurately expresses ones feelings, and concerns about making mistakes, sounding strange, or appearing child-like(Graham & Cookson, 1994: 55). A person experiencing language shock may be unwilling to communicate in a new language. Culture shock includes the feelings of discomfort and maladjustment that people experience when the cultural norms and role expectations to which they have been so accustomed in their native land no longer hold true in the new culture(Graham & Cookson, 1994: 55). Culture shock can lead to withdrawal from the new society having negative consequences for learning the target language. Originally, learner intake and assessment in American and Canadian ESL programmes did not differentiate between literate and non-literate learners. Literacy was frequently equated with English literacy and English proficiency with oral English (Auerbach, 1993). Second language learners with a strong educational background were often grouped with non-literate learners in beginners classes. Combining both groups into one class can have detrimental consequences: The result of monolingual ESL instruction for students with minimal L1 literacy and schooling is often that, whether or not they drop out, they suffer severe consequences in terms of self-esteem; their sense of powerlessness is reinforced either because they are de facto excluded from the classroom or because their life experiences and language resources are excluded (Auerbach, 1993: 7).

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At present, monolingual language classes are currently being organised by several statutory providers and NGOs. Suggestions made by Graham and Cookson (1994) for non-literate learners include: 1. Learners with literacy difficulties in their first language can be provided for through one-to-one tuition or in a group with others from the same linguistic minority. 2. Learning opportunities in the first language can be offered with the assistance of bilingual tutors or aides, paid or voluntary. 3. When learners acquire basic literacy and survival skills in their own mother tongue, it serves as a powerful incentive to continue within adult education and to become proficient in a second language. 4. Special classes and materials can be developed which specifically address learners with literacy difficulties (adapted from: 56-57). One of the most interesting propositions for language and literacy providers in Ireland is the use of bilingual assistants from black and ethnic minorities. However, this study discovered only one case where a bilingual assistant was working in conjunction with an Irish tutor. Organised by the City of Dublin VEC, the class was for Arabic speaking for women. A member of an ethnic minority, the bilingual assistant was untrained and working voluntarily. There is currently no funding allocation for bilingual assistants. If bilingual assistants are to be introduced into the Irish literacy service, training is crucial as well as payment. Bilingual literacy provision accelerates the language learning of learners with clear advantages for adult learners, as well as the Irish State. Volunteer and paid bilingual assistants from minority linguistic groups are used in Britain within ESOL provision for adults and children (refer to Jones and Wallace, 2000). Using the learners mother tongue in beginners classes reduces affective barriers to acquisition and allows for more rapid progress (Auerbach, 1993). For example, Auerbach demonstrates how a community language and literacy project in North America encouraged the participation of individuals who had never attended mainstream programmes by using trained bilingual assistants. Originating from communities previously excluded from teaching positions because of their lack of formal qualifications, the participants were able to draw on their own experience as language learners from a marginalized community. Burnaby and Bell support the language experience approach in teaching literacy to non-literate learners by focusing on words and language patterns learners recognise or know. The language experience approach advocates the use of reading and writing materials which narrate the learners experience: Such stories from the outset anchor literacy in learners actions and experiences, and in the meaning that those actions and experiences have for them(Darville, 1994: 267). Topics and materials need to be selected which anchor language in familiar action and experience. Activities with non-literate learners include reading over the passage as a group, identifying individual words, finding several words which begin with the same letter, finding words which are spelt with the same pattern (come and some), copying words or patterns from sentence strips based on the original pattern, arranging individual words on cards to form one of the original
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sentences, and making different sentences by substituting other words for ones in the original sentence(Burnaby and Bell, 1994: 192). It is essential that classes incorporate everyday communication skills based on the learners needs and are organised into small group practice activities (depending on learner abilities) where learners can assist each other. Discussion on the use of literacy in different contexts and actual experiences of using literacy items is also essential. So far, no research has been undertaken in Ireland on the literacy needs of asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Little and LazenbySimpson (1996) recognise that refugees will experience major difficulties in Ireland, particularly if they have not acquired any formal education in their country of origin. Few learners will progress to a stage where they will be able to easily read newspapers and magazines. They recommend these learners should be identified early on and placed in specialised tuition to allow them to develop functional literacy in English. This reflects a schooling/remedial approach to literacy provision. Recent events and circumstances have inspired new forms of cooperation between language and literacy providers. Language learners currently attend classes organised by VEC Adult Literacy Schemes and learners with literacy difficulties attend language programmes. While there may be some overlap with regard to approaches (for example, language experience approach, learner autonomy), the literacy sector needs to develop its knowledge base to successfully meet the basic skills needs of language learners. An understanding of second

language acquisition, language pedagogy (communicative language teaching techniques) is required as well as phonics, grammar and how to modify literacy techniques for language learners.

2.5 Research on language needs for refugees in Ireland


There is a dearth of published research on refugees and asylum seekers in Ireland, particularly in regard to language needs. In 1992, the Refugee Agency was set up under the aegis of the Department of Foreign Affairs to deal with the settlement of refugees admitted to Ireland under international agreements with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. In 1995, it commissioned the CLCS (Trinity College Dublin) to prepare a report on the linguistic needs of refugees. Focusing on general principles in the language learning process and providing appropriate language teaching for refugees, Little and Lazenby-Simpson submitted a report to the Refugee Agency entitled Meeting the Language Needs of Refugees (1996). The report describes naturalistic language acquisition, teaching methodologies, motivation and learner autonomy and the best approach to communicative language teaching (referred to in Section 2.2.1). In Meeting the Needs of Refugees, the coauthors evaluated language programmes provided by the City of Dublin VEC and three private language schools for two groups of adult refugees (Vietnamese and Bosnian). The report also examined provision for refugee children and included a case study from a post-primary school. However, as the current report primarily concerns the language needs of adults, the findings and recommen-

dations regarding children will not be referred to. The City of Dublin VEC English language classes were located in Cherry Orchard Reception Centre for newly arrived Bosnian refugees and in the Vietnamese Centre, Hardwicke Street Dublin. The evaluation was undertaken at a time when the VECs and adult education were severely under funded. Funding was only available for teaching hours and basic instruction materials. However, the City of Dublin VEC was able to hire TEFL and literacy trained tutors for the classes. Little and Lazenby-Simpson (1996) were critical of this language provision and it will become apparent in the course of this report that some of their comments have been addressed while other problems continue to persist. In examining initial assessment, Little and Lazenby Simpson (1996) found that information on the client group had not been made available to education staff prior to the commencement of the classes, with no transition phase or interim measures in place for newly arrived refugees. In many cases, the needs of the refugee clients had not been analysed and there was no systematic approach for setting learner targets. Conversely this had an adverse effect on learner assessment and course evaluation. Throughout the report, the use of benchmarks is advocated to facilitate a standardised approach to rectify the situation. In all cases, the tutors were using TEFL textbooks and rarely made use of authentic (items of everyday use) materials. Additionally, tutors had not received any specific training for working with refugees. The premises for some of the classes were inappropriate due to the condition of the English Language School in Hardwicke Street, Dublin. No account had been taken for obstacles preventing refugees attending programmes (for example, domestic responsibilities and religious constraints). It appears that although a number of the refugees had enrolled on vocational training courses, their linguistic needs had clearly not been planned for. The report examined language support for refugees in Australia, Canada, Sweden and the UK. It made recommendations that ranged from co-ordination to outreach programmes. No proposals were made to improve provision within the VEC; it was recommended that private language schools deliver tuition to refugees and the Refugee Agency assume responsibility for language support. It was proposed the Agency seek professional assistance to enable it to fulfil its role as a co-ordinating agency in order to: draw up a profile of the newly arrived refugees, instate a system of social support for refugees, determine learning targets for refugees, monitor and oversee the implementation of the recommendations. It was also recommended that a tendering process be implemented for new language programmes. Subsequently, the researchers of the report and the CLCS in Trinity College Dublin provided the professional assistance to the Agency. Predominantly, private language schools were awarded contracts through the tendering process for adult refugee language classes. Other proposals by Little and Lazenby-Simpson (1996) included: Establishment of a database containing the language learning and labour market training record of each individual refugee. Development of benchmarks to address the language needs of adult refugees in education and vocational training.
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An evaluation procedure for future language programmes. A dedicated premises for the provision of language support for refugees including a whole range of supports for both the tutors and learners. A change in funding from teaching hour allocation, which comes directly from the DES, to an annual budget for the provision of language teaching for adult refugees to be administered by the Refugee Agency. Outreach for specific purposes. Childcare. Refugees to be involved in all planning around their language needs and for course objectives. Teacher training and induction. Development of new language materials. Refugees with literacy difficulties to be identified early on and specialised literacy provision offered. Learning contracts and mandatory attendance for new learners in order to qualify for financial support (welfare payments). Language tuition for vocational training. Although the report remains unpublished, some principles for language learning were reproduced in a later paper by Little (2000) entitled Meeting the Language Needs of Refugees. These recommendations led to the establishment of the Refugee Language and Training Project (RLTP) in 1997. Overseen by a range of agencies, they included: the Refugee Agency, FS, the CLCS (Trinity College) and a number of NGOs. The main objective of the project was to develop English language provision linked to vocational training for refugees. The CLCS provided language training and linguistic expertise for the project. Replacing the RLTP in 1997, Interact Ireland was established to develop services for language training for refugees to access vocational training and work. Promoted by the DES, Interact Ireland was incorporated into the Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) in 1999 [In 2001, the RLSU changed its name to Integrate Ireland Language and Training Project (IILT), see Section 1.5 and 4.6 for details]. Set up under the aegis of Trinity College Dublin, the RLSU ran language programmes separate to mainstream education structures. For example, language provision was contracted out to private language schools. However, vocational language programmes were offered in conjunction with FS. In addition, the RLSU produced benchmarks for pre-vocational language learning for adults. Finally, the setting up of the RLSU provided the CLCS with a means of testing and piloting teaching methodologies, particularly on learner autonomy.
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Although the City of Dublin VEC was not involved in the establishment of the RLSU, as the biggest state education provider, it continued to offer language classes in the Vietnamese English Language Centre. Relocated to Parnell Adult Learning Centre, these classes now include asylum seekers. In addition, a small number of minority linguistic groups with literacy difficulties have been attending VEC literacy classes. With the advent of the White Paper on Adult Education, ESOL provision for asylum seekers has now become mainstreamed into the VECs (part of the state service). Focusing on education, employment and social inclusion, the Zena Project (an organisation originally part of the Bosnian Community Development Project which worked with refugee women) conducted a study on the needs of Bosnian refugee women in 1999 (Sultan-Prnjavorac, 1999). Funded by the Womens Education Initiative, the report highlighted a large proportion of the population had young child dependants (64%) and older adult dependents (22%). Examining barriers to language provision and vocational training, Sultan-Prnjavorac (1999) discovered Bosnian women were less likely then men to participate in education. Although most study participants had attended at least six months of English language tuition, approximately 59% of study participants were dissatisfied with their English speaking and listening skills. The report recommended childcare and care for older people should be offered in order to ensure refugee women access English language provision. Locating classes within local settings to overcome transport difficulties, it was also recommended that class times should be flexible to meet the needs of refugee women. Little and Lazenby-Simpsons study (1996), together with Sultan-Prnjavoracs (1999), provides a good basis for this research. Offering a valuable overview of second language acquisition research, Little and Lazenby-Simpsons work outlines principles for language learning that are easily transferable for learners within an adult learning setting. However, the theory and research relied on by the authors derives from research on foreign language learning (ESL/ESOL is not discussed). Moreover, the context for this study is very different. The client group, as researched by Little and Lazenby-Simpson, had legal residency and were in a more secure position than asylum seekers (see Section 3.3). Since 1996, the numbers seeking asylum have risen substantially reflecting growing diversity within the population. Legal and policy measures for asylum seekers and refugees

have significantly altered (see Section 3.4 and 3.5). The White Paper on Adult Education (2000) transformed the adult learning landscape. It effectively proposed that VECs and other educational providers should be considered for future language provision for both migrants and asylum seekers. Conducted on behalf of the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC, this research project seeks to implement changes in mainstream provision for asylum seekers within community based learning settings in the VEC sector and non-governmental organisations. As such it marks a change of direction; it is the first time two state bodies have initiated research to address asylum seekers language and literacy needs. Finally, this report is written from an adult education and social science perspective.

2.6 Summary of key points


Practices within English Language Teaching (ELT) have developed into a number of distinct groups of methodologies and approaches. Reflecting diverse contexts and needs of language learners, they fall under the umbrella term English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). English as a Foreign Language (EFL) refers to circumstances where English is not the primary means of communication and instruction. With significant attention paid to grammar, EFL is traditionally teacher centred and taught in the learners mother tongue. English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to English language teaching in countries in which it is the principal means of communication. Traditionally developed for migrants in the United States of America, Canada and Australia, early ESL classes concentrated on Survival English. ESOL learners are primarily concerned with developing speaking and listening skills in functional language for everyday use. Programmes are learner centred and needs based with attainable short-term goals. Preparing learners for independence, ESOL takes account of educational/employment aspirations. Recognising a learners other languages/cultures, ESOL also incorporates communicative language teaching techniques for mixed levels. In the search for the best method of teaching languages, various methodologies and approaches have been developed. They are grouped into five broad headings: grammar translation, audio-lingual, communicative, learner centred approach and social action approach. The communicative approach incorporated a multitude of methodologies and gained prominence in the 1970s. It introduced a new understanding of the necessity to make language relevant to learners needs as well as providing for language use through task-based learning. The Council of Europe has been one of the driving forces behind the communicative approach. The Council has produced the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. However, the Framework pertains solely to language pedagogy and does not consider many of the issues affecting the language
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learning of asylum seekers. Finally, the Framework does not currently address literacy for language learners. Learner autonomy originates from adult education theory. Within communicative language teaching, learner autonomy is encouraged through a variety of measures, for example: involving learners in planning classes, negotiating/planning programmes for work and using learners needs profiles to organise classes. However, learning to learn can be an arduous and lengthy undertaking for both the adult learner and tutor, particularly when the learner has little or no formal education. Incorporating the philosophies of Paulo Freire, the social action approach considers issues of power within a language planning and teaching setting. Tutors are encouraged to investigate and represent the reality of their learners in a problematised form. The participatory approach is advocated for language teaching with materials reflecting the lived experiences of the adult learner. Initiated by professional and nonprofessional volunteers in Ireland, the Adult Literacy Service was set up under the auspices of the VECs. Gradually, the service has been professionalised through the introduction of paid literacy organisers throughout the country. There are five distinct approaches within literacy provision: (1) the traditional approach, (2) the training approach, (3) the counselling approach, (4) the learner centred approach and (5) the
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social action approach. Research on the role of literacy in second language teaching remains in its infancy. No research, to date in Ireland, has examined the role of non-literate second language learners in literacy provision. Two groups of learners have specific literacy needs: (1) Non-Roman alphabetics and (2) Mother tongue non-literates. Non-Roman alphabetics are literate in a writing system that does not have a Roman alphabet. Mother tongue nonliterates frequently have little or no literacy skills in their mother tongue. Individuals with no literacy skills in their mother tongue are often under represented in adult education and language programmes. Originating from a society without a strong tradition of literacy/formal education, language provision and training may not be seen as a way of improving their social and economic conditions. Social-psychological factors may create barriers to second language learning for under-educated language minority adults. Language/culture shock will also make language learning extremely difficult. Combining literate and non-literate learners in one class can have detrimental consequences for adults with minimal first language literacy. Minority linguistic groups with literacy difficulties can be catered for through: group tuition, one-toone, bilingual literacy programmes with bilingual assistants and special

classes with materials. Bilingual literacy provision accelerates the language learning of learners and reduces affective barriers to acquisition. The language experience approach is advocated in teaching literacy to non-literate learners. It begins by focusing on words and language patterns learners recognise or know. Practitioners need to exchange ideas, practice, techniques and experiences with a view to combining forces to formulate successful strategies for literacy development Commissioned by the Refugee Agency, Little and Lazenby-Simpson (1996) produced a report on the language needs of refugees. The coauthors evaluated programmes provided by the City of Dublin VEC and three private language schools. The evaluation was conducted at a time when the VECs and adult education were severely under funded. The only funding available was for teaching hours and basic instruction materials. The authors discovered the needs of refugee clients had not been analysed and there was no systematic approach for setting learning targets. Tutors were using TEFL textbooks and had not received any specific training for working with refugees. Little and Lazenby-Simpsons (1996) report made recommendations that ranged from co-ordination to outreach programmes. No proposals were made to improve provision within the VEC; it was recommended that the Refugee Agency

assume responsibility for language support and private language schools given responsibility for delivering language programmes to refugees. The CLCS (Trinity College Dublin) provided professional assistance to the Refugee Agency. Predominantly, private language schools were awarded contracts for teaching refugees through a tendering process. The recommendations finally led to the establishment of the Refugee Language and Training Project (RLTP) in 1997. The main objective of the project was to develop English language provision linked to vocational training for refugees. Replacing the RLTP in 1997, Interact Ireland was established to develop services for language training for second language learners to access vocational training and work. Interact Ireland was incorporated into the Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) in 1999. Focusing on education, employment and social inclusion, the Zena Project (a refugee womens organisation originally part of the Bosnian Community Development Project) conducted a study on the needs of Bosnian refugee women in 1999. The report highlighted a large proportion of the population had young child dependents (64%) and older adult dependents (22%). SultanPrnjavorac (1999) discovered women experienced barriers participating in education and training as a result. Recommendations included: offering childcare and care for older people to ensure women accessed provision. The context for the current research project is very different. The numbers of asylum seekers in Ireland have risen substantially and the White Paper has transformed the adult learning landscape. The VECs, together with other education providers, have been given responsibility for asylum seekers and this report seeks to improve/implement changes within mainstream provision.

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CHAPTER THREE Asylum Seekers in Ireland

3.1 Introduction
harting legal and policy developments over the last ten years, this chapter attempts to describe and explain the Irish Governments response to asylum seekers. From circumstances where asylum seekers have been dealt with on an ad hoc basis, the legal procedure for asylum seekers has become highly complex. This chapter briefly outlines: the Irish migratory context, the asylum-seeking phenomenon, together with settlement and support for asylum seekers. Profiling asylum seekers for future language planning purposes, this chapter also comprises results and analysis from the survey of the asylum seeking population.

recently, it was one of the largest Asian communities with 824 members (Refugee Agency, 2001). In 1985, 26 Iranian Bahais were permitted to settle in Ireland. In 1992, 770 Bosnians arrived in Dublin. Many were medical evacuees and were housed in hostels and Cherry Orchard (a former nurses home). The treatment the Bosnians received was considerably better than any of the previous groups. Responsibility for programme refugees moved from the Department of Defence to the Department of Foreign Affairs. The latter set up the Refugee Agency in 1991 which was mandated to settle and support programme refugees. The Bosnian population has now expanded through natural increase and family reunification to approximately 1,200 (Refugee Agency, 2001). A very different Ireland has emerged in the 1990s and with it the end of large-scale emigration. In the period 1995-2000, approximately a quarter of a million people migrated to Ireland, of whom about half were returning Irish and the rest either Europeans or Americans (MacEnr, 2001). The Celtic boom together with other factors has brought about this dramatic change. Ireland, while still deeply class divided, enjoys one of the highest GDP growth rates and lowest unemployment ratios in Europe. The creation of more jobs and a higher international profile has meant that this growth has not gone unnoticed. What are the other factors that have brought about this change? To put it quite simply, people are on the move. Castles and Miller (1998) identify four trends in international migration movements, which they argue will play a major role over the next 20 years. The first is the globalisation of migration more countries than ever before have experienced the immigration of peoples with different economic, social and cultural backgrounds. Secondly, the volume and size of migratory movements has increased considerably. Thirdly, countries are experiencing more types of migration, for example: labour migration, asylum seekers and refugees. Finally, women play an increasing role in all regions of the world and in all types of migration. Ireland has not been left unaffected. The number of persons forced to leave their homes in order to escape from persecution/ill treatment, armed conflict and violence has taken on new dimensions in the final years of the twentieth century (UNHCR, 1997). Much of the developing world/Majority World suffers from the legacies of colonialism, political instability, oppression, ethnic conflict, economic deprivation and environmental degradation.

The survey reveals an extremely high level of linguistic diversity within the group. The results refer to: age, gender, nationality, accommodation, location in the city, marital status, legal status, familial status and mother tongue. Literacy levels within the asylum seeking population and educational attainment are discussed. Finally, the number of asylum seekers with English language skills and previous language learning experiences are examined.

3.2 The Irish migratory context


Historically, Ireland has not experienced any significant migration inflows. In reality, Ireland is a country that has been scarred by economic deprivation and has a long history of emigration extending to Famine times. Traditionally it has been a poor peripheral European State with no ties to countries in the developing/Majority World. Although a small number of Jewish refugees fled to Ireland in the nineteenth and early twentieth century, their entry and presence was severely restricted (Keogh, 1998; Goldstone, 2000). Subsequently, the only immigration experienced by modern Ireland consisted of small controlled refugee groups and the settlement of now established ethnic minorities, for example: the Italian and Chinese communities. Brought to Ireland under unilateral agreements with the UN, the first two refugees groups to arrive in Ireland were Hungarian and Chilean. In 1956, 530 Hungarians were accommodated in a disused army camp outside Limerick. Life in the camp was difficult and many of the residents went on hunger strike in protest. The vast majority left for Canada once the opportunity arose (Ward, 1996). The Chilean exodus of 1973 saw the admission of 120 refugees, many of whom returned home. Approximately 212 Vietnamese boat people came to Ireland in 1979 and until
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3.3 The asylum seeking phenomenon


Asylum seekers, the subject of this study, constitute 10% of all foreign migrants to Ireland since 1995 (Macinr, 2001). An asylum seeker is defined as a person who arrives independently in the State and asks to be recognised as a refugee under the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol. According to Article 1(2) the Convention and the Protocol, a refugee is a person who: owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country or owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it. The Refugee Convention was formally adopted on 28 July 1951 and forms the foundation of the international legal system designed to offer protection to people who have been forced to flee their countries because of persecution or conflict. The Convention also established a framework of basic refugee rights such as the right to identity documents, access to courts, the right to work and to education. It was initially devised to afford protection to refugees uprooted after the Second World War in Europe and was limited historically to events before 1951. The 1967 Protocol removed these limitations to extend protection to refugees outside Europe and uprooted due to events after 1951. It has now become the first global treaty providing protection to refugees and there are currently 141 states that are party to it and/or the 1967 Protocol. Ireland signed and ratified the Geneva Convention in 1956 and the Protocol in 1968. However, neither instrument was enacted into Irish domestic law completely until November 2000. The numbers seeking protection in Ireland in the early 1990s have been negligible.
Figure 1 - Number of Asylum Seekers 1992-2002
Source - Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform 10,936 10,325 10000 8,412 8000 6000 4000 2000 39 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002(09) 91 362 1,179 424 3,883 4,826 7,724

a month with the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. This new development has given rise to much debate in Irish society and has challenged service providers and policy planners. While this increase in applications is in stark contrast to the early 1990s, when considered in a European context it is clear that it is part of an overall trend throughout Western Europe [See European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE), 1999].

3.4 The procedure for seeking asylum under the Refugee Act 1996 (as amended)
On the 20th of November 2000, the Refugee Act 1996 (as amended) came into force. Previously, it had been amended by Section 11(1) of the Immigration Act 1999 and Section 9 of the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act 2000. It expanded the definition of a refugee and explicitly states that individuals should be granted protection if they have experienced persecution on account of gender, sexual orientation or membership of a trade union. For the first time, it established a statutory legal procedure for the processing and determination of asylum applications. Furthermore, it provided for the establishment of an independent: Refugee Advisory Board. Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner (hereinafter referred to as the Commissioner). Refugee Appeals Tribunal (hereinafter referred to as the Tribunal). The Refugee Advisory Board will be comprised of statutory and nonstatutory agencies when it is eventually established to: monitor the procedure and make proposals/recomPage 27 | Chapter Three

12000

From the above figure, in 1992 Ireland received 39 applications for asylum. This figure steadily rose from 424 in 1995 and to 1,179 in 1996. There has been significant growth in the number of asylum applications since then. In 2000, Ireland received 10,936 asylum seekers with an average of 1,000 applications being lodged

CHAPTER THREE

mendations regarding best practice and treatment of asylum seekers. The Commissioner is responsible for overseeing the asylum procedure and making recommendations on asylum applications to the Minister for Justice. An asylum seeker can appeal negative decisions to the Tribunal at any stage of the procedure (refer to Amnesty International, 2000; Department of Justice, 2000 and Irish Refugee Council, 2000 for a detailed outline of the asylum procedure).

Centre (FLAC) and the Irish Refugee Council (IRC). They can seek full representation from a private practitioner if the practitioner agrees to do it on a pro bono (for free) basis or if the applicant has the financial resources.

3.5 Rights and obligations


While an application for asylum is being determined, asylum seekers have: No right to leave the State without the consent of the Minister No right to local authority housing No right to fulltime education (unless under the age of 18) No right to work unless s/he arrived in the State before the 26th of July 1999 and has been here for more than one year. Asylum seekers with the right to work are issued with a letter stating this providing they have complied with all aspects of the asylum procedure

3.7 Settlement and support


The Reception and Integration Agency (RIA) is responsible for planning and co-ordinating the provision of services, securing accommodation for asylum seekers and refugees and developing an integration policy for non-nationals within the State. An executive agency of the Department of Justice, the RIA superseded the Directorate for Asylum Support Services (DASS) and the Refugee Agency. This has yet to be put on a legislative basis. Asylum seekers are settled and supported through different mechanisms: Before April 2000, all asylum seekers were in receipt of full Supplementary Welfare Allowance (SWA) payments and Rent Allowance (if they secured private rented accommodation). Since April 2000, asylum seekers are now provided for through a system of direct provision and are regionally resettled to a location outside Dublin in full-board accommodation following a short stay in a Reception Centre in Dublin. Under direct provision they receive 19.05 a week per adult and 9.52 per child. Asylum seekers can also receive Exceptional Needs Payments (ENP) for essential items and Child Benefit if they have any children. Asylum seekers can remain in the Dublin if they have family members living there (and still receive the same

Asylum seekers have the right to: Medical screening and free health care (medical card if eligible) Emergency accommodation (will be discussed below) Direct Provision (to be discussed below) or Supplementary Welfare Allowance (SWA) and rent supplementation Literacy, language provision and mother culture support An asylum seeker must submit all original personal documentation (birth certificates, passports, identity cards) to the Asylum Division. Section 9(3) of the Act provides that applicants are issued with a Temporary Residence Certificate (TRC), which includes the applicants name, photograph and the date when the application was lodged.

3.6 Legal assistance and advice


The Refugee Act 1996 (as amended) does not include any sections providing for free legal advice to asylum seekers. However, the Legal Aid Board following requests from the Minister established the Refugee Legal Service (RLS) in February 1999. The RLS provides advice to asylum seekers at all stages of the process, including representation before the Refugee Appeals Tribunal and is independent. In some circumstances, a solicitor from the RLS may attend the asylum interview with the client. In November 1999, the Department of Finance sanctioned funding for the use of private practitioners to offer a limited service to asylum applicants before the then Appeals Authority. Asylum seekers can also seek legal advice and assistance from non-governmental organisations (NGOs), for example: Amnesty International, the Free Legal Advice
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financial resources as applicants on direct provision) or have a serious illness requiring treatment in Dublin. By the end of February 2002, the RIA reported that there were 4,278 people living in accommodation centres outside Dublin.

3.8 General baseline statistics on asylum seekers in Dublin


Statistics obtained from the Eastern Regional Health Authority illustrate a total of 4,856 asylum applicants (excluding adult dependents) receiving welfare payments in Dublin in April 2001. Reflecting enormous diversity, this population includes a total of 78 nationalities. Table 1 indicates the majority were either Romanian (27%) or Nigerian (27%).
Table 1: Nationality of total number of asylum seekers in the Dublin area - April 2001
Source: Eastern Regional Health Authority

asylum seekers were living in Dublin 8 (749 claimants), Dublin 1 (704 claimants), Dublin 7 (675 claimants) and Dublin 6 (372 claimants). These areas are all located within the City of Dublin VECs boundaries and experience social and economic difficulties. Smaller numbers reside throughout the greater Dublin area within the County Dublin VECs boundaries, principally in Dublin 24 (357 claimants), County Dublin (357 claimants) and Dublin 15 (165 claimants). The following sections relate specifically to the survey results for this study.

3.10 Gender
The majority of the respondents were male (64%) and the rest female (36%). When cross-tabulated with nationality (see Table 2), it was clear, with the exception of Nigerians, most of the respondents within each nationality were male.
Female 38%

Male 64%

3.9 Nationality
Reflective of baseline statistics outlined above, respondents from the survey came from 47 different countries. Most originated from Romania (29%) and Nigeria (25%). Former Eastern Bloc countries accounted for a substantial number of the respondents for example, Moldova (6%), Russian (4%) and Polish (3%). Approximately 5% were from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and 3% were from Algeria. A further 3% originated from Angola and 3% from Kosovo.
DRC-Congo 5% Nigeria 25% Poland 3% Romania 29%

Figure 3 - Gender of Respondents Table 2: Nationality and Gender of Respondents


*incudes one unknown

Nationality No. of claims Romania 1307 Nigeria 1301 Algeria 245 DRC Congo 145 Russia 128 Kosovo 113 Moldova 95 Poland 89 Somalia 87 Sierra Leone 76 68 other nationalities 1270 Total 4856

Percentage 27% 27% 5% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 26% 100%

Nationality Male Romania 126 Nigeria 73 Moldova 22 DRC Congo 22 Russia 13 Algeria 21 Poland 10 Angola 12 Kosovo 12 Sierra Leone 11 37 other nationalities 79 Unknown 92 Total 490

Female Total 61 188* 77 150 14 36 7 29 15 28 1 22 8 18 5 18* 3 16* 3 14 41 120 33 127 270 766

3.11 Age
Moldovo 6% Russia 4% Angola 3% Kosovo 3% 38 other nationalities 22%

There were considerably more male than female claimants within the population: 74% of the claimants were male (3,547) and 26% were female (1,308). Mainly concentrated in the inner city, Map 1 illustrates that the majority of

Figure 2 - Nationality of Respondents

Learners who study languages early in life are more likely to progress to fluency. Children and younger people are able to acquire language more easily through their ability to imitate and reproduce new language. Research on migrant communities in United States and former West Germany demonstrate children and young
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people become more proficient in target languages (Littlewood, 1996). Although children have better learning conditions (more time, attention, opportunities for use), the realities in everyday lives for adults hinder language learning (Littlewood, 1996). However, studies also suggest that with better learning conditions, efficiency in language learning increases with age and children/young people are only more successful in acquiring pronunciation (Littlewood, 1996). Predominantly a young population, 6% of respondents were between the ages of 18-20 and half of all the respondents were between the ages of 22-30 years. A further 33% were in the 31-40 age group and the remainder were in the 41-50 age bracket (9%). Moreover, only 2% were between the ages of 51-60.
41-50 yrs 51-80 yrs 9% 2% 31-40 yrs 33% 18-21 yrs 6%

3.12 Postal area


The majority of respondents were living in Dublin 7 (247), while 223 questionnaires came from respondents in Dublin 1, 117 from Dublin 24 and 106 from Dublin 6. However, almost 9% of respondents were living outside the designated research areas. The database of the sample population provided by the Health Board was compiled from February 2001 and the questionnaires were sent out in April 2001. Questionnaires were only posted to asylum seekers in the designated areas and only Community Welfare Officers operating in the research areas were given questionnaires. This indicates a high level of mobility among the population with a significant number of asylum seekers moving to suburban locations outside the city centre between February and April 2001. However, it is possible the Health Board no longer has correct addresses for a number of the asylum applicants. For example, an asylum seeker may have failed to inform the Health Board of a change of address.
Table 4: Postal Area of Respondents
Postal area Dublin 7 Dublin 1 Dublin 24 Dublin 6 (Rathmines) County Dublin Dublin 8 Dublin 9 Dublin 15 Dublin 16 Dublin 14 Dublin 14 County Meath Dublin 3 Dublin 11 County Kildare Number of respondents 247 223 117 106 14 13 13 11 6 3 3 2 1 1 1 Percent 32.2% 29.1% 15.3% 13.8% 1.8% 1.7% 1.7% 1.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%

22-31 yrs 50%

Figure 4 - Age of Respondents

Table 3: Age and Gender of Respondents


Age Groups 13-17 18-21 22-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 71-80 Male 19 24 213 174 49 5 1 Female 9 20 140 70 22 7 1

3.13 Accommodation
A total of 2,083 of those surveyed were living in private rented accommodation and 486 were residing in emergency accommodation. There was no concentration of any nationality in a particular region of Dublin. When considering the top five nationalities, Table 5 reveals the majority of Romanians were living in private rented accommodation, while the majority of Nigerians were living in emergency
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accommodation. Of the 93 Nigerians in emergency accommodation, 51 were women with children under the age of two. An alarming finding, this is perhaps due to the Health Boards previous policy of not relocating asylum seekers outside Dublin if they are 36 weeks pregnant or over. This might explain the over concentration of Nigerian women with young babies in Dublin emergency accommodation and will have implications for childcare if these individuals wish to enter language/literacy provision.
Table 5: Nationality and Accommodation of Respondents
Nationality Romania Nigerian Moldova DRC-Congo Russia Algeria B&B 5 14 4 1 Hostel 5 78 1 2 4 1 Hotel 3 1 3 3 3 1 Private rented accomm. 174 54 32 22 17 17 Total 188 150 36 29 28 22

3.15 Legal status


Over half of the respondents were asylum seekers (51%) or parents of Irish children (27%). Approximately 5% were asylum seekers with work rights and 7% had lodged an application for leave to remain. A further 7% had full Convention refugee status or leave to remain (3%). While only asylum seekers were targeted, it is possible they were granted refugee status or residency between February and April 2001.
Asylum Seeker with work rights 5%

Parent of an Irish child 27%

Asylum seeker 51%

Lodged an application for leave to remain 7% Convention refugee 7% Leave to remain 3%

Figure 5 - Legal status of respondents

3.14 Marital status


Through self-reporting in the questionnaire, the majority of respondents were married (49%) or single (37%), while the remainder were either living with a partner (7%) or divorced/separated (4%). Table 6 illustrates the majority of Romanians and Nigerians were married. However, when considering the overall population of respondents, male respondents were more likely to be single (224). In contrast the majority of female respondents were married (163). From the data collated it is unclear if their partners were living in Ireland.
Table 6: Nationality and Marital Status of Respondents
Nationality Single Living Married Separated/Divorced Widow Total Romania 57 17 99 8 3 188 Nigerian 48 7 84 11 150 DRC Congo 14 2 12 1 29 Moldova 6 5 23 2 36 Russia 6 5 15 1 1 28

3.16 Familial status


Of the 767 respondents who participated in the study, there was almost the same number of child dependents who were part of the parents household 567 children in total. Younger children were more likely to be living in Ireland and almost 21% of respondents had one child, under the age of one. A further 12% had two children. In addition, while the majority of respondents were Romanian, the parents of most children were Nigerian (see Table 7). The age profiles of the asylum seeking population may explain why there are so many children for this group. For example, 79% of survey participants were between the ages of 22-40, a time when people traditionally start a family. With particular implications for childcare provision, education providers need to offer childcare to ensure parents can attend tuition.
Table 7: Nationality of parent and ages of children
Nationality Nigerian Romanian Moldovan DRC-Congo Polish Angola Russian Other Total 0-1 yr 50 35 11 6 3 3 9 46 163 1-2 yrs 26 3 2 2 3 2 15 53 2-5 yrs 26 14 5 7 2 9 1 42 106 5-12 yrs 12-18 yrs 18-21yrs 28 19 4 20 17 4 2 5 1 4 5 2 8 2 9 8 28 23 4 101 78 15
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3.17 Mother tongue


Language is a tie, and our mother tongues both form and are symbols of our identity. it is the language one learns first and identifies with (Skutnabb-Kangas, 2000: 104). A total of 63 mother tongues were catalogued for the 767 respondents, indicating immense linguistic diversity in the asylum seeking population which poses great difficulty for service providers. Refer to Appendix I for the complete table of mother tongues.

The former official language of the Soviet Republics, Russian, was an important minority linguistic group at 8%. Most Russian speakers were from Russia, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Chechnya and Tajikistan. Because Russian has a Cyrillic alphabet, Russian speakers frequently need to learn first how to become literate in the Roman alphabet. When learning English Russian speakers should be placed in separate beginners classes to other learners who are familiar with the Roman alphabetic writing system. Usually, Russian speakers can be placed in regular language classes once they understand how English uses letters to represent sounds and words. Arabic speakers also need to learn to write in a new alphabet. Arabic proved to be a significant language group for 7% of respondents. The majority of Arabic speakers came from Algeria, Iraq, Palestine and Libya. Although most Arabic speakers were Algerian, these respondents completed the French version of the questionnaire. There are two possible reasons for this: (1) as a former French colony, French was the legitimate language of modernisation and taught in Algerian schools. (2) The Arabic version of the questionnaire distributed was in classical Koranic Arabic which originates from the Arabian peninsula (see Philipson & Skuttnabb-Kangas, 1995). Demotic speakers of Arabic, most commonly spoken in Algeria, would have been unable to complete the Arabic version of the questionnaire. Over 5% of respondents were French speakers from former Belgian or French colonies: DRC-Congo, Ivory Coast, Angola and Cameroon. Only 4% of respondents spoke English as a mother tongue and they were largely from Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa and Ghana.

3.18 Educational background 3.18.1 Literacy


Over 7% of respondents had no literacy skills in their mother tongue or another language. However, given that the researcher did not personally administer the questionnaire with participants, the figure in reality may be a great deal higher. Further research, within the population using task-based tests administered in their mother tongue would be a more suitable research methodological tool. A study using task-based tests has been carried out in the UK among Asian and Chinese linguistic minorities (CarrHill et al., 1996). Although it was expected that literacy levels in the present study would be lower among female asylum seekers (for example, traditionally African or Middle Eastern countries afford women less educational opportunities), this was discovered not to be the case. It is possible that most women who fit this profile did not attempt to complete the questionnaire at all, even with assistance from another person. Respondents with no literacy skills were predominantly from Nigeria (22%), Kosovo (12%) and Somalia (6%).

Figure 6 - Mother tongue of respondents

Romanian was the largest minority linguistic group with close to 28% of participants spoke it as a first language. Bantu languages from Africas main linguistic family, Niger Congo, accounted for 13% of respondents. Approximately, 11% were Yoruba speakers, while 2% spoke Ibo/Igbo. One of the principal languages of Nigeria, there are 20 million people who speak Yoruba as a first language. Yoruba is most widely spoken in the South of Nigeria, in the capital, Lagos. Apart from descendants of African slaves in South America, the biggest Yoruba speaking population is in London, which demonstrates a migratory network extending from the south of Nigeria to London and now Ireland.

Figure 7 - Literacy skills in mother tongue/first languages of respondents

3.18.2 Previous educational experience


Previous educational experience can have a powerful effect on language learning. Most survey participants had attended primary education. Almost

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20% spent more than five years in primary school, while over 32% had completed eight years. Most respondents with eight years of education came from Romania. Approximately 14% of respondents had only completed five years or under in primary school and a further 2% had not attended primary school at all. These findings contrast to other studies carried out with asylum seekers because it indicates a greater range of educational experience among the population. For example, Begley et al. (1999) and Faughan & Woods (2000) discovered an extremely high proportion of the asylum seeking population had extensive education. However, the authors believed the research methodology resulted in a greater number of educated asylum seekers participating. Over 74% of survey participants had attended secondary school/technical college. Indicating a disrupted education, only 8% had studied for two years and 28% for four years. Approximately 24% had completed five years or more.
Figure 8 - Number of respondents to have attended secondary school/technical college
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Attended secondary school/technical college No secondary school education 31 562

3.19 Experience of language learning 3.19.1 English language


Emphasising the importance of English language skills, the Interdepartmental Working Group on Integration of Refugees in Ireland (1999), observes that refugees have to live in a society with an unfamiliar language in widespread usage. For refugees who cannot communicate in English, all other tasks become more difficult or impossible,(1999: 28). Difficulties include accessing essential services such as housing, social welfare, health services and education. While the Working Groups report only pertains to refugees, asylum seekers also experience similar problems because of language barriers. For example, in a study of maternity needs of asylum seeking/refugee women, language and communications difficulties in hospitals were highlighted (Kennedy & Murphy-Lawless, 2001). Health practitioners mentioned patients were frequently confused about their medical condition and treatment. In an initial needs analysis of the Roma in Ireland (Murphy, 2002), parents reported experiencing difficulties in communicating with their childrens tutors and school principals. Fanning et al., (2001) discovered, in a study of poverty and social exclusion among asylum seeking children, parents with little English were unable to help their children with homework. While only 4% of survey participants spoke English as a mother tongue, over 50% had English as an additional language. When considering other studies on asylum seekers, these figures are slightly lower. For example, over 40% of participants in a study by Faughan and Woods (2000) described themselves as having excellent English (most were Nigerians), a further 15% had a reasonable level of English and more than a quarter (28%) described themselves as having little or no English. However, the researchers recognise there was a bias in the study towards those who had some degree of spoken English. Almost one quarter of respondents with English as an additional language were Nigerian (23%). The remainder came from Belorussia, Eritrea, Cameroon, Czech Republic, DRC Congo, India, Mali, Togo, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Romania and Ukraine. Former Eastern bloc countries were more likely to have Russian as a second language (Bulgarians, Moldovans, Polish and Latvia). Romanians and respondents from former Belgian or French colonies were more likely to have French, for example: DRC Congo, Ivory Coast and Rwanda. While a minority of Angolans spoke French, the overwhelming majority spoke Portuguese as well.
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A total of 34% of respondents in the study had attended third level education. Of this number, 26% had completed two years or less while the remainder had studied for four years or more. This finding indicates a strong educational background among a high percentage of the asylum seeking population contrasting greatly to Irish participants in VEC Adult Literacy Schemes.

Figure 9 - Percentage of respondents third level education

CHAPTER THREE

Portuguese is the official language of Angola as it is a former Portuguese colony. Finally, the majority of respondents from Africa spoke other indigenous African languages.

Figure 10 illustrates the education centres learners were accessing for English language provision.
Figure 10 - Venue respondents were studying English

3.19.2 Previous experience


If learners have already acquired a second language to an advanced level, which has been a positive experience, they will have few concerns about learning English (Little, 2000). Although 74% of respondents had studied another language, only 24% declared in what respect. Of that figure, over half (55%) had learned languages in a formal education setting. Other respondents had studied languages through self-study at home (6%) or by living/working in another country (4%).

150 125 100 75 50 25 0 DALC FS Asylum Seeker Unit IILT VEC School Vincentian Centre Other 15 40 14 19 9 118

3.19.3 Language learning in Dublin


Approximately 37% of respondents were engaged in learning English in Dublin. Over 67% of learners studying English were male and the rest female. Previous studies on linguistic minorities in the UK (Carr-Hill et al., 1996; Carron & Carr-Hill, 1993), demonstrate the likelihood of attending English classes increases with the number of years in formal schooling. In this study almost 78% of survey participants had attended primary school and 74% secondary school. Only 3% studying English had not completed primary school education. Learners with little experience in education are under represented in these programmes. From the survey data, Eastern Europeans and Russian-speaking minorities are more likely to be attending English lessons (see Table 8). The only significant numbers of African survey respondents studying English were Congolese (5%).
Table 8: Top five nationalities of respondents studying English in Dublin
Nationality Romania Moldova Russia DRC Congo Ukraine Number of respondents 70 23 19 13 11 Percentage of total 24% 8% 7% 5% 4%

Instrumental motivation appeared to be the driving force for the majority of survey participants studying English (see Littlewood, 1996). For example, over half were studying English to upgrade their qualifications (51%). English was also perceived as being important for day-to-day needs (29%) and to prepare for studying in Ireland (17%). However, only 6% of respondents believed that learning English to communicate with the local population was essential. Preparing for work and contending with everyday needs were stressed as a priority. Considering times for future language classes, most survey respondents needed classes to be organised between 6-9 pm (36%) and 9am-1pm (32%). Only 15% wanted classes to be organised between 2-5pm and within each category, men and women were equally represented. However, participants with children were more likely to choose evening language classes. Furthermore, when cross-tabulated with nationality, clear distinctions are to be made according to nationality (see Table 9). For example, the majority of Romanians needed classes to be organised in the evening, while the majority of Nigerians required classes in the mornings.
Table 9: Times preferred for future language classes and nationality
Times 9am-1pm 2 -5pm 6-9pm Romania 45 - 19% 24 22% 101 36% Nigeria 51 46% 44 29% 15 19%

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3.20 Summary of key points


Historically Ireland has not experienced any significant migration inflows. The first refugee groups to arrive in Ireland followed unilateral agreements with the UN. They included: 530 Hungarians in 1956, 120 Chileans in 1973, 212 Vietnamese in 1979 (community now expanded to over 800), 26 Iranian Bahai in 1985 and 770 Bosnians in 1992 (population now over 1,200). Subsequently, the only immigration experienced by modern Ireland consisted of small controlled refugee groups and the settlement of now established minorities, for example: the Italian and Chinese communities. Asylum seekers constitute 10% of all foreign migrants to Ireland since 1995. An asylum seeker is a person who arrives independently in the State and asks to be recognised under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol. Asylum seekers have no right to travel, to local authority housing, full-time education (unless under the age of 18) and to work (unless authorised). However, asylum seekers do have the right to free health care, emergency accommodation, welfare payments and literacy/language provision. Reception policies for asylum seekers are coordinated by an executive agency, the Reception and Integration Agency (RIA), of the Department of Justice. Asylum seekers who arrived before April 2000 receive full welfare payments and predominantly live in Dublin. Asylum seekers who arrived after that date are now provided for through a system of direct provision and settled outside Dublin. Revealing an extremely high level of diversity within the asylum seeking population, survey respondents came from 47 different countries. The majority of respondents were male (64%) and the remainder female (36%). Predominantly a young population, 6% of respondents were between the ages of 18-20. Half of all respondents were between 22-30 years, while a further 33% were in the 31-40 age group. The majority of respondents were living in Dublin 7 (247) and 223 questionnaires were received from respondents in Dublin 1, 117 from Dublin 24 and 106 from Dublin 6.

With no concentration of any nationality in a particular region of Dublin, a total of 2,083 respondents were living in private rented accommodation. Another 486 were residing in emergency accommodation. Most survey respondents were married (49%) or single (37%) and the remainder were either living with a partner (7%) or divorced/separated (4%). Over half of respondents were asylum seekers (51%) or parents of Irish children (27%). A further 5% were asylum seekers with work rights and 7% had lodged an application for leave to remain. There were 567 children in total for all the respondents. Younger children were more likely to be living in Ireland and almost 21% of respondents had one child, usually under the age of one. A further 12% had two children. Revealing immense linguistic diversity in the asylum seeking population, a total of 63 mother tongues were catalogued for the 767 respondents. Romanian was the largest minority linguistic group; almost 28% reported speaking it as a first language. Bantu languages, from Africans main linguistic family accounted for 13% of respondents with 11% Yoruba speakers and 2% Ibo/Igbo. Other languages included: Russian (8%), Arabic (7%) and French (5%). Over 7% of respondents had no literacy skills in their mother tongue or another language. Respondents with no literacy skills were predominantly from Nigeria (22%), Kosovo (12%) and Somalia (6%). Almost 20% of survey participants had spent more than five years in primary school, while over 32% had completed eight years. Approximately 14% of respondents had only completed five years or under in primary school and a further 2% had not attended primary school at all. Over 74% of survey participants attended secondary school/technical college. Reflecting a disrupted education only 8% of respondents had attended school for two years and 28% for four years. Indicating a strong educational background among a high percentage of asylum seekers, a total of 34% of respondents had attended third level education.

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CHAPTER THREE

While only 4% of survey respondents spoke English as a mother tongue, over 50% had English as an additional language. Almost a quarter of respondents with English as an additional language were Nigerian (23%), the remainder came from Belorussia, Eritrea, Cameroon, Czech Republic, DRC Congo, India, Mali, Togo, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Romania and Ukraine. Close to 74% of respondents had experience of studying another language. Over half (55%) had learned languages in a formal education setting. Other respondents had studied languages through self-study at home (6%) or by living in another country (4%). Only 37% of respondents were studying English in Dublin and respondents accessing provision were more likely to have attended primary (78%) and post-primary school (74%). Only 3% of those studying English had not completed primary school education. Clearly learners with little experience of education are under represented in programmes. Instrumental motivation appeared to be the driving force for the majority of survey participants. When considering times for future language classes, most respondents needed classes to be organised between 69pm (36%) and 9am-1pm (32%).

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CHAPTER FOUR Profile of language and literacy providers

4.1 Introduction
anguage teaching for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups occurs in a variety of settings throughout Dublin. Classes are organised in formal education institutions, private language schools, local community groups/centres, organisations promoted by religious orders and in learners own homes. Profiling literacy and language education, this chapter presents an outline of the main providers operating within the Dublin area. Describing the background, structure and the full range of provision, the organisations include: City of Dublin VEC, County Dublin VEC, FS Asylum Seeker Unit, Integrate Ireland Language and Training Project (IILT) and several NGOs. As a number of changes have taken place within each organisation (since the study was carried out), a short description of new developments has been incorporated.

4.3 City of Dublin VEC


Background Formed in 1930, the City of Dublin VEC is the biggest state education provider in Dublin. The entire administrative area is confined to the City of Dublin boundaries

Aims and objectives The aims and objectives of City of Dublin VEC are outlined in the Vocational Education Act, 1930 and the Vocational Education (Amendment) Act, 2001 Principal promoters DES Management Structure VEC Committee Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Three Education Officers (EOs) Principal Officer Head of Human Resources Management Services Officer Finance Officer Building Officer Full-time and part-time: Approximately 2,400 Full-time: 11,700 Part-time: Approximately 16,000

4.2 Vocational Education Committees (VECs)


Established in 1930 by the Vocational Education Act, there are 33 VECs located throughout the country. The Act allowed the VECs to incorporate schools which had been administered by former technical instruction committees. Permitted to set up additional schools, the VECs did not transform significantly in the first 30 years of their existence. The VECs were left to develop second-level and further education, technical education moved to regional colleges in the 1960s. The administration of the VEC is placed under a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who is also the principal of the education scheme. Each VEC Committee has a certain level of autonomy and is made up of individuals with an interest in education, for example: local public representatives, parents representatives and teachers representatives. Reflecting the needs and politics of each administrative area, the composition and services offered vary. Following an expansion of their remit, the VECs now provide a diverse range of education, training and support services for their local populations. These include: post-primary education, Adult and Community Education, Adult Literacy, the administration of funds, Post Leaving Certificate programmes, Prison Education, youth programmes, third level access programmes, Traveller education and a number of EU funded co-operative training programmes.

Overall staff numbers Overall learner numbers

Mainstream schools Administrative and technical support and services 23 second level, further education colleges and adult learning centres VTOS Eight Youthreach centres Over 100 out centres Education service in six prisons Post primary school for Travellers One centre in partnership with other statutory agencies, Bridge and one post-release centre for ex-prisoners Pathways Five crches (two more planned to open in Autumn 2002) Adult and community education Ad hoc Adult Education Board Six Adult Education Organisers (AEOs)
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CHAPTER FOUR

Adult education within City of Dublin VEC is based in mainstream schools/colleges and out centres. Literacy Service 11 Adult Literacy Organisers (ALOs). Four Literacy Outreach Workers. 13 Literacy Schemes. Client group

other minority linguistic groups living in the Dublin area. Providing language and literacy provision, CDVECs project also encompasses research and development, materials development, advice and guidance, training and the initiation of pilot projects. Asylum seekers, refugees, persons with leave to remain or legal residency, migrant workers and other groups. Approximately 410 adult learners (enrolment 2000). Dolebusters, Dublin 1. Parnell Adult Learning Centre. Islamic Foundation of Ireland - South Circular Road (women only classes). Central Model School, Dublin 1. Colaiste Eoin, Dublin 11. Dolebusters, Dublin 8. Inchicore College of Further Education, Dublin 8. Pearse College, Dublin 12. Ringsend Technical Institute, Dublin 4. Language and literacy classes within the VEC are typically offered for two hours, twice a week in the morning and afternoon. In addition, a 10-hour programme is provided in Parnell Adult Learning Centre. These programmes are free for participants. Largely self-financing, VEC Further Education colleges organise night language programmes for nonnationals. Learners in these classes include: European migrant workers, non-European migrant workers and other non-nationals. Ballsbridge College of Further Education. Marino College of Further Education. Plunkett College. Rathmines Senior College.

Specialised services Adult Education Guidance Service. Curriculum Development Unit (CDU). CDVEC Asylum and Refugee Education Initiative. CDVEC Project with the Homeless Services. CDVEC Psychological Services. CDVEC Sports and Cultural Council. City of Dublin Youth Services Board. Drugs Court Initiative. Grants: Third Level Scholarships and Institute of Technology Grants, Youth Service Grants. Sports Advisory Council. Research and Policy Development .

Learner numbers

ESOL organised by AEOs

ESOL organised by ALOs

4.3.1 City of Dublin VEC English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
Background Responding to the linguistic needs of refugees, the City of Dublin VEC has a long history of providing language assistance. Through a special fund allocation from the DES in 1996, language programmes were initially provided in Cherry Orchard Hospital and Cappagh Hospital to Bosnian medical evacuees. In addition, the City of Dublin VEC provided classes to refugees accessing the Vietnamese English Language Centre in Dublin. Relocated to Parnell Adult Learning Centre, these classes now include asylum seekers. Launched in September 2001, the CDVEC Asylum and Refugee Education Initiative is a multifaceted attempt to address the diverse needs of asylum seekers, refugees and
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Tuition

ESOL organised by Further Education Colleges

Support provided to An Siol. NGOs Access Ireland. Dolebusters. Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC). Vincentian Refugee Centre. Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI). Pilot projects Fastrack into Technology (FIT) for non-nationals with work rights (April 2001- present). Summer school for separated children/unaccompanied minors (July-August 2001). ESOL materials development project.

Specialised activities Literacy and ESOL is available to nonnationals who have been detained in Mountjoy Training Unit and the Dochas Centre (Womens prison). Research on language and literacy needs of asylum seekers. Research on education and language needs of separated children/unaccompanied minors. Several working groups which are comprised of education practitioners, voluntary and statutory agencies which focus on: Separated Children, Materials Development, General Operations, Parents with Children and Literacy. In-service for education practitioners in the Dublin area. Seven Post Leaving Certificate courses which include a major EFL component are offered in the City of Dublin VEC (see Appendix J) . VTOS with ESOL VTOS programmes with ESOL components are offered for 20 hours a week at the following centres: Fastrack Into Technology (FIT) nationals), Whitehall College of Further Education (2000-present).

Current situation Additional language classes are late 2001/early 2002 available within the Liberties and Inchicore areas of the city. Approached by the Islamic Cultural Centre (ICI) of Ireland (Clonskeagh, Dublin 4) in September 2001, the City of Dublin VEC now provide twohour separate language classes four days a week for both men and women. In addition, the classes within the Islamic Foundation have now moved to the ICI. Initiated in April 2002, the City of Dublin VEC now offer an Access Programme to separated children/unaccompanied minors to prepare them for mainstream education. In association with County Dublin VEC and NALA, the City of Dublin VEC have commissioned the LLLU to deliver a five days of training to tutors in teaching basic literacy to ESOL learners.

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.4 County Dublin VEC


Background County Dublin VEC is the second biggest education provider in the Dublin area. Its administrative area surrounds the city and consists of: Balbriggan, Swords, the County of Fingal, Blanchardstown, South County Dublin and Dun Laoghaire Rathdown. Essentially a rural VEC (when it was formed in 1930), unprecedented urban development in the shape of vast housing developments have led to County expanding its operations. The aims and objectives of County Dublin VEC are outlined in the Vocational Education Act, 1930 and the Vocational Education (Amendment) Act, 2001. DES VEC Committee. Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Education Officer (EO). Full-time and part-time: 2,372. Background Full-time: Approximately 11,200 . Part-time: Approximately 9,400. Administrative and technical support. 22 second level and further education colleges. VTOS Fresh Start delivered in Tallaght. Eight Youthreach Centres. Education service in one prison and one hospital for people with learning difficulties. Three crches (three more to open in September 2002). Ad hoc Adult Education Board. Five Adult Education Organisers. Adult education within County \ Dublin VEC has been predominantly Literacy Service

developed in communitybased settings. County Co-ordinator for Literacy. Eight Adult Literacy Organiser Posts (ALOs). Eight Literacy Schemes. New initiatives: 1. Return to Learning (workplace learning), 2. The Family Learning Demonstration Project. Adult Education Guidance Service. County Dublin VEC Psychological Services. Four Traveller Training Centres. Youth services and Youth Development Section. Grants: Third Level Scholarships and Institute of Technology Grants, Youth Service Grants. Adult Literacy Organiser dedicated to the needs of Travellers. In-service and tutor training. Research and policy development.

Specialised services

Aims and objectives

Principal promoters Management Structure

4.4.1 County Dublin VEC: English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
Responding to the needs of Chinese migrants in 1996, County Dublin VEC first began providing language/literacy provision in the Lucan area. Following a large increase in numbers of refugees and other non-nationals residing in the Tallaght area, County Dublin VEC established language programmes in 1999 and 2000. Subsequently, an ESOL Project Support Worker was appointed in 2000 on a part-time basis to provide for the increase. Asylum seekers, refugees, persons with leave to remain or legal residency, migrant workers and other non-nationals. Approximately 430 in part-time language tuition (Enrolment October 2000).

Overall staff numbers Overall learner numbers Mainstream schools and services

Client group

Adult and community education

Learner numbers

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ESOL organised through the Local Adult Education Service

Balbriggan Community College. Blanchardstown Adult Education Centre (ESOL Project Support Worker). Castleknock Community College. Clondalkin Adult Basic Education Centre (ALO). Lucan Adult Basic Education Centre (ALO). Springfield Adult Education Centre (ESOL Project Support Worker). Swords Adult Basic Education Centre (ALO). Outreach: An Cosan, Jobstown, Ballycragh National School (ESOL Project Support Worker). Generally offered for two-four hours per week, language programmes are free and take place in mornings and afternoons in the Tallaght area. Classes in other areas of County Dublin VEC are also provided in the morning, afternoon and evening. Migrant workers attend separate classes and must pay for programmes. Run in co-operation with the Tallaght Partnership and St. Marks Junior School, the Family Literacy Project started in 1999; in 2000 it included a Congolese refugee family. Initiated in May 2001, Rathfarnham Youthreach offered an Access Programme for separated children/unaccompanied minors in Dublin. Most participants were successfully placed in mainstream education. ESOL materials development project in association with City of Dublin VEC.

VTOS with ESOL

VTOS programmes with ESOL components are offered for 20 hours a week at the following County Dublin VEC centres: English for non-nationals, Springfield Adult Education Centre (2000 present). Funded by the European Refugee Fund, Countys Youth Development Section, working in association with the YMCA, initiated a family programme in November 2001. Entitled Parents and Kids Together, the programme will deliver after schools supports for children (sport, language skills), morning programmes for parents with a crche and organise family events. The Lucan Adult Basic Education Centre now provide four basic skills classes in the morning and afternoon and two outreach classes in local schools. The ESOL service within the Tallaght area has expanded to outreach centres to provide for 12 different groups in total. ESOL is extensive within the Blanchardstown area with 15 different programmes provided in both the Adult Education Centre and in outreach (free and fee paying). The Health Board will be opening a new residential facility for young mothers and babies. County Dublin VEC is involved in the planning stages and will provide suitable education programmes in Shankill. In association with the City of Dublin VEC and NALA, the County Dublin VEC have commissioned the LLLU to deliver a five days of training to tutors in teaching basic literacy to ESOL learners. *Only language provision in Tallaght was included in the formal evaluation.

Current situation late 2001/early 2002

Tuition

Pilot projects

Specialised activities Research on language and literacy needs of asylum seekers. Research on education and language needs of separated. children/unaccompanied minors In-service for education practitioners in the Dublin area.

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.5 FS Asylum Seeker Unit


Background Established in Tallaght as a pilot project in December 1999, the role of the FS Asylum Seeker Unit was to place asylum seekers with work rights in employment over a twoyear period (people who applied for asylum before the 26 July 1999 were resident in the state for one more than 12 months). The Unit was a subsidiary of Foras iseanna Saothair (FS) the Training and Employment Authority. A second office opened in July 2000 in North Dublin to cater for asylum seekers living in North Dublin, North Kildare, Dublin City Centre and Blanchardstown. Expanding its remit in September 2000, the Unit also works with asylum seekers living outside the Dublin area and other non-nationals with work rights. Aims and objectives The overall aims and objectives of FS are to provide a wide range of service to the labour market.

Social, Community and Family Affairs to FS Asylum Seeker Unit. A guidance interview takes place with a Placement Office. Skills and English language assessments are administered with each client. Six week Survival English language training for asylum seekers with language needs are provided (20 hours a week). Seven week Access 2 Employment programme to prepare asylum seekers who are not work ready for the Irish labour market. Job placement. An aftercare and follow-up service is available. Current situation FS initiated a programme in co late 2001/early 2002 operation with the Roma Support Group and Pavee Point, aimed directly at Roma non-nationals. The programme included a substantial language and literacy component as well as orientation (October 2001March 2002). Having successfully placed all asylum seekers with the right to work in employment or training, the FS Asylum Seeker Unit will cease to exist beyond May 2002. Most staff members will be dispersed to other FS branch offices.

Principal promoters Department of Trade, Enterprise and Employment. FS (Training and Employment Authority). Management Structure Overall staff numbers Director (vacant at time of interview). Three Assistant Managers. Approximately 19 staff members supported by 6 staff from local community organisations. Approximately 2,614 (March 2002). Since asylum seekers with work rights do not have the right to FS training programmes, the Unit can only offer them the following services: Clients referred by the Department of

Number of clients Services offered

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4.6 Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT)


Background The DES under the aegis of Trinity College Dublin established the Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) 1999. Interact Ireland (formerly the Refugee Language and Training Project) was incorporated into the RLSU. The organisation has been renamed Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) and is now a campus company of Trinity College Dublin. Co-ordinating language support for refugees and others with legal residency (refer to Section 1.4).

Academic/professional English. Tuition Largely held in the morning and afternoon, each programme is run for 20 hours per week for three-month terms. Guidance and assistance with work placement for registered learners. Research and development is a major facet of IILTs work. One of its most important activities to date has been its involvement with the European Portfolio project. Producing benchmarks for language learning, several versions are now available for: primary, post-primary and prevocational language teaching. Granted funding by the DES, the IILT have begun developing materials for tutors for working with asylum seekers and other non-nationals. In addition, the IILT is involved in two European projects with international partners (refer to Section 9.5).

Specialised services

Special activities

Aims and objectives

Principal promoters Centre for Language and Communications (CLCS), Trinity College Dublin. DES. Management Structure Executive Board of Directors. Two Directors (part-time). Programme Co-ordinator (General English). Programme Co-ordinator (Vocational English.) Four management and co-ordination. Four full-time and one part-time administrative staff. 15 teaching positions. Two/three part-time tutors. Estimated at 200 non-nationals who have been granted legal residency: programme refugees, convention refugees and persons with leave to remain or legal residency. General English language classes. Language and literacy. Fast Track English for training and employment. Pre-vocational courses in English and Information Technology. in conjunction with FS).

Current situation late 2001/early 2002

Overall staff numbers

Learner numbers

ESOL programmes

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.7 Non-governmental organisations 4.7.1 Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC)


Background Formerly, the Dublin Literacy Scheme established in 1974, the Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC) was officially launched in 1999 with the objective of improving literacy and basic skills with adults who have left mainstream education. DALCs mission is to provide basic education to people in the Inner City within a learner centred, participative and holistic framework. Board of Directors. Management Committee. Director. In total, 16 staff members. Approximately, 70 volunteer tutors at any one time. Over 500 adult learners attend the centre on a full-time or part time basis.

Tuition times

Offering six classes a week in the afternoon and evening, a learner typically receives between 2-4 hours per week. Over 30 participants in regular attendance. Asylum seekers, refugees, persons with leave to remain or legal residency, migrant workers and other nonnationals.

Learner numbers

Client group

Aims and objectives

Management structure

Overall staff numbers

Current situation In September 2001, DALC appointed late 2001/early 2002 a full-time Co-ordinator of Language and Literacy for Asylum Seekers and Refugees to set up new programmes, investigate accreditation and develop materials. DALC have now expanded its provision; over 100 non-national learners attend separate literacy for ESOL and ESOL classes on a regular basis. Basic computer classes are also available to non-nationals.

Overall learner numbers

Specialised services Basic Education (one-to-one, small group and group tuition). Community Employment Scheme. Crche. Dream Catchers (full-time programme for women). Family literacy. Prevocational programme. Mens programme. Partners in Education Project (classes in basic education). Tutor training and in-service. Summer schools. ESOL programmes Beginners. Elementary. Intermediate. Literacy for ESOL learners.

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4.7.2 Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI)


Background Founded in 1999 by the Congregation of the Holy Spirit, SPIRASI is a voluntary, humanitarian and intercultural organisation. The largest independent service provider for asylum seekers in the Dublin area. SPIRASI works in collaboration with asylum seekers; volunteers and partner organisations to promote self-reliance and integration of nonnationals, particularly protection seekers, into Irish society through the provision of a large range of directly delivered supports and services, including language and Information Technology (IT) training. The Congregation of the Holy Spirit. Trustees. Board of Directors. Management team: Director, Assistant Director, Financial Controller and Programme Co-ordinators. Advisory groups. Client focus groups. 13 full-time staff. 12 part-time staff. 120 volunteers (24 different nationalities represented). Tuition times Services offered Hospitality and welcoming service. Information and advisory service. IT training at various levels. Social integration events (art exhibitions, football team, outings and social functions). SPIRASI is the founding body for the Irish Centre for the Care of Torture Survivors (CCST) (refer to Section 9.4). SPIRASI provides office space and

Aims and objectives

Principal promoters Management Structure

support for: Metro Eireann (community based newspaper for ethnic minorities), the Association of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Ireland (ARASI), Sierra Leone Ireland Partnership (SLIP), Global Sourcing Employment Agency (GSEA), A Part of Ireland Now (APOIN) - an intercultural educational project, and the Health Information Project (HIP) run under the joint auspices of the Eastern Regional Health Authority, RIA and SPIRASI. Outreach service with fifteen tutors for families who are unable to access mainstream language programmes, in particular mothers with child rearing responsibilities. Refugee related research and publication. SPIRASI participates in a number of partnership delivered programmes at regional, national and international levels with a focus on health, preparation for employment and orientation for asylum seekers. ESOL programmes Beginners, Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate programmes. Survival English programme. Writing skills programme. Academic writing programme. Outreach English language programme (in family homes and place of residence). Learners within the mainstream language programme are provided with five hours per week. Eight hours is provided for those in the Survival English classes. An additional six hours is available for learners with literacy needs. Classes are organised in the afternoon and evening. Approximately 250 learners attend on a weekly basis for
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Overall staff numbers

Overall learner numbers

CHAPTER FOUR

language tuition. Approximately 85 learners attend on a weekly basis for IT training. Client group Asylum seekers, refugees, migrant workers and other non-nationals. Apart from the VEC, SPIRASI has become the largest sole language provider for asylum seekers, refugees and other non-nationals in Dublin. Language and literacy programmes are now offered in the morning, afternoon and evening, with the addition of an IELTS accredited programme.

Current situation late 2001/early 2002

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4.7.3 Tallaght Refugee Project


Background Located within the West Tallaght Resource Centre, the Tallaght Refugee Project was established following a needs evaluation on refugees living in Tallaght in 1997. Subsequently, a coordinator was appointed to provide support and assistance to the refugees and other ethnic minorities. Initially funded by the Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs for two years, the project was being considered for renewal at the time of interview. Working within a community development framework, the Tallaght Refugee Projects aims and objectives are: Making existing services more accessible to asylum seekers and refugees. Capacity building for refugees and other non-nationals to ensure they benefit from local employment and training initiatives. Working with local community on refugee issues. West Tallaght Resource Centre. West Tallaght Resource Centre. Tallaght Intercultural Action A group of Irish and refugee representatives of the community. Co-ordinator. One employee Co-ordinator. One volunteer (at time of interview). Meeting rooms for local community groups. Management and administrative support for local community groups. Direct support for several projects. Playgroups.

personal development and IT, in association with local LES (women only). ASAC Womens Group. Learner numbers Between 10-14 learners attended on a regular basis. Refugees, persons with leave to remain or legal residency and other non-nationals. The Tallaght Refugee Project intends to seek Community Development Project status.

Client group

Current situation late 2001/early 2002

Aims and objectives

Principal promoters Management Structure

Overall staff numbers Services offered

ESOL programmes

Six week courses with childcare in


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CHAPTER FOUR

4.7.4 Vincentian Refugee Centre


Background Officially opened in January 1999, the Vincentian Refugee Centre is a partnership project between three organisations/agencies coming together to work with asylum seekers, refugees and new communities (see below for promoters). Learner numbers Client group Approximately 120 learners. Asylum seekers, refugees, persons with leave to remain or legal residency, migrant workers and other nonnationals.

Aims and objectives The core mission of the Centre is to develop a Welcoming Community between the local population and resident ethnic minorities. Principal promoters Vincentian Community. Daughters of Charity. Society of St. Vincent de Paul. Management structure Directors: representatives from three promoters. Management Committee. Five full-time.

Current situation Newly appointed in November 2001, late 2001/early 2002 the Centre has two new employees: an Integration Officer and a Project Support Worker to target lone parents and separated children/unaccompanied minors living in the area.

Overall staff numbers

Specialised services Welcoming, advice and referral service. Accommodation finding service. Awareness programme for schools, colleges, community groups and community meetings. Local community development work. Support service for separated children/unaccompanied minors. Womens Group. Work orientation service. ESOL programmes Beginners. Outreach English language programme (in family homes and place of residence). Dedicated to providing basic English, all classes within the centre are for beginners. Learners receive 1-2 hours tuition per week and classes are offered throughout the morning/afternoon.

Tuition

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CHAPTER FIVE Reaching the learner

5.1 Introduction
eaching potential learners requires multifaceted and innovative strategies. Ensuring equality for black and ethnic minorities within every centre, school and college is paramount. This chapter reports on providers efforts regarding equality/anti-discrimination policy; researching and consulting learners; recruitment, marketing and publicity, networking between agencies and information exchange. These strategies are predominantly underdeveloped at this stage and detailed recommendations are outlined.

5.2 Equality and anti-discrimination policy


The Task Force on the Travelling Community (1995) recommends that the principle of equality and anti-discrimination should inform all educational provision (154). Equality/anti-discrimination within adult education is in its early stages and has yet to be fully realised. In responding to the linguistic needs of asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups, the first step should be the development of an equality/anti-discrimination policy. The UN International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969) defines racial discrimination as: Any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference, based on race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin, which has the purpose of modifying or impairing recognition, the enjoyment or exercise on an equal footing of human rights and fundamental freedom in the political, economic, social, cultural or any field of public life constitutes racial discrimination. Discrimination (direct and indirect) in the Irish equality legislation is defined as less favourable treatment. Direct discrimination occurs when an individual is treated less favourably than another person on any of the nine grounds delineated in the Equal Status Act gender, marital status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race, membership of the Traveller community. For direct discrimination to be established there must be a direct comparison in treatment between one group and another. Indirect discrimination takes place when policies and practices do not specifically discriminate against any group but continue to have a discriminatory effect. No provider was discovered to have an explicit written equality/anti-discrimination policy that included a grievance procedure for staff and learners. Recognising the need for a policy, a number of organisations revealed their intention to develop one (the VECs and DALC). In most cases, there was an operational policy which was taken for granted. However, asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups originate from countries where human rights are routinely violated, institutions are corrupt and concepts of equality are not protected by the State, for example: Iraq, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria. Assumptions cannot be made in relation to adult learners knowledge of Irish educational institutions and obligations to adhere to equality legislation. ALOs highlighted a number of incidents in which non-academic staff had mistreated learners thought to be refugees or Travellers. In addition, most tutors

in a classroom situation had experienced hostility and conflict between different ethnic minorities, particularly between Eastern Europeans and Africans. Issues were sometimes resolved with facilitation, good classroom management or with group work. However, tutors with intercultural training or with overseas experience were more capable of dealing with the situation. In some cases, providers had a Code of Conduct which referred to the Employment Equality Act for example, the IILT. However, the intention of this document is the regulation of behaviour and does not explicitly address equality issues. A well-publicised policy/grievance procedure for the whole organisation is required. Tutors suggested training in conflict resolution and mediation skills would also be useful for promoting an intercultural environment [conflict resolutions skills were also recommended by the Taskforce on the Travelling Community to ensure tense circumstances do not lead to violence or a hardening of attitudes (1995:66)]. Several providers revealed hostility between Irish and ethnic minority learners, with the Dochas Centre (Womens Prison) as the most extreme. The prison is the designated holding centre for detained asylum seeking women and almost one fifth of the population are non-nationals. Through a focus group with some of the learners, it was established that the ethnic minority learners experience daily abuse from the Irish residents. One learner disclosed she had been accused of speaking gibberish when she spoke in her mother tongue. Another described how she had been blamed for the housing crisis in Dublin. Attending education programmes offered by the VEC was
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CHAPTER FIVE

frowned upon because they were taking up places. Some of the women enquired if Irish people on the outside had similar attitudes; they also believed the prison officers were only nice to them because it was just part of their job. Clearly, the non-national women felt extremely isolated within the Dochas Centre and were interested in understanding more about their rights, Irish society and culture. However, it was apparent they did not appreciate the predicament and socio-economic difficulties experienced by some of the Irish inmates. For example, they enquired why some of the women could not read and write when education is free in Ireland and why others had serious drug problems. Given the complex nature of these circumstances an anti-racist policy within the VEC education service would not be enough. Driven by strong leadership, it would require working with the prison authorities and the Department of Justice. Adult education practitioners have just embarked on strategic planning. No provider was found to have used equality objectives in strategic planning or engaged in monitoring exercises to address the effectiveness of their current policy. However, a number of providers had tried to appoint asylum seekers with work rights or volunteers as members of staff, for example: the FS Asylum Seeking Unit, SPIRASI and the Vincentian Refugee Centre. This practice of recruitment and selecting staff from minority ethnic groups is widespread with some Irish employers (for example, Dublin Bus) and state providers/employers within the United Kingdom. Striving to increase the proportion of minority staff, the British
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National Health Service (NHS) have launched recruitment drives to encourage black and other ethnic minorities to apply for positions in areas where they continue to be under-represented (Khan, 2001). Anti-racism training is a crucial feature in an organisations equality/anti-discrimination policy (Taskforce on the Travelling Community, 1995; NCCRI, 2001). Organisations with the most contact with refugees and asylum seekers were less likely to have organised in-house anti-racism training, for example: the IILT, the Vincentian Refugee Centre and SPIRASI (since time of interview, SPIRASI have organised anti-racism training). Community development organisations with a broader remit considered this form of training to be valuable and subsequently organised it for staff members (An Cosan, An Siol and the West Tallaght Resource Centre/Tallaght Refugee Project). Attended by language tutors or teachers with a special interest throughout the Dublin area, the VECs organised a one-day seminar. The NCCRI and the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) provided antiracism and cultural awareness training. The FS Asylum Seeker Unit organised anti-racism training in preparation for working with asylum seekers. In addition, the unit had taken a whole organisation approach where all staff members attended training delivered by Pavee Point (agency dedicated to working with Travellers) and an anti-racist trainer working on a consultative basis. However, attitudinal change does not take place after only one session, training needs to be continued on an ongoing basis.

5.3 Profiling and consultation


Profiling the target population is essential for new programmes with ethnic minority learners. Identifying where people live, their country of origin, gender, educational background and special needs, enables adult education practitioners to tailor programmes to meet the needs of learners. Aside from basic needs analyses and audits carried out by Community Development Organisations (An Siol, 2000 and West Tallaght Resource Centre, 1997), profiling of the asylum seeking population for education programmes has not taken place. This research is the first time state education providers have attempted to profile the asylum seeking population. Meaningful and effective consultation involves opening up channels of communication and maintaining dialogue with local groups to establish educational needs. As a collaborative and two-way process, Dadzie (1999) suggests administering end of course reviews, organising public meetings/taster sessions, employing representatives from local minority communities to act as intermediaries and implementing effective feedback procedures. Profiling and consultation rarely occurred due to the manner in which language programmes were set up. In general, learners approached service providers and NGOs inquiring about potential learning opportunities and new classes were organised in response. A number of classes were organised by Adult Literacy Organisers (ALOs) in schools at the request of Home School Liaison Officers. NGOs and community groups carried out an initial consultation with asylum seekers and refugees (SPIRASI and An Siol).

Maintaining dialogue with local groups can be achieved by ensuring ethnic minorities (both men and women) are represented on management committees and involved in decision-making. Again, NGOs were more likely to have asylum seekers or refugees represented within management structures, for example: SPIRASI and the Tallaght Refugee Project. Attempts by the VECs to include refugee organisations in decision-making processes proved unsuccessful, as most refugee organisations were either unrepresentative or too under-resourced to participate. However, the VEC Materials Working Group (established in November 2001) engaged the active involvement of several individuals from ethnic minorities. If ESOL programmes are to be beneficial for asylum seekers, resourcing of refugee groups and effective/regular consultation procedures is required and this will be partly achieved by Community Education Facilitators. In 2001, the DES announced the approval of 35 Facilitators who will be based in the VECs and directed by existing ad hoc adult education boards (refer to Section 1.3). It is expected these facilitators will support and develop community based learning by assisting with accessing funding, sharing good practice, networking and forming partnerships.

public is strategically important for the development of the sector. In one focus group in a community based setting, the asylum seekers who were participating did not know who the VEC was, even though the VEC was providing the tutor hours for their programme. Key methods of promotion for the VECs includes corporate identity material (posters, leaflets, letter heads), special events, written materials (annual reports etc.), website, information sheets and publicity circulated to media. Understanding asylum seekers lives is the key for the promotion of language and literacy programmes. Ensuring VEC publicity is included in key information packs, working in co-operation with other service providers (the Health Board; the Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs), issuing information to NGOs and local community groups, advertising in the media (particularly ethnic minority newspapers/magazines) are all important features of a marketing strategy to target asylum seekers. Churches and congregations can be used for sharing information; there has been a proliferation of African churches and increased participation in other smaller churches in Ireland the Greek Orthodox Church, the Russian Orthodox Church and Islamic Mosques. In addition, there is a growing number of ethnic minority shops within the Dublin area; proprietors can act as information gatekeepers, displaying course details for black and ethnic minority customers. However, for learners with literacy difficulties, over reliance on printed material may lessen the likelihood of their participation in literacy programmes. Learners in existing classes can be asked to encourage new learners to approach
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5.4 Recruitment of learners, marketing and publicity


In a consumer centred culture, marketing is no longer seen primarily as a business activity. Requiring everyone to conceptualise people as consumers, marketing is a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want by creating and exchanging products (Kolter et al., 1999). Marketing practices have become an essential part of strategies employed by non-profit organisations for example, government agencies use marketing as a means of promoting health and NGOs use marketing/public relations to promote their polices/values. Education providers rarely used marketing as a means of recruiting second language learners for language and literacy programmes. Providers maintained that classes were already full and there was often no need to advertise. Referral and word of mouth were the most common forms of recruitment for the VECs, FS Asylum Seeker Unit and the IILT. Several NGOs and the VEC ESOL programme in Tallaght issued fliers to service providers, local community groups, libraries, citizens advice bureaus publicising their English classes programmes. However, the majority had not considered translating publicity materials into different languages. With a population who may have limited-reading skills in English ensuring that documentation is translated is extremely important. Finally, information days were organised by community groups with some degree of success. Identifying the needs of potential adult learners and successfully marketing programmes to meet these needs depends on a wide range of public relations tools. However, a clear communications strategy is ineffective without building a good image of the organisation or having a distinctive corporate logo (in a recent audit of the literacy service in County Dublin VEC, a readily identifiable corporate logo was believed to be important). Consideration needs to be given to the actual organisation of programmes, arranging venues and finding learners through traditional channels. Building and maintaining relationships with the

CHAPTER FIVE

literacy programmes (Bailey & Coleman, 1998) or the VECs could consider appointing outreach/development workers from ethnic minorities to target new learners.

5.5 Networking and information exchange


Within the VECs, networking and information exchange plays an important role. Networking enables organisations to exchange ideas, experiences and develop relationships in order to improve practice. The VECs network with other statutory and voluntary agencies through a variety of mechanisms: Revitalising Areas by Planning, Investment and Development (RAPID a government initiative aimed at targeting disadvantage in areas of economic and social disadvantage), the Local Partnerships etc. Contributing to national policy formation, the VECs are represented on the Education Sub-Committee of the NCCRI, the IVEA Working Group on Asylum Seekers, Refugees and Other Nonnationals and the NALA Executive ESOL Working Group. Staff members and teaching practitioners take part in local initiatives throughout the city, which specifically focus on interculturalism and asylum seekers/refugees. Valuing an interagency approach, the VECs established an Operations Group to concentrate on general education issues for asylum seekers. Comprising of representatives from the statutory and voluntary sector, these include: City of Dublin VEC, County Dublin VEC, Northern Area Health Board, the Dublin Inner City Partnership, SPIRASI and the Vincentian Refugee Centre. Smaller in composition, the VECs set up other groups with a specific focus - Materials Working Group, Separated Children Working Group, Parents with Childcare needs and Literacy/Training Working Group. Information sheets on the activities of the project were distributed ensuring other providers were informed (February 2001 and March 2002). Generally, NGOs liaise between key service providers (the VECs and the Health Boards), voluntary organisations and are involved in collaborative projects. It is not uncommon for an employee in one refugee organisation to be an executive member of another institution with a similar remit. Tutors from the VECs and NGOs meet regularly as a group to offer each other support and discuss ideas. Effective information dissemination is vital for the VECs given that they cover a vast area of the city and county with a huge body of staff. However, a recurrent theme raised by VEC personnel related to poor channels of information exchange and infrastructure. Resulting in inadequate
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knowledge of VEC policies for staff members, it was stressed that lack of information affected the service and compounded tutor isolation (to be discussed in Section 7.5). However, the situation can be easily remedied with a communications strategy, greater use of information technology and the development of the VECs websites as a resource for staff and learners.

5.6 Summary of key points


Reaching potential learners requires multifaceted and innovative strategies. Ensuring equality within every centre, school and college is crucial for black and ethnic minority learners. No provider was discovered to have an explicit written equality/anti-discrimination policy and well publicised grievance procedure. Ethnic minorities had experienced mistreatment from nonacademic staff and Irish learners. Most tutors in a classroom situation acknowledged there was hostility between different ethnic groups. Issues were often resolved with facilitation but training tutors in conflict resolution and mediation skills would be useful in promoting an intercultural environment. No provider used equality objectives in strategic planning or engaged in monitoring exercises to address the effectiveness of their current policy. However, a number of agencies had appointed former asylum seekers as employees. Organisations with the most contact with refugees and asylum seekers were least likely to have organised in-house anti-racism training. Several agencies had begun to organise one-day seminars for interested staff members. Profiling the target population is essential for initiating new programmes with ethnic minority learners. Basic information on the client group allows practitioners to tailor programmes to meet the needs of learners. Consultation with ethnic minorities rarely took place because of the way programmes were organised. Learners approached service providers and NGOs seeking potential learning opportunities and new classes were organised in response. Maintaining dialogue with local groups can also be achieved by ensuring ethnic minorities are represented on management committees and involved in decisionmaking.

Referral and word of mouth were the most common forms of recruitment. Identifying the needs of potential adult learners and successfully marketing programmes to meet these needs depends on a wide range of public relations tools. Outreach workers from ethnic minorities could be appointed by the VECs to target new learners. Networking allows organisations to exchange ideas, experiences and develop relationships in order to improve provision. The VECs network with other statutory and non-statutory agencies through a variety of mechanisms and working groups. Effective information dissemination is vital for the VECs as they are spread over a vast area with a huge body of staff. The VEC requires a communications strategy and greater use needs to be made of information technology.

Profiling and consultation Up-to-date and detailed information on the socioeconomic background, ethnicity, gender, legal status is available to adult education practitioners by the RIA, the Health Boards or through research. Service providers develop their information and background resources to enable them to respond more appropriately to the needs of ethnic minorities for example, having a resource room for staff which is well stocked with current literature, specialist publications and reports. Asylum seekers, refugees and other non-nationals are consulted at all stages in the development of new programmes. Ethnic minorities (both men and women) are represented within decision-making structures.

5.7 Recommendations
It is recommended:

Equality and anti-discrimination policy The VECs develop a comprehensive overall action plan to promote equality and interculturalism. Each VEC School, college and centre devise an equality and anti-discrimination policy. A commitment needs to be made to ensure all aspects of it are carried out. Every institution undergoes anti-racism and cultural awareness training on an annual basis. All staff members from management to general operatives need to be involved. Tutors are trained in Mediation and Conflict Resolution Skills for Working in an Intercultural Environment. A well-publicised grievance procedure should be written and translated into different languages. It should account for existing policy within the organisation regarding sexual harassment and bullying. All promotional materials state explicitly that the organisation is committed to an equality-based approach and translated into key languages. Policies are regularly monitored. Service providers implement recruitment and selection practices to increase the number of ethnic minorities working within an organisation. Positive images and posters of ethnic minorities are displayed throughout the organisation or centre.

Recruitment, marketing and publicity Consideration is given by the VECs to their overall marketing strategy and corporate identity to target learners and increase participation. Promotional material is devised in the form of leaflets, course guides, posters etc. Materials should include positive images and success stories. Information on language programmes is included in information packs issued by the Reception and Integration Agency to newly arrived asylum seekers. As the main service provider to have contact with asylum seekers, the Health Board are the basis of marketing strategies. Community Welfare Officers (CWOs) can be asked to distribute course information to emergency accommodation in their community care area. Alternatively, CWOs based in the local community can distribute information to asylum seekers and other non-nationals in their area. State providers and NGOs are information gatekeepers for asylum seekers. Any information on new courses needs to be issued to them. They include the Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs, FS, Citizens Advice Centres, refugee groups and Community Development Projects. All publicity material uses clear language with no jargon or colloquialism and should be translated into key languages aided by symbols and pictorial items. Separate material needs to be designed to specifically target women. Taster sessions and information days are used to increase participation.
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Publicity is displayed in amenities, services and shops asylum seekers are likely to frequent the African churches, Greek Orthodox Churches, Mosques, libraries, ethnic minority shops and restaurants. Relationships should be developed with shop proprietors, community leaders and pastors as they can be informed of programmes for asylum seekers and other non-nationals. New learning opportunities are advertised in newspapers and magazines which asylum seekers and other non-nationals are likely to read or on radio shows (Metro Eireann and Africans Magazine). Existing learners are used to target new learners. The VECs should also consider appointing new ESOL Outreach/Development Workers for the task that are from ethnic minorities. One Outreach Worker should have specific responsibility for women. Course information is posted on the VECs website. Asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups assist with developing new innovative strategies.

Networking and information exchange The VECs review current policies regarding information dissemination and exchange. The VECs consider appointing an Information Officer or designate an administrative staff member to act as an information gatekeeper. The VECs publish an internal directory of all staff members (full-time and parttime). The VECs publish a directory of language and literacy programmes available to asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups to assist service providers with referral. The VECs publish a quarterly adult education newsletter detailing the broad range of activities it carries out. Information on literacy, language and education provision for asylum seekers together with other non-nationals should be included in this document. Staff members are encouraged to participate on working groups and committees and part-time tutors should be paid where they represent the VEC. The VECs develop their websites as a resource for staff and learners. Blitz e-mail is used for networked members of VEC staff to keep them informed of future training events, class changes etc.

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CHAPTER SIX Planning a programme

6.1 Introduction
sylum seekers need to learn English that is relevant to their everyday lives and following a structured TEFL programme is usually inappropriate. Planning programmes to meet the needs of learners involves a number of steps: (1) initial enrolment and record keeping; (2) carrying out a needs analysis in conjunction with new adult learners, (3) initial assessment of skills and (4) negotiating a plan of work. This chapter examines each of these important steps within current practice and makes recommendations for the future.

6.3 Needs analysis and planning a programme


ESOL is based on the needs of the learner. Planning a programme and analysing needs involves four steps: 1. Finding out as much as possible about a students previous learning and experience, present circumstances, long and short-term goals, perceived needs. 2. Analysing the goals in order to identify language elements and levels of competence needed to achieve them. 3. Assessing a students current competence in the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) (initial assessment and diagnostic assessment). 4. Negotiating and planning a programme of work, setting shortterm objectives for a specified timescale (Jordan, 2001: 17). Recognising a considerable degree of overlap, Jordan (2001) suggests an initial informal interview when learners arrive at a centre. This interview can be conducted in English if the learner is not a complete beginner or in their first language with a bilingual tutor or an interpreter (a similar recommendation has been made by Little and Lazenby-Simpson, 1996: 89). Ensuring assessment takes place in a non-threatening environment, information required would include: aspirations/aims, analysis of aims, prior learning, perceived needs and assessment of needs. Learning priorities can be established by asking learners to fill in checklists outlining specific areas of knowledge and competence (Jordan, 2001). In Britain, translated versions of
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6.2 Initial enrolment and record keeping


Initial enrolment and record keeping are important aspects of organising and coordinating education programmes. Record keeping within the FS Asylum Seeker Unit and the IILT was more rigorous as learners were required to provide personal information (including Garda registration number) at enrolment. This information was compiled for a computerised database and used to track learners/clients. Enrolment and record keeping within VECs was generally more variable. For VEC centres with established language programmes, waiting lists were usually in operation, for example, Parnell Adult Learning Centre. Communication difficulties were evident between administrative staff and inquiring learners. Tutors spoke of being pulled out from classes to talk to new learners as they arrived because reception staff was anxious when dealing with black and ethnic minorities. However, ending this practice, management now requests reception staff obtain basic information from new learners. By ensuring non-academic staff members undergo training (particularly language awareness) and translating information on programmes (with set days for meeting with co-ordinators, class starting dates, curricula outline and length of programme) communication difficulties can be avoided. Employing bilingual speakers from minority linguistic groups on site would be particularly useful in this instance. In cases where there was a designated co-ordinator/support worker, information on class participants was more readily available and comprehensive, for example: within the Tallaght ESOL programme, DALC and SPIRASI. Basic information required from learners included: name, address, phone number, age, marital status, country of origin, previous occupation and educational background. A number of VEC Literacy Schemes have used enrolment forms for Irish adults. Consequently, they were unable to provide a breakdown of nationality and legal status. While confidentiality is vital for asylum seekers and other non-nationals, detailed attendance records are required for analysis and to track the progress of learners. In some circumstances, learners did not register for any programmes but arrived at language classes expecting to join. For informal classes without set terms times, tutors on occasion permitted new learners to remain. However, a number of tutors were finding this flexible arrangement to be a disrupting influence on the entire class and required set course terms of six to eight weeks.

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checklists are readily available for practitioners. For example, the Language and Literacy Unit (1995) (now the LLLU) published a Multilingual Negotiation Pack, which included a collection of photocopiable worksheets translated into 17 languages for negotiating the ESOL curriculum with new learners. Working in co-operation with the learner and analysing goals, courses should be broken down into short manageable objectives. Followed by an assessment of learners competences through language testing to identify strengths and weaknesses in each language skill, classes should be organised by placing learners with similar skills and learning goals in the same class. However, this process is unrealistic for centres with several graded levels for learners based on an initial assessment. With graded levels, tutors need to conduct an assessment of learners to understand strengths and weaknesses. Assessment results, together with adult learners priorities informs class negotiation and topics covered. Planning programmes in accordance with learners needs does not occur in a formal manner. A number of agencies attempted to integrate some form of needs analysis into initial meetings and assessments with learners. This usually took the form of a 15-20 minute non-invasive interview designed to assess an adult learners communicative skills in English. The informal assessor also explained the nature of the language programme and made an effort to understand some of the learners needs (where tutors conducted assessments - SPIRASI and the FS Asylum Seeker Unit). Learners underwent a basic interview in English within the IILT (sometimes
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accompanied by a companion to translate) and where possible their needs were assessed. Disparity characterised practice within the VECs. Tutoring hours allocated by the DES was often the determining factor in the organisation of ESOL programmes. For example, in cases where there were tutor hours for one/two classes, learners were placed based on communicative skills in English and availability for a particular class time. Resulting in mixed ability classrooms, tutors were left to assess the needs of adult learners. However, when tuition was organised on a one-to-one basis or in small groups a learner centred adult literacy approach was adopted. Programmes were arranged following an initial needs assessment and discussion with the adult learner, for example: the Mountjoy Training Unit, VEC Crumlin/Inchicore Literacy Scheme, VEC Ringsend Literacy Scheme.

framework in Ireland evaluating learners language and literacy skills. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages can be used as a basis for assessment, both initial and ongoing. It includes a grid of level descriptors to assess proficiency in terms of understanding, speaking and writing another language. Each level is referred to as Breakthrough, Waystage, Threshold and Vantage. While a new beginners level is currently in development, the grid does not refer to basic skills. Although, the European Language Portfolio is a self-assessment tool for language learners, it is designed for ongoing evaluation within a classroom setting. It is not a tool for initial assessment with a view to placement. In December (2001), NALA published a framework for assessing literacy and numeracy entitled Mapping the Learning Journey. Flexible enough to be used in a variety of educational settings, it is based on five principles: learner involvement, trust, informal social atmosphere, voluntary participation and respect for cultural difference. Designed to map the learning journey of the adult literacy learner, the framework is arranged into three broad stages of progress: Beginning, Mid point and Ready to move on. A suggested initial interview procedure and activities to assess a learners literacy skills is also contained in the document. The learner is assessed in relation to: Using oral language to speak and be heard. Writing to convey information, ideas and feelings. Reading with understanding. Using basic maths to solve everyday problems. Depth of understanding and critical awareness.

6.4 Initial assessment


The assessment of new learners enables programme co-ordinators and second language learners to establish skills at a fixed point in time. Assessment is used by education providers for placement, certification, accountability to stakeholders, diagnosis (identify learners strengths and weakness), instructional decision making and to motivate learners (Brindley, 2001). A significant transformation has taken place in testing and assessment in the last ten years. There has been an increasing awareness of learner needs, written standards of practice, codes of practice, cross cultural sensitivity and an appreciation for the role of literacy in second language teaching (Cottier, 1999). However, as yet there is no standardised ESOL assessment

As NALAs framework was designed for native speakers of English and does not incorporate the various stages in language acquisition. The sections evaluating a learners communicative skills are too narrowly defined and broad (although the framework has deliberately been designed to be broad to allow practitioners to determine level descriptors in the pilot phase which has just been completed). A large component of the framework is devoted to literacy. For ESOL learners, developing speaking and listening skills are vital at the beginning of the learning process and any framework should reflect this. Given the framework is for learners who are pre-FETAC, it does not include the range of educational experiences linguistic ethnic minorities have which extend to third level education. However, based on adult education principles, NALAs framework comprises a demarcated assessment structure which can be used as a guide for ESOL. In addition, NALAs framework is closely related to the Equipped for the Future Initiative (assessment project based in Tennessee University in the United States), which has developed an ESOL component. NALA intends to develop its own framework which will be used in literacy schemes to include ESOL, Information, Communication and Technology skills and visual literacy. Given that ESOL is delivered in a multiplicity of sites and in a myriad of programmes (adult/community education, adult literacy, FS, NGOs, PLC and VTOS), an assessment framework needs to be devised which can be used by all providers. Operating in collaboration, adult education, ESOL and literacy practitioners need to work together to devise tools for assessing ESOL learners which can be mapped against existing assessments tools, for example, the NALA assessment framework and the Common European Framework. A similar approach has been adopted in Britain. In 2001, the British Department of Education and Skills initiated a National ESOL Training and Development Project. Agencies involved in this project include: the Basic Skills Agency, the Learning and Skills Development Agency, the National Association for Teachers of English and Other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA), the National Institute of Adult and Continuing Education (NIACE) and LLLU. A major objective of the project has been to evaluate current ESOL assessment tools and map them against the UKs basic skills standards/ESOL curriculum. This assessment framework will supersede existing assessment tools and is currently being piloted.

In the absence of any formal assessment framework for ESOL, most providers in Dublin were using approximate TEFL guidelines loosely for initial assessment: Beginners, Elementary, Intermediate, Upper Intermediate, Advanced and Proficiency. Parnell Adult Learning Centre and the IILT use interviews, cloze tests, reading comprehension and writing pieces to determine placement. In both cases, the assessors had a language teaching background and because there were several graded classes, learners were moved if incorrectly placed. The FS Asylum Seeker Unit administered tests from the United States with new clients to assess vocational and professional skills. Unable to acquire assistance from any other agency, FS commissioned linguists to design an initial assessment tool for use by FS Placement Officers. However, without a language teaching background, officers were only able to assess a learners writing skills. Where tutors were involved in assessment, clients were interviewed to understand their communicative, listening and comprehension skills. Practitioners were not satisfied with FSs assessment because it was unable to identify learners with no literacy skills in their mother tongue. Subsequently, FS obtained a second assessment pack from an agency in Liverpool that worked directly with asylum seekers. Assessment was generally informal in all of the NGOs. Coordinators and tutors assessed new learners through a short informal interview and sometimes administered tests to examine learners reading and writing skills in English. The VEC language programme, in Tallaght, adopted a similar strategy. Written tests were used when it was evident learners could undertake the task. However, the Prison Education Service and most VEC Literacy Schemes had no formal or an informal assessment procedure. Assessment policies and procedures need to be developed with input from internal and external stakeholders. Practitioners and learners require a standardised, reliable and valid assessment framework for working with ESOL learners encompassing literacy and special needs (dyslexia and other learning difficulties). Incorporating learner involvement, it is recommended this framework should provide the basis for course entry, on course assessment and stating final outcomes. A model of assessment needs to be flexible given the degree of diversity that exists in the asylum seeking population and practical for each service provider.

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CHAPTER SIX

6.5 Summary of key points


Planning programmes to meet the needs of learners involves a number of steps which relate to initial enrolment and record keeping; carrying out a needs analysis in conjunction with new adult learners and an initial assessment of skills. Initial enrolment and record keeping are important aspects of organising and co-ordinating education programmes. Record keeping in the VECs was generally variable. Information on participants was more readily available where there was a designated co-ordinator. Detailed attendance records are required for future analysis and to track the progress of learners. In some cases, learners did not register for programmes prior to arriving at classes and expected to join immediately. Several tutors found this arrangement to be a disrupting influence and required set course terms. Planning a programme and analysing needs involves four steps: (1) finding out about a learner, (2) analysing goals, (3) assessment of a learners current language skills and (4) negotiating a programme of work. Following an initial interview, assessment should take place in a non-threatening environment. Information required includes: aspirations/aims, analysis of aims, prior learning, perceived needs and assessment of needs. Working in cooperation with the learner and analysing goals, courses should be broken down into short manageable objectives. Planning programmes in accordance with learners needs was generally informal. A number of programmes attempted to integrate a short non-invasive interview, designed to assess an adult learners communicative skills in English. Disparity characterised practice within the VECs with class availability frequently being the determining factor. This regularly resulted in mixed ability classroom settings and tutors had to assess the needs of adult learners. Assessment of new learners enables tutors and second language learners to establish what skills they have at a fixed point in time. As yet there is no standardised ESOL assessment framework in Ireland which can evaluate a learners language and literacy skills. The Common European Framework of Reference for
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Languages can be used as a basis for assessment, both initial and ongoing. It includes a grid of level descriptors to assess proficiency in terms of understanding, speaking and writing another language. The grid does not refer to basic skills and the European Language Portfolio cannot be used for initial assessment with a view to placement. NALA published a framework for assessing literacy and numeracy (December 2001). The framework is flexible and can be used in a variety of settings designed to map the learning journey of the adult literacy learner. As NALAs framework was devised for indigenous speakers of English, it does not incorporate the various stages in language acquisition. A large section of the framework is devoted to literacy and the sections evaluating communicative skills are too narrowly defined. However, based on adult education principles, NALAs framework comprises a demarcated assessment structure that can be used as a guide for ESOL. In the absence of any formal assessment framework for ESOL, most providers in Dublin were using approximate TEFL guidelines. Assessment was generally informal with interviews, cloze tests, reading/comprehension and writing pieces being used to determine placement. In some cases, no assessment was carried out and literacy in mother tongue was rarely considered. In most cases the assessors were language tutors. Operating in collaboration, practitioners from a broad range of fields need to come together to devise tools for initial and ongoing assessment of ESOL learners. A similar approach has been adopted in the UK. A model assessment needs to be flexible given the degree of diversity existing in the asylum seeking population and practical for use by each service provider.

6.6 Recommendations
It is recommended:

Initial enrolment and record keeping The VECs develop a new standardised enrolment form for minority linguistic learners. Information is collated through a database for future analysis and reporting to major stakeholders. Reception and non-academic staff trained (including language awareness) to deal with black and ethnic minorities.

There is a designated staff member on site who can provide information on courses to new learners.

Needs analysis and planning a programme General syllabus is devised for a range of levels for graded classes. Tutors refine topics into a scheme of work based on ongoing assessment and through negotiation with learners. Needs analysis is conducted through formal and informal procedures, which include a suggested interview structure and checklists of learning priorities (to be translated into key languages in Ireland) related to the syllabus and class negotiation. Care is taken to guarantee initial interviews are noninvasive and take place in a non-threatening environment. Competency in each learners skills is assessed (see below). Language and literacy organisers/co-ordinators are issued with guidelines to assist them plan programmes.

Initial and ongoing assessment The DES supports the development of an assessment framework for use with ESOL learners. Designed for intake, ongoing assessment and stating final outcomes, it needs to account for learners with no literacy skills in their mother tongue or who have learning difficulties. The framework should be mapped against existing assessment tools, for example, the NALA assessment framework. The assessment is devised on the basis of a collaborative effort involving adult education, literacy and ESOL practitioners. A broad range of perspectives is required for this undertaking ensuring all agencies and stakeholders have ownership of the process. The framework takes account of existing tools within Ireland and elsewhere. Minority linguistic groups are consulted and advise on its development. The framework is piloted and providers trained for its usage. Language assessors have an ESOL teaching background.

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CHAPTER SEVEN English Language Tutors

7.1 Introduction
utors are the foundation of adult education. This chapter argues that the growth of the ESOL sector will depend on its ability to attract and maintain expertise. Reflecting the ethos, networks and background of each provider, tutor recruitment and induction practices are also described. In examining tutor training, it is established tutors need to acquire a broad range of skills to enable them to tutor asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups, which includes adult education perspectives, assessment of second language learners, didactic skills, linguistics and theory/practice of teaching literacy to ESOL learners. Finally, a discussion of working conditions for tutors is provided, together with recommendations for future support.

more likely to hire tutors who had a literacy background. However, because of a lack of suitable candidates, increasingly tutors with only a TEFL background were being recruited from outside the VEC. Methods of recruitment within the VEC were generally informal. Language teaching positions were only advertised if on a contractual basis. Because most tutors were paid on an hourly basis from the adult literacy budget, recruitment was based on recommendations from other VEC personnel or the VEC register for part-time teaching staff. Tutors were hired following a brief interview. Curriculum Vitaes were requested and details taken to fill out return forms for Head Office, however, this practice remains informal. The VEC needs to develop a standard policy of recruitment for parttime tutors with specified requirements. Providers did not have asylum seekers or refugees directly involved in language teaching (although SPIRASI have several asylum seekers and individuals with legal residency working in other capacities). With sufficient English language skills and appropriate training, asylum seekers, together with other linguistic minorities, can be involved in tutoring and initial assessment.

7.2 Recruitment of tutors


Tutor recruitment reflects the ethos, networks and background of each educational provider. For example, in organisations or programmes (the IILT and ESOL Tallaght Programme) where co-ordinators were TEFL practitioners, tutors with primary degrees, a strong TEFL background and international teaching experience in EFL were more likely to be hired. Established by religious orders, SPIRASI and the Vincentian Refugee Centre have a significant number of volunteers and staff members with international experience of teaching in developing countries. These individuals are often from religious orders and sometimes have postprimary teaching qualifications. They are less likely to have tutors from an adult education background. SPIRASI has a protocol of selecting volunteers and teaching staff with intercultural experience and a commitment to working with asylum seekers. Teaching positions in the IILT and NGOs were not advertised. Relying on recommendations from other providers/ networks, Curriculum Vitaes (CVs) and information requests were frequently received from individuals seeking language teaching experience or employment. Drawing from these applications, recruitment procedures appeared to be more formal in the IILT and SPIRASI. With no formal VEC recruitment policy for part-time staff, the profile of VEC language tutors varied from those with primary and masters degrees to tutors with no experience of higher education. AEOs and ALOs initially recruited tutors already within the VEC sector with a TEFL background or who had completed a TEFL course. In addition, ALOs were
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7.3 Induction
In most programmes evaluated, there was no formal induction procedure for new language tutors. Most VEC tutors did not have an induction and were given materials collated by a former tutor and expected to start teaching immediately. Several tutors had an initial conversation with an organiser/co-ordinator but were not provided with any specific preparation for working with asylum seekers. There was no formal induction or preparation for language tutors in the FS Asylum Seekers Unit. In several NGOs, the only induction provided was a brief conversation with new tutors. However, SPIRASI have a full orientation for new tutors on the role of the organisation, structure and nature of language provision. Induction within the IILT involved an initial information session with a co-ordinator. Over a period of a time, tutors spent time reading through the units materials/policies, observing other practitioners in a classroom situation and team teaching before commencing work. An induction course is required before language tutors commence teaching. Providing a brief history of the organi-

sation would allow tutors to gain an understanding of where they are placed in the overall structure. Regulations, policies and guidelines should be issued and tutors prepared for teaching minority linguistic groups. Additional information sessions should be provided on the refugee experience and how to interact with learners experiencing trauma. Where general graded syllabuses exist, the content needs to be discussed with new tutors. A precedent already exists within the VEC for induction programmes. For example, new tutors in the VEC Prison Education Service attend a short induction course organised by the In-service Committee for Prison Education. Tutors learn about prisons in Ireland, the education approach adopted in the VEC, adult education and prison rules/regulations. Newly appointed ESOL tutors would benefit from a similar programme.

Tutors pursued other types of teacher training, for example, several tutors had adult education qualifications from third level institutions. Tutors with literacy training in Adult Literacy Schemes underwent non-accredited 20-30 hour preservice literacy training. This training was further complimented by separate courses in phonology, materials development, microteaching, group work and special needs (dyslexia) offered by literacy schemes or NALA. Moreover, there was an identifiable trend of upskilling and further study among tutors. For example, a number of tutors were studying for postgraduate qualifications in adult/community education, applied linguistics and language teaching through the Open University or distance education with other third level institutions. Fundamental differences exist between EFL and basic skills teaching. Each one alone cannot equip a tutor to work with the diversity of learning experiences and language abilities in the asylum seeking population. For example, basic skills learners often have negative experiences of school and of non-promotion in work because of low literacy difficulties. However, as outlined in Chapter 3, a significant number of asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups have achieved a high level of academic and professional skills. This group of learners need to reorient themselves in a new country, acquire English language skills and if permitted to remain, upgrade professional qualifications. According to the British Department of Education and Skills Working Group Report on ESOL (2000), tutors need a combination of English Language Teaching and basic skills teaching techniques. However, the Working Group states that there are often closer links between ESOL and teaching in EFL/Modern Languages. Within adult education in the present research, tutors with EFL and literacy training combined principles and methodologies. For example, in EFL accreditation mechanisms determine class practice and tutors frequently rely on EFL materials. Tutors with literacy training adopted a needs based approach where the learner articulated their learning objectives and classes focused on everyday needs. However, most experienced TEFL tutors (with no literacy training) interviewed had largely adopted a needs based approach. Generally, providers organised in-service training for education staff working with asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Between February and May 2001, the VECs commissioned service providers working with asylum seekers and refugees to deliver information sessions on: the historical and legal situation; health and social
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7.4 Second language teacher education


The White Paper on Adult Education (2000) recognised the need for career progression and teaching qualifications in adult education for practitioners. Second language teacher education considers how to teach a second language (Freeman, 2001). Although not explicitly mentioned in the White Paper, second language teacher education should be situated within training for adult educators. The vast majority of tutors working with asylum seekers have completed the RELSA Preparatory Certificate in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Predominantly selffinancing, most tutors attended teacher-training centres in private language schools or universities operating under MEI/RELSA Ireland (Marketing English in Ireland/The Recognised English Language Schools Association of Ireland). Consisting of course tuition, teaching practice and teaching observation, tutors attended courses ranging from between 70-100 hours. The DES regulates the English Language Teaching (ELT) sector through the Advisory Council for English Language Schools (ACELS). Reconstituted in 1995, the agency was set up to promote standards in ELT in Ireland. Its main functions include: quality assurance, recognition of teacher qualifications and training courses, developing examinations for ELT in the Irish context, materials development, training for tutors, training in marketing/managing programmes and promoting Ireland as a centre of ELT excellence.

CHAPTER SEVEN

issues; education and language issues; anti-racism/cultural awareness and groups with special needs (torture survivors, women and unaccompanied minors). The IILT delivered the session on education and language issues in which an overview of the IILTs work was provided, together with an introduction to the European Language Portfolio and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Further training for tutors involving language trainers who were operating on a consultative basis was arranged in County Dublin VEC by the Tallaght ESOL programme. The FS Asylum Seeker Unit organised pre-service days for all staff members. Ranging from anti-racism training to cultural awareness, FS was the only agency to organise language programmes in Russian and Romanian for staff to deal with different ethnic groups. While FS had not arranged any specific training for the units language tutors, education staff were permitted to attend seminars. The IILT explained that resources were not available to enable new teaching staff to undergo an intensive preservice training programme. However, the unit organises four days of in-service a year involving a series of seminars examining ongoing curriculum and staff development. SPIRASI organised two days on communicative ESOL methods delivered by private language trainers. Although other NGOs did not organise any specialised training on ESOL, tutors were encouraged to attend training offered elsewhere. Tutors expressed frustration that future training opportunities in ESOL in Ireland were limited. The Green Paper on Adult Education (1998) made a strong case for the development of recognised teaching qualifications in adult education and syllabus design, together with structures for ongoing in-service training and career progression for practitioners. A structure is already in place within the adult literacy sector in which new tutors and volunteers are provided with initial training. A similar programme could be put in place for new language tutors and information sessions on new specialised areas of knowledge (refugee women, torture survivors) informally organised. To ensure training offered by the VECs is responsive, tutors need to articulate immediate training needs and make recommendations for in-service to programme managers. ESOL Tutor Forums can be used for this purpose, as well as organising workshops and delivering ongoing in-service. However, ESOL is a specialised area of knowledge and tutors require recognised Certificate/Diploma teaching qualifications to
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enhance teaching practice and for career progression. Existing tutors with an EFL background need to be updated in current ESOL methods and trained in adult education theory, the practice of teaching literacy to ESOL learners, together with anti-racism/interculturalism. Tutors with only a literacy background do not have the knowledge base to teach language and need to study linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT) methodology (second language acquisition, language pedagogy, phonology, pronunciation/intonation, English grammar and bilingualism) and anti-racism/ interculturalism. Situated within an adult learning framework, Box 1 outlines specialised subject areas for future training to enable tutors to work with minority linguistic groups (inspired by British Department of Education and Skills, 2000).

Adult education perspectives and theory. Minorities in adult education. Assessment of second language learners. Didactic skills in language teaching: learning styles, classroom management, mixed level, peer teaching, learning difficulties, syllabus and curriculum design. Linguistics: second/new language acquisition, language pedagogy, phonology, English grammar, bilingualism, learner autonomy. Theory and practice of teaching literacy to ESOL learners. Anti-racism, cultural awareness, mediation skills for working in an intercultural environment.
Box 1: Subject areas for tutor training

Anti-racism, cultural awareness and mediation skills are included to ensure tutors have the pedagogical skills to counteract prejudice and devise teaching strategies to guarantee academic achievement in a culturally diverse setting. Efforts have been made to offer accredited ESOL training to tutors. Due to the lack of specialised knowledge in teaching literacy to ESOL learners the DES supported the City of Dublin VEC (in association with County Dublin VEC and NALA) to commission the LLLU to deliver training on the topic. Entitled Teaching Basic Literacy to ESOL learners the course was delivered over a week in June 2002 for experienced tutors. The course combined: (1) didactic skills for

teaching literacy to ESOL learners (individual learning styles, syllabus design, staging and managing lessons); (2) teaching approaches (phonics, handwriting, dyslexia and bilingual learners, strategies for mixed levels, teaching spelling); (3) assessment and (4) a materials development workshop. A final tutorial day is scheduled for October 2002 to enable tutors to prepare an assignment for accreditation. Since 2001, NALA have organised one-day sessions introducing approaches in ESOL and intend to devise an ESOL module for working with all ESOL learners for delivery with its National Certificate in Adult and Community Education (tutoring) in collaboration with WIT. The existing course modules include: a foundation module, micro teaching, theoretical perspectives in adult education, group work, curriculum development, literacy and special needs (sensitivity and awareness) workplace practicum, social analysis and educational policy, introduction to counselling, adult literacy (two modules) and adult numeracy. Several of the modules are comparable to the box outlined above. However, language teaching is a specialised area of knowledge/expertise and didactic skills employed for second language learners differ from techniques used with native speakers of English. If NALA add an ESOL module with linguistics subject areas, didactic and literacy skills for teaching second language learners need to be included. It is recommended the DES support the development of specialised Certificates and Diplomas for ESOL, or allocate funding to allow current providers of accredited training in adult education and ELT to adapt existing programmes.

Tutors teaching language classes for Adult Literacy Schemes felt isolated. A VEC tutor explained they did not feel part of a team and many others seemed extremely unclear and unaware of the full range of activities carried out by the VECs. Tutor isolation was found to be an important factor in an internal audit of County Dublin VECs literacy service carried out in 2001 and organising social outings, together with regular meetings, was recommended to address this issue. Allowing tutors to directly inform overall ESOL and adult education provision, the VECs should support tutor forums and develop tutors as a team. Requiring basic resources to prepare for classes (which were not always available), tutors suggested VECs invest in: better resource rooms with up-to-date teaching materials, computer access, telephone lines and photocopiers. Additional supports required related to course management. For example, although AEOs and ALOs provided day-to-day management support to tutors, more assistance was required in language pedagogy.

7.6 Summary of key points


Tutor recruitment reflected the ethos, networks and background of each educational provider. Methods of recruitment within the VECs were generally informal and there was considerable diversity within the tutor population. No organisation had asylum seekers or refugees directly involved in language teaching. With sufficient English language skills and appropriate training, asylum seekers, together with other minority linguistic groups, can be involved in tutoring and initial assessment. There were no formal induction procedures for new language tutors. A precedent already exists within the VEC for induction programmes in the Prison Education Service, ESOL tutors would benefit from a similar programme. The vast majority of tutors working with asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups had completed the RELSA Preparatory Certificate in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). However, tutors had other teaching qualifications and training for example, literacy, adult and community education and postgraduate studies in linguistics.

7.5 Conditions and support


Tutors are the mainstay of adult education. The White Paper on Adult Education (2000) recognised the need for the sector to become attractive as a profession; the vast majority of tutors interviewed were paid by the hour or were working as volunteers. The FS Asylum Seeker Unit, the IILT and the City of Dublin VEC employed language-teaching staff on a contractual basis. Several tutors communicated their intention to continue language teaching but required more job security. One tutor argued it was unfair for the further education sector to discuss equality for learners when it was not being afforded to tutors. Relying on temporary part-time workers and volunteers can be very disruptive for adult learners as tutors can be transient (this has been the experience of the VECs and SPIRASI). Furthermore, the benefits of training part-time tutors will be very limited if they do not remain within the sector. Certainly, the development of the sector will depend on its ability to maintain and attract expertise.

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CHAPTER SEVEN

Fundamental differences exist between EFL and basic skills teaching. Each is not enough to equip an ESOL tutor for mixed ability classrooms. Tutors who had undergone EFL and literacy training combined principles and methodologies from both. Very experienced TEFL tutors had largely adopted a needs based approach with asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Although most providers organised in-service days for English language tutors, frustration was expressed at the limited opportunities for training in ESOL in Ireland. Situated within an adult learning framework, recognised Certificate/Diploma teaching qualifications in ESOL should be developed to allow tutors enhance their teaching practice. Tutors are the mainstay of adult education. The majority of tutors interviewed were paid by the hour. However, relying on temporary part-time workers and volunteers can be very disruptive for adult learners. The development of the sector will depend on its ability to maintain and attract expertise.

ESOL Tutor Forums are used to organise workshops and ongoing tutor training. The DES support post-graduate studies in ESOL to increase the degree of expertise in the sector. The VECs increase the number of ESOL tutors who are paid on a contractual basis. With sufficient English language skills and appropriate training, asylum seekers, together with other minorities are involved in tutoring and initial assessment. ESOL tutors are developed as part of a team and the VEC support them to come together as part of an ESOL Tutors Forum to inform practice and improve communications with educational management. They need to meet at least quarterly for workshops and social events. The VECs consider developing tutors as tutor trainers or materials writers. An investment needs to be made by the VECs into resource rooms and teaching resources for tutors.

7.7 Recommendations
It is recommended:

English language tutors The DES supports the development of specialised Certificates and Diplomas for ESOL, or allocates significant funding to allow current providers of accredited training in adult education and ELT to adapt existing programmes (See box 1 for guide). The VECs develop a standard policy of recruitment for part-time tutors with specified requirements. The VECs produce induction packs for new employees with background on the organisation, directory of staff members, all official policies and publications. Language tutors attend an induction course before beginning tuition. These courses could be organised by an overall co-ordinator or in the case of County Dublin VEC, the In-service Co-ordinator. Information sessions organised on different aspects of the refugee experience for education staff. Training packs compiled for training qualifications. Tutors articulate training needs through ESOL Tutor Forums and make recommendations to organisers/programme managers.
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CHAPTER EIGHT Language and literacy provision

8.1 Introduction
he role of ESOL practitioners involves helping adult learners to navigate a new language/culture and this task is multifarious. An examination of ESOL provision for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups reveals that the sector is very new, with most providers having no more than six years experience. ESOL providers work with an extremely disparate group of learners who experience situational and dispositional barriers accessing tuition. This chapter examines how ESOL programmes are organised and considers the different aspects of on-course provision: lesson planning, language provision, literacy for ESOL, materials/curricula, visits, review/evaluation, monitoring learners progress and accreditation.

8.2 Organisation of learning


The day-to-day organisation of learning involves: identifying teaching and learning goals; establishing standards of performance; identifying and deploying resources (financial/human); monitoring performance; corrective action and developing an insight into the delivery of programmes (White, 2001). In the City of Dublin VEC, ESOL for asylum seekers is area based and organised as part of adult education, adult literacy or in mainstream institutions. For example, language programmes are organised by Adult Education Organisers (AEOs) (City Centre, North Central), ALOs (Crumlin/Inchicore, Finglas, City Centre and Ringsend/Rathmines) and VEC schools/colleges. Most programme managers had no language teaching experience and the organisation of ESOL was undertaken in addition to other duties. Within the County Dublin VEC, the organisation of ESOL programmes demonstrates some similarities. Provision develops through the local area adult education service within the remit of the AEOs. Two part-time ESOL Support Workers have been appointed in Tallaght and Blanchardstown to develop provision, provide support and co-operate with the County In-service Coordinator. The ESOL Support Workers have a language teaching background and tutor several ESOL classes. Furthermore, VEC schools/colleges are engaged in running classes as part of their adult education programme. Largely organisers with no EFL/ESOL experience undertake the organisation of learning for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Posing particular challenges for the growth of this sector, organisers will be unable to establish standards of performance and monitor performance without first understanding the basic features of ESOL. In addition, organisers will experience difficulties implementing the full range of recommendations in this report on course provision. Most programme managers are overstretched and a minority of organisers expressed concern about organising programmes for Irish adults as a priority. Moreover, programme managers without an ESOL background should not be engaged in full assessment of second language learners. However, there are beneficial aspects to the current organisation of learning. Provision for asylum seekers is already mainstreamed (within the state sector) in the VECs and situated within an adult learning framework. In addition, adult education practitioners already have an extensive experience working with marginalized communities and are able to respond to learners social/emotional needs.

Awareness training in issues affecting asylum seekers and training in ESOL provision is required for programme managers relating to: recruitment of learners, profiling learners needs, assessment, syllabus development, monitoring progress and evaluation. Area based ESOL co-ordinators or core tutors given extra hours could assist in these activities (a precedent already exists in the VECs). For example, although language classes in Parnell Adult Learning Centre are organised by an Adult Education Organiser, a core tutor is responsible for interviewing new clients, assessment of learners and class placement. However, because most programme managers originate from an adult education/literacy background, they will require guidance and assistance on language pedagogy. The VECs should consider appointing a VEC ESOL Co-ordinator for this task. The organisation of learning by other agencies was carried out by designated co-ordinators (DALC, IILT and SPIRASI) or was the duty of key staff members (FS Asylum Seeker Unit, Vincentian Refugee Centre and Tallaght Refugee Project). In SPIRASI, the co-ordinator worked on a full-time basis for a year on a voluntary basis. To avoid professional burnout, personnel need to receive a paid salary. The City of Dublin VEC has made some efforts in this regard and allocated hours for coordination. However, if organisations such as SPIRASI are to maintain staff members, funding is required to employ them on a more secure basis.

8.3 Learning sites


The physical setting for language tuition is an obvious metaphor for adult learners status in society (Auerbach, 1995). Where classes occur
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CHAPTER EIGHT

in borrowed space, clear messages are sent to learners about the importance of their education. Within adult education/literacy, the suitability and condition of learning sites has been consistently raised as an issue which needs to be addressed (Mulvey, 1994; OSullivan, 1999; NALA, 2001). Highlighting the inadequacy of premises, the White Paper on Adult Education (2000) noted mainstream institutions are not eager to afford adequate space to adult education. Within the VECs, full-time programmes and adult literacy take precedence over language classes for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic. For example, a programme manager explained language classes had to be scheduled when classrooms were not used for other purposes (fulltime VTOS courses or literacy tuition). In addition, efforts to offer childcare were made by a number of providers but in practice classes had to be organised when crches were empty (Crumlin/Inchicore VEC Literacy Scheme and VEC Tallaght programme). In a study of the City of Dublin VEC Literacy Service, OSullivan (1999) made suggestions to address the availability of space. Encouraging schools and colleges to afford literacy a more central role in its overall agenda, OSullivan recommends that senior personnel timetable rooms specifically for literacy learners. Similar actions should also be applied for ESOL. However, parity of provision for Irish nationals and asylum seekers must be guaranteed. If VECs are to be the main service providers for this client group, then Irish nationals and asylum seekers need to be treated equally. VEC language classes take place in a range of venues including: unoccupied
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classrooms in primary and postprimary schools; VEC schools/colleges; NGOs and adult learning centres. Many of these premises are not VEC properties and issues relating to availability, rental cost and security of occupancy regularly emerge. For example, an ALO in the City of Dublin VEC organised language classes in a vacant room in a school for almost two years. However, the school decided to run a pre-school playgroup for infants in the same room. Although the context was not conducive to adult learning, the VEC tutor involved had little option but to continue teaching the language class in the same room as the infants. Ensuring language classes are located in appropriate learning sites for adults is one of the greatest obstacles facing the growth of the sector. Community based centres were the best sites for language classes for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups, for example: An Cosan, DALC, Dolebusters and SPIRASI. Each had well equipped training rooms, open reception areas, a private space to interview clients, computers, canteen facilities and received support from their local VEC. Most of these centres are almost full to capacity and it is unlikely they will be able to expand their provision greatly. While many accommodation units outside Dublin have facilities for adult learning (for example, Knocklasheen in County Clare and Mosney in County Meath), units in Dublin are inappropriate adult learning sites as they usually have only one shared recreation room. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC will need to invest in VEC premises or secure adequate space in other facilities. Some efforts have been made in this regard.

Originally based in the Vietnamese English Language Centre, the City of Dublin VEC relocated language classes to Parnell Adult Learning Centre. This centre currently accommodates several other programmes (City of Dublin VEC Project with the Homeless Services, Drugs Court Initiative, Access Programme for Separated Children etc.). Heavily invested in by the DES, it has fully equipped training rooms, a computer room, canteen facilities and an open reception area is planned. A commitment has also been made by the DES to County Dublin VEC to develop a multi-purpose adult education centre in Tallaght. Premises in the FS Asylum Seeker Unit were considered to be satisfactory by tutors. Language classes took place in training rooms and learners had access to canteen facilities. In addition, with individual offices for FS Placement Officers, clients were interviewed in a private space. Although the IILTs learning sites were originally based in private language schools (because the DES launched a tendering process for the schools), provision is currently offered in association with FS and delivered in the IILTs premises. Private language schools are inappropriate for refugees and non-nationals with permanent residency because of the profile of other learners in these schools. Usually made-up of transient learners studying EFL, refugees are more suited to adult education settings with ethnic minorities from similar background or centres frequented by Irish adults.

8.4 Accessibility, safety and transport


The White Paper on Adult Education (2000) recommends learning sites and

premises should be accessible to all learners with disabilities. Generally, most facilities were judged to be inaccessible for people with disabilities and parents with children by language providers. Organisations considered to be accessible were the FS Asylum Seeker Unit, the Vincentian Refugee Centre and An Cosan. Efforts were made to improve accessibility in several other organisations. For example, SPIRASI relocated their reception area to the ground floor. While very few asylum seekers with disabilities access these centres, it is still vital to consider their needs. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC have no explicit disability policy. While programmes are offered to people with disabilities in day centres, the VECs have yet to examine their own premises for accessibility. However, efforts have been made to address this issue. The City of Dublin VEC acknowledge, in its response to the Green Paper on Adult Education (1999), premises need to be physically adapted to accommodate people with disabilities. Adult educators within the city frequently meet as an informal network to discuss disability and it is proposed that an audit is undertaken in VEC education premises. Ensuring learning sites are located in safe areas for black and ethnic minorities are crucial. The majority of providers believed their programmes were located in a safe environment for learners. However, community groups located in areas experiencing high unemployment mentioned a number of incidents. For example, An Siol organised language classes for non-nationals in a community centre in the northwest inner city. The classes were not well attended and the co-ordinator discovered that learners were unwilling to travel into the area. Revealing they did not feel safe, the learners explained they were frequently exposed to racism on the street. This experience is not uncommon among asylum seekers. In Amnesty Internationals survey of black and ethnic minorities, 48% of racist incidents experienced by respondents had occurred on the street (FAQs Research/Loyal & Mulcahy, 2001). When organising programmes, providers must think about potential safety issues for black and ethnic minorities. Language classes need to be located in learning centres which are well connected to public transportation networks. Eight percent of survey participants involved in the present research cited classes were too far away from their place of residence. Most City of Dublin VEC and NGO programmes were connected to major bus routes and located close to the city centre. Programmes in County Dublin VEC were more

likely to be based in local community settings in housing estates where asylum seekers live. In some cases, programmes provided costs towards public transportation (FS Asylum Seeker Unit, IILT) or offered a bus service to adult learners (Tallaght Refugee Project).

8.5 Lesson planning


Several providers did not carry out a needs analysis of learners prior to the commencement of language classes and tutors were left to appraise the needs of the group themselves. While inexperienced TEFL trained tutors used textbooks as guides for lesson planning, all other tutors planned lessons around learner needs. Undertaken on either a weekly or monthly basis, learners were asked by tutors what they wanted to study. A class plan, general syllabus or scheme of work was devised based on an outline of needs. Incorporating learner involvement, the IILT pre-vocational language programme relied mostly on the benchmarks and the European Language Portfolio to determine course objectives. In addition, several tutors included exercises to address particular mistakes their learners repeatedly made. While most tutors were utilising a needs based approach, they still experienced a number of difficulties which affected syllabus/scheme of work and lesson planning. Firstly, the learner centred approach is new to most ethnic minorities and encouraging them to state their needs can be challenging in the initial phase. Secondly, newly arrived asylum seekers may have no idea of what functional language they need to navigate the Irish system. Using a syllabus/scheme of work devised in conjunction with learners who have gone through the refugee experience can help to overcome this. Thirdly, where tutors have less time to prepare, textbooks are more likely to be used. Fourthly, attendance of asylum seekers is erratic because of urgent demands attending the Department of Justice, seeking legal advice, visiting doctors, finding accommodation and dealing with childrens education. A number of tutors explained that they planned classes based on topics learners had asked for the previous week. However, learners sometimes do not attend the following week which tutors found extremely frustrating. Finally, because nearly all classes were being taught through English, learners with little or no English speaking skills were unable to articulate their needs. Reinforcing their sense of powerlessness, their own life experiences were excluded from the class. In these circumstances, a learner centred approach cannot be relied on. For example, in the IILTs literacy class, the European
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Language Portfolio predominantly guided lesson planning. It was explained by the tutor that learners are unable to articulate needs in the first couple of months. At this stage of learning, the tutor has to decide what learners need to know and activities are incorporated based on the portfolio. Language barriers can be overcome by using tutors who share common language backgrounds with learners or ESOL Development/Outreach Workers to act as bilingual assistants to programmes (paid or voluntarily). Many asylum seekers and other ethnic minorities originate from polyglot cultures and are often fluent in several languages. Additionally, more advanced learners from the same minority linguistic group can be asked to assist. Experience illustrates that bilingual assistants who are from the same linguistic group can accelerate language learning (please refer to Section 2.5). This study discovered one case where a bilingual assistant was working in conjunction with a tutor. For Arabic-speaking women only, the class was organised by the City of Dublin VEC in the Islamic Foundation. With significant numbers of the same linguistic group, the VECs should explore the possibility of using ESOL Development/Outreach Workers, from minority linguistic groups as bilingual assistants. This practice would be particularly beneficial for non-literate learners and ESOL Workers could also be asked to support several literacy programmes.

tations on politics/history of the learners country of origin, dialogues and pair work. To develop listening skills, tutors used commercial EFL and self-made tapes in class. Reading aloud, drilling and tape work were the most common methods of improving a learners pronunciation, with emphasis placed on learners being understood. Tutors mentioned that Vietnamese and Arabic speakers had particular difficulties with pronunciation, as some English sounds do not exist in their mother tongue. They frequently required extra assistance and a number of providers were considering organising pronunciation courses for these groups (SPIRASI and the IILT). In a focus group with Arabic speaking women in the Islamic Cultural Centre (ICI), learners requested the VEC arrange extra classes to help them with their pronunciation. For developing reading and writing skills, tutors used reading/comprehension pieces from EFL course books, ESOL material or made up work sheets from authentic materials newspapers, information booklets, recipes and instructions from medicine bottles. Picture grams with blank spaces were popular as they allowed learners to explain the picture story in their own words. Additionally, vocabulary lists were drawn up for learners on new language forms. In several programmes importance was attached to socio-cultural knowledge. Sometimes sections from childrens history books were used to develop learners general competency in Irish history and cultural events of Irish importance were celebrated in the classroom (Parnell Adult Learning Centre). Learners cultural background was integrated into class work by requesting them to write about specific topics from their country of origin. A number of tutors observed that there needed to be considerable trust with asylum seekers before they relate anything about their country of origin. In addition, learners mother tongue was acknowledged in class by asking learners to explain how ideas/concepts in English were expressed in their own language. Several providers recognised the importance of organising outreach classes for women cut because of cultural factors, for example: the Tallaght Refugee Project and County Dublin VEC (An Cosan and Ballycragh National School). The City of Dublin VEC organised women only classes in the Islamic Foundation, South Circular Road in April 2001, which were relocated to the ICI, Clonskeagh in September 2001. In Islam, all Muslims are required to study the scriptures and the Muslim philosophy of education is a philosophy of lifetime learning based on literacy (Gundara, 2000: 173).

8.6 ESOL provision


Incorporating a multitude of methodologies, providers described teaching approaches as broadly communicative. Communicative language teaching in an ESOL context considers learners educational experiences/employment aspirations. Language tutors incorporate communicative language-techniques to allow learners to reach short-term goals and acquire functional English for everyday situations. Task based and action orientated, emphasis is placed on learning through the development of oral communication skills but not exclusively (see the Adult ESOL Curriculum, 2001 and Common Framework of Reference for Languages 1996). In most programmes, emphasis was placed on communication and methodologies chosen to suit the learning styles of learners. Experienced tutors relied on group work to develop oral communications skills in English for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Communicative methods included: debates, group discussions, puzzles, games, role-play in post offices/banks, class presenChapter Eight | Page 68

With over 1,000 Muslims accessing the centre on a weekly basis, the ICI has a strong commitment to develop as an adult learning site. Arabic is offered to the general public and language classes are provided for asylum seeking/refugee men and women. Currently in receipt of grant aid to build a crche, the centre intends to expand its provision to reach more women. However, literacy support is not offered and the centre needs learning resources for example, computers and basic materials.

literacy skills in their first language. While these learners were given extra help, the tutor believed they would be unable to pass final exams. Learners need to have the appropriate language and literacy skills to succeed in these programmes. Learners with literacy needs frequently stopped attending ESOL classes and when they continued progress was slow. However, a number of projects had made several efforts to accommodate literacy learners. For example, organised by County Dublin VEC, An Cosan employed two tutors (one literacy and one language) to work with refugee women. The class was able to work together on a number of activities. However, when reading and writing skills were addressed, ESOL learners and literacy for ESOL learners were separated into two groups. In the FS Asylum Seeker Unit, importance was attached to Caterpillar English because language classes were designed to facilitate entry into employment. Caterpillar English is based on the premise that learners need to acquire enough basic oral communications skills to enable them to enter employment. Over the course of six weeks, learners are taught prevocational English and once in employment they are able to acquire more English by associating with Irish employees. They can further develop their English language skills by attending more classes after work funded by FS. However, this approach poses a number of difficulties for learners with literacy needs. Literacy skills were not addressed in the FS language classes. A number of learners were referred to a VEC scheme for one-to-one tuition or the FS language tutor tried to help the learner
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8.7 Literacy for ESOL learners


Two groups of learners were identified as requiring literacy for ESOL classes: learners who need to learn how to read and write in the Roman alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Hebrew speakers) and people who have little or no literacy skills in their mother tongue (refer to Section 2.5 for a more comprehensive discussion). ESOL learners with a strong educational background were frequently grouped together in monolingual beginners classes with individuals with no literacy skills. Monolingual classes (classes comprised of both educated language learners and non-literate learners) and mixed ability and mixed levels were organised by: the VEC Adult Literacy Schemes, the FS Asylum Seeker Unit and several NGOs. Inappropriate placement of learners was due to the availability of classes or the type of initial assessment used. Class availability in the VECs is dictated by the hour allocation system. For example, most programme managers have a certain number of hours allocated for language support to asylum seekers. When classes were initially planned, literacy for second language learners was not considered. Learners without literacy skills were found a few weeks later and tutors were unable to afford additional attention in class. For mother tongue non-literates, observing language learners with a stronger educational background acquire reading and writing skills in English at a much faster rate can be demoralising. In addition, most ESOL tutors did not have any specific training in literacy teaching and practice. From the survey of the asylum seeking population, over seven percent of asylum seekers had no literacy skills in their mother tongue or another language. To ensure their language learning experience is positive, they should be identified and placed in Literacy for ESOL classes when developing reading and writing skills. Providers need to decide whether Literacy for ESOL classes will be organised to support learners. By networking, learners can be referred to appropriate programmes with each scheme or programme developing expertise in either ESOL or Literacy for ESOL. VEC Adult Literacy Schemes could organise Literacy for ESOL as they are already trained to work with learners with basic skills needs. This group is currently under represented in all language programmes (including VEC adult literacy classes) and specific strategies need to be adopted for recruitment into literacy programmes. In terms of assessment, literacy skills in a learners mother tongue or first language should be considered. If literacy learners are not discovered, they can be placed in programmes which are completely unsuitable. For example, a tutor teaching English on a computer programme realised three learners had almost no

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after class. Because language acquisition was slow for literacy learners they remained in the FS class for another six weeks with a new group of learners. However, a number of asylum seekers with work rights and low levels of literacy were placed in employment, as the positions they secured did not require literacy skills. With no tracking of learners, it is not possible to ascertain if these individuals continued with their studies after commencing employment. The philosophy of work placement equals further language acquisition only applies to speaking/listening skills and depends on securing a job guaranteeing opportunities to communicate with English speaking coworkers. The vast majority of FS Asylum Seeker Unit clients were placed in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in: factories (28%), hotel and catering (19%), accounts/administration (11%), security (9%), transport (7%), retail (5%), construction (4%), stores (3%) and care work (2%). A minority found jobs in skilled employment - data processing (8%) and motor mechanics (4%) (FS Asylum Seeker Unit, 2001). In Alien Winds, Tollefson (1989) studied Indochinese refugees invited to settle in the United States of America. Authorities informed the refugees that acquiring functional English and securing work would result in greater English language proficiency. Enabling integration into American society, the refugees were assured American coworkers would help them to learn English. However, subsequent studies demonstrate this rarely happened; largely, the refugees obtained labour intensive and unskilled jobs with no opportunity to associate with (EnglishChapter Eight | Page 70

speaking) Americans. In addition, they worked long hours to support their families as they were paid low wages. The Indochinese refugees remained in a subordinate position within American society and never fully integrated. Efforts have been made to target adults with low literacy levels in the workforce through workplace literacy programmes. Employers are expected to contribute towards tuition cost and permit employees attend classes during work hours. Many of these projects have been co-ordinated by NALA in conjunction with other agencies/employers. For example, the Return to Learning Workplace Project in the Local Authorities is a partnership initiative, which includes the Local Authority National Partnership Advisory Group (LANPAG), the DES, NALA and the VECs. Piloted in five counties during 2000/1, the programme involved 80 hours of tuition delivered during the working day (refer to NALA, 2002c, for more information on workplace literacy and case studies). Organised by the Irish Trade Union Trust and supported by the DES, a Workplace Project with the Health Services National Partnership Forum included ESOL learners. The programme successfully ran for approximately 100 hours in two hospitals, Beaumount Hospital (began in May 2001) in Dublin and Cork University Hospital in Cork city (began in September 2001). Workplace literacy for ESOL programmes needs to be organised to target minority linguistic groups with low levels of literacy in employment. These groups will continue to occupy a subordinate position in Irish society and fail to acculturate if not included in programmes.

SPIRASI and the IILT organised specific classes with a focus on reading and writing for ESOL learners with literacy needs. According to an IILT tutor interviewed, teaching approaches used for working with literacy learners were primarily based on phonics and incorporating word recognition. Phonic approaches are based on the principle of identifying the regular sound-letter relationships in a writing system, and teaching the (learner) to use these to construct and decode(Crystal, 2000: 253). Learners first learned the alphabet, how to combine letters through phonics involving self-study with tapes (language labs). Word building and sentence building were introduced at a later stage. However, the phonics approach is not without difficulties because the relationship of sounds to letters is quite complicated. Griffiths (1999) recommends learners should not be encouraged to concentrate on this method alone. The IILT integrated other techniques into literacy classes based around taskbased learning. Griffiths (1999) recommends involving a combination of methodologies whole word recognition, prediction and phonics. Whole word recognition is a technique from the language experience approach. Avoiding the use of meaningless syllabics, word/letter recognition is based on the principle of recognising words as a whole within meaningful contexts of interest in simple texts (Crystal, 2000). Working from texts and the learners own experience, key words to be used include social sight words and words commonly found on official forms. However, social sight words need to be placed in their appropriate context in order to have meaning and words need to be used as part of phrases/sentences.

All learners with legal residency can avail of one years provision in IILT, however, the IILT did not have a literacy learner who progressed to the pre-vocational language class in one year. It was argued that once learners acquired study skills, they could then progress with their own education. However, the IILT did permit learners with literacy needs to remain in ESOL provision for longer than one year. A learner centred approach could not be relied on in the initial months because of language barriers. As learners could not articulate what they wanted to study, respective tutors would teach what they felt learners needed to know. Using the learners mother tongue in class can reduce affective barriers and result in more rapid progress. According to providers, non-literate language learners usually had no educational background or a disrupted education. Mainly originating from Algeria, Libya, Iraq and Somalia, a significant number of Nigerians have begun to access literacy programmes. DALC has organised a separate class with a literacy tutor for learners who are using New Englishes and need to learn how to communicate in Standard English.

learn how to use the appropriate form of English within the correct context. The Language Continuum idea is recommended as the most useful way of conceptualising contact and variation between Creoles and Standard English: A Creole continuum can be imagined as a line with a pure Creole at one end, and Creole with English features at the other. An English continuum could have Standard English at one end and Creole-influenced English at the other. A persons speech or writing will vary as appropriate to the requirements of different social situations and can be thought of as moving along the continuum accordingly (Schwab & Stone, 1985: 6). Raising the consciousness of learners, Schwab & Stone (1985) suggest using reading and writing exercises which incorporate Creole and Standard English in class. Directly transcribing learners talking about a significant issue for them, rewriting the same stories/ideas in Standard English and comparing the two versions can be used as an exercise for language awareness. There are a significant number of Nigerian asylum seekers in Dublin (over 27% - refer to Section 3.8) and providers need to consider specific methodologies/materials most appropriate for literacy/communications with African English speakers.

8.8 Standard English for African English speakers


Compared to the spread of Latin throughout the Roman Empire, the emergence of new Englishes, primarily Black English, is closely linked to the Slave Trade (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries). Black English speakers include: African pidgins, Caribbean Creole, the English of the southern states of America and the Black English of postcolonial British Isles (McCrum et al., 2002). Currently a lingua franca for many Africans, sailors and others involved in the Slave Trade provided the basis for present day Black English. Through separate language evolution, the grammatical structure in English Pidgins and Creoles is partly based on Standard English. However, the system of tones in African languages affects the meaning of words and direct expressions from mother tongues are incorporated affecting syntax and meaning (see McCrum et al., 2002). Without communication skills in Standard English, African English speakers will experience difficulties entering third level education or working in professional occupations. From teaching experience with Afro-Caribbean learners, Schwab & Stone (1985) have devised teaching methods based on the Language Experience Approach. Stressing the language used by Afro-Caribbean learners is not incorrect or ignorant, Schwab & Stone explain these learners need to

8.9 Difficulties attending programmes for asylum seekers


Most providers cited erratic attendance of asylum seekers as one of biggest problems they encountered. While the FS Asylum Seeker Unit and the IILT experienced regular attendance of learners, welfare payments were affected if learners failed to turn up to classes. In addition, with work rights and legal residency, the majority of their clients were more secure. Asylum seekers, in contrast are extremely unsettled and their day-to-day lives are filled with uncertainty. While the asylum seeking population is hugely disparate, the same journey is taken. Highly bureaucratised, asylum seekers are obliged to move through a complicated and demanding legal procedure. Basic needs such as welfare and accommodation take precedence over language provision. Over 9% of survey respondents stated they had too many other worries that prevented them from attending. A further 10% related they spent much of their time seeking accommodation, a further 11% stated they had no place to study, while 10% of respondents professed they had problems motivating themselves to attend programmes. Education staff believed a number of asylum seekers were working
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illegally and studying language was not a priority. Finally, most providers had not considered erratic attendance could be due to language programmes not fully meeting the needs of learners. Approximately 13% of respondents cited childrearing responsibilities as an obstacle to learning. To guarantee participation of parents with young children, providers need to offer childcare facilities. Given that women are often the main caregivers in families, organising classes without childcare facilities effectively excludes them from ESOL provision. This can lead to fragmentation in migrant/refugee families because of different levels of linguistic understanding and competency: The men tend to become bilingual, and operate within different skills and knowledge levels. But in many underclass communities women and girls remain monolingual, unskilled, and only able to do traditional tasks. As the children grow up they learn different languages and skills, and operate in different knowledge systems. This leads to underperformance by children in schools, and total isolation of women, with ensuing social and psychological problems (Gundara, 2000: 142). Educational qualifications or lack of them determine the life opportunities of people and social exclusion/poverty is closely linked to the background of parents (NAPS, 1997). If parents are under-educated or have low levels of English, they will have difficulty helping their children with homework and other needs. In addition, offering childcare to asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups will have many benefits. Parents without any family or social networks in Ireland will be able to concentrate on language acquisition and be alleviated as a sole carer. With no play facilities for children, the majority of asylum seekers live in emergency accommodation and crches may be the only opportunity these children have for play stimulation and socialisation with other children. Most providers observed that very few Roma accessed and attended ESOL programmes. Originating from a society with no strong tradition of literacy and formal education, ESOL may not be seen as a way of improving social and economic conditions. In a needs analysis of the Roma in Ireland (Murphy, 2002), Roma groups frequently had negative experiences of education in their country of origin. For example, consistently subjected to discriminatory treatment, schools failed to recognise and respect Roma
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culture/language. While Roma groups expressed they had an interest in adult education, study participants estimated that 80% of Roma (especially women) had no communication skills in English. Based on a short education needs analysis, the VECs must develop specific strategies to target Roma men and women. Taking account of family structure and involving the Roma, alternative strategies such as outreach and family learning need to be explored. Apart from eliminating the situational and dispositional barriers, tutors suggested organising classes over a short period of time with specific learning targets. In addition, several tutors telephoned learners who failed to attend to encourage them to return to class. This proved to be successful in a number of cases. Furthermore, most tutors considered one language class a week to be insufficient to meet the needs of asylum seekers. Ensuring flexibility, tutors suggested ESOL classes for asylum seekers are offered for at least four graded levels twice a week (four hours) with an option of more intensive tuition (eight/ten hours per week). Reception strategies for asylum seekers and refugees should be equal to those on offer to the host population (Hathaway, 1997). While the majority of Irish adults in literacy programmes typically receive one tuition class per week, most have developed strategies to cope with everyday situations and have listening/speaking skills in English. Asylum seekers without communication skills in English will experience difficulties trying to carry out very basic actions for example, providing a medical history to a doctor, filling out forms and dealing with officials.

8.10 Materials and syllabus


ESOL language learning materials need to reflect the life of asylum seekers and focus on issues that are relevant to their everyday lives such as healthcare, housing and the asylum procedure. Most providers incorporate authentic materials (items of everyday use, for example, bus timetables, application forms, clocks, calendars, recipes) or self-made materials incorporating qualities of authenticity in language classes. Integrating cooking, personal development and art into classes, tutors relied on alternative strategies for language learning. Several tutors had made tapes for aural exercises for class work or for learners own use (DALC, IILT, SPIRASI and the VECs) and organisations created a bank of materials, which tutors could avail of (DALC, IILT, SPIRASI and the City of Dublin VEC).

Teaching grammar as required by the learner, commercially produced EFL materials were relied on for grammar exercises by all tutors. Placing great emphasis on language forms and grammar, the Lifelines (Hutchinson, 1997) and (Soars & Soars, 1996) New Headways were mentioned by tutors. Although most tutors agreed they were useful and effective for this task, tutors with only a TEFL background and little experience were more likely to rely on standard textbooks. Total reliance of EFL materials is not appropriate for ESOL as subject areas covered typically relate to travelling abroad, booking hotels and visiting restaurants. Designed for literate language learners with a strong educational background, EFL course books should not be used to determine class progression. Literacy materials such as Working on Words: A Resource Pack (City of Dublin VEC, 2000), Read Write Now Series (NALA, 2001) and learner diaries were used for ESOL classes. The subject matter within these books was more appropriate as they incorporate functional tasks such as reading labels and medicine bottles. However, situated within an Irish cultural context for native speakers of English, questions were raised around cultural relevance for ESOL learners. Suitable for working with asylum seekers, British learner-centred ESOL materials were used by several tutors. Originating from Local Education Authorities (LEAs), the British Refugee Council, the Basic Skills Agency and the LLLU, these materials included a strong adult education philosophy. Where course books were not being used as a guide, curricula were devised around learner needs. For example, for newly arrived asylum seekers and nonnationals, emphasis was placed on

Survival English with some exploration of Irish culture and values (DALC, the IILT, SPIRASI and the VECs). Where learners were prepared for employment, curricula related to prevocational English and the development of communication skills for the workplace, for example, in the FS Asylum Seeker Unit and the IILT. The IILTs pre-vocational language programme has been in development since 1997 (when the project was the Refugee Language and Training Project) and designed in the context of vocational training. Incorporating the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, the programme is based on benchmarks for the prevocational sector (see RLSU, 2000). Relating to the vocational sector, each benchmark describes what learners can do within specific domains - language learning, interpersonal communication, public services and career planning. To support the benchmarks, the IILT has developed language modules on self-identification, the world of work, crosscultural awareness, job seeking skills and preparing for an interview. When adult learners complete the course they are either expected to find employment or enter training. The IILTs benchmarks are a valuable tool for teaching pre-vocational English and are available to the public. However, no provider used the benchmarks in language programmes, even for learners with work rights. Although widely distributed, a number of providers were unaware of the benchmarks existence. Other providers explained that they did not have modular material to support the document. With no ownership over the benchmarks, several tutors seemed

to be reluctant to use them because they had not been involved in their development. Funded by the DES, it is unfortunate the benchmarks are not more widely used. The DES should consider providing grant aid to IILT to publish prevocational materials and train tutors on how to use the benchmarks in practice. Across the VEC/NGO sector, tutors are generally using the same materials with few exceptions. Most tutors recognised there was a dearth of materials for working with asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups designed for the Irish context, particularly with regard to literacy for ESOL. Supported by the DES, attempts have been made to remedy the situation. Initiated in September 2001, the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC launched a materials development project with funding from the DES. Utilising a language experience approach, the project will produce a materials resource pack for literacy for ESOL. Devised for learners who have no literacy skills in their mother tongue, a needs based approach will be incorporated. Mainly communicative and action based, the subject areas reflect thematic situations relevant to newly arrived asylum seekers: selfidentification, seeking accommodation, parental care and hospitals. Incorporating the teachability hypothesis (exposing learners to linguistic structures just beyond their capabilities) with clear progression for learners, tutor guidelines will be included. Valuing an interagency approach, a working group has convened to include a broad range of perspectives and experiences. Working group members include practitioners from:
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City of Dublin VEC, County Dublin VEC, DALC, the Vincentian Refugee Centre and Dolebusters. In addition, minority linguistic groups have been invited to join. In September 2001, the DES also provided a grant for the IILT to develop materials for educationalists working with asylum seekers and other non-nationals. Beginning a period of collaboration between the IILT, NALA and the VECs, a series of one day seminars were organised between November 2001 and February 2002 throughout the country in: Dublin city and county, Co. Clare, Cork (South West) and Drogheda (Northeast). Using presentations and workshops, the seminars included an introduction to the European Language Portfolio and teaching approaches/activities developed by IILT practitioners. For example, classroom strategies for incorporating the Portfolio were discussed and teaching approaches for learners with little or no first language literacy skills were presented. Providing ideas for adapting authentic materials using newspapers and medical product packaging, sample materials were distributed for use with asylum seekers. The next phase of the project involves the establishment of a focus group of key VEC/NGO staff members to advise on content. Subsequently, other practitioners will provide ideas and feedback on the IILTs sample materials through a second set of seminars to be held in Autumn 2002. Incorporating the language experience approach, it is important that both projects do not only focus on the norms of Irish society. Although VEC and NGO practitioners provide very valuable feedback on materials for use with asylum seekers, they are intermediaries. Working in conjunction with adult learners, asylum seekers still need to be involved in actual materials production. It is vital that subject areas within materials packs acknowledge the role of asylum seeking/refugee women and relate directly to their lives. Therefore, they need to be involved in the design and development of materials packs.

formal methods of monitoring progress. For example, in the FS Asylum Seeker Unit (Tallaght) learners evaluated progress every Friday by breaking up into groups for discussion. The tutor remarked that Russian and Eastern European learners frequently requested more grammar and written tests. Encouraging autonomy and promoting selfevaluation took a number of weeks to develop. Several other programmes had incorporated self-evaluation for learners. As well as administering tests, SPIRASI integrated self-evaluation by using portfolios in which learners could catalogue their own progress by reaching certain goals. While SPIRASI devised their own portfolio, tutors in other programmes experimented with the European Language Portfolio. For example, one tutor in Parnell Adult Learning Centre used it with a pre-intermediate class and deemed it to be useful for recording learners progress and informing lesson planning. Other tutors admitted considering using the Portfolio as well, but believed it may only be suitable for more settled learners. However, several tutors found the document too difficult and sophisticated for use with beginners/intermediate learners and considered it unsuitable for use with learners who have literacy needs. Tutors in the IILT used the European Language Portfolio as a primary means of tracking learners progress. For example, in the pre-vocational language programme, it was used several times a week. Within the literacy class, a new version of the Portfolio designed for learners with literacy needs was being piloted. While the document catalogued class progress, learners without literacy skills were not able to use it (there was sometimes an awareness of its learning value refer to Section 8.5). In addition, a large bank of materials has been developed and is used to support classroom work with the portfolio. Formal monitoring of learners progress in the VECs should take place and course monitoring incorporated into an overall assessment framework. In addition, learner/student forums can provide learner feedback.

8.11 Monitoring learners progress


Classes organised once or twice a week were less likely to have any means of monitoring learners progress. In some cases, written tests were administered by tutors at the end of set course times or regularly throughout the year. For more intensive programmes, tutors had incorporated more
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8.12 Evaluation
Evaluation is a critical part of ESOL programmes as it informs decision-making, allowing educationalists to improve ESOL classes. Most providers did not formally evaluate provision and only a small number had written up reports on progress, which were usually undertaken by

tutors and organisers (FS Asylum Seeker Unit, An Siol and the Tallaght Refugee Project). However, the present report is considered to be a first step in the evaluation process for the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC. In SPIRASI, evaluation was class based with learners asked to complete questionnaires. Tutors were also invited to fill out questionnaires and progress reports were based on the views expressed, together with ongoing discussions and learners progress. Tutors in the IILT were expected to submit lesson plans and regular meetings were organised to discuss practice. Apart from reviewing practice through in-service days, tutors had also been given a portfolio to selfevaluate their own teaching practice. Although learners are continually involved in self-assessment, management were considering undertaking a formal evaluation with learners.

Council (FETAC) qualifications [previously the National Council for Vocational Awards (NCVA)]. VEC full-time programmes provide fully accredited language studies, for example, the Ballsbridge College of Further Education (a City of Dublin VEC college) offer a full-time course entitled - English and Business Communications. Learners take commercial examinations (Cambridge and Pitman in this incidence) and FETAC awards. Most providers were considering arranging accreditation for asylum seekers and other non-nationals. For example, SPIRASI, currently offer English for Academic Purposes (EAP) and intends to assist learners study for the IELTS. The IILT intends to have its prevocational language course accredited by FETAC and currently offer an EAP for learners studying for TOFEL/IELTS. A number of practitioners in the VEC and DALC were considering the possibility of FETAC accreditation for learners. Meriting further examination, they are extremely important for asylum seekers and other non-nationals. In order to enter professional institutions and many academic programmes (at third level), certification from IELTS and TOEFL are required for non-native speakers of English. If asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups enter these institutions in the future, they may need proof of their academic reading and writing skills. The VECs need to consider offering accredited academic ESOL programmes if required by learners. Initially founded as an accreditation body attached to the DES, FETAC launched Draft Module Descriptors for Communications in September 1997 and Language Foundation Level/Level 1 in September 2001. Devised for native speakers of English with low levels of literacy, the module descriptors assess communications skills and are too basic for the majority of second language learners. The Communications Certificate does not incorporate steps in second language acquisition and the development of communicative language skills. The FETAC Language Certificates have been devised for language learners. Available for French, German, Spanish, Italian, Irish and Russian, these certificates specify standards to be achieved in modules approved by the FETAC. Language learners are assessed through in-house examinations and portfolios. Each module contains a number of units, which specify learning outcomes. However, the units have been devised for foreign language learners. For example, units outlined in Level 1 include subject areas traditionally found in EFL: (1) travel and accommodation, (2) food and drink and (3) shopping and making purchases. Advised by FETAC officials, the language descriptors were formulated and exams written by the Modern Languages Department of the Institiid Teangeolaochta ireann (Linguistics Institute of Ireland). The principal function of the Institute is the provision of research and advice services to all organisations dealing with language issues. FETAC is a useful accreditation mechanism for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups seeking recognition for studying survival English or intending to enter training and employment. However, module descriptors linked to an ESOL curriculum need to be included. In the UK, ESOL and EFL qualificaPage 75 | Chapter Eight

8.13 Accreditation
Accreditation motivates adult learners to continue their studies and is particularly important for asylum seekers and other non-EEA nationals, since previous educational qualifications are not recognised in Ireland. In addition, if asylum seekers are removed from the country at the end of the asylum procedure, they will have developed skills enabling them to reintegrate into their country of origin. Accreditation currently available to ESOL learners includes commercial testing/accreditation [Cambridge, Pitman, International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), all of which are internationally recognised] or Further Education and Training Awards

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tions are currently being mapped against the new National Adult ESOL Curriculum. Published by the British Government in December 2001, this document sets standards for language and literacy learning for non-English speakers. With the enactment of the Qualification (Education and Training) Act, 1999, the NCVAs accreditation activities have been integrated into the newly established Further Education and Training Awards Council (FETAC). The NCVA certificates will now be accredited by FETAC and all awards entered into a centralised database. The objective of the database is to allow educationalists to track learners through the system.

programmes and adult literacy take precedence over language classes for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Equality of provision should be guaranteed for Irish citizens and asylum seekers. Most facilities were inaccessible for people with disabilities and parents with children. While very few asylum seekers with disabilities were accessing these centres, it is vital their needs are considered. When organising programmes, providers should consider potential safety issues for black and ethnic minorities. In addition, language classes need to be connected to public transportation networks. Providers rarely carried out a needs analysis of learners prior to the commencement of language classes, tutors were left to appraise the needs of learners. Most tutors planned lessons on learner needs. Language barriers can be overcome by employing tutors who share common language backgrounds with learners or ESOL Development/Outreach Workers to act as bilingual assistants to programmes (paid or voluntarily). Many asylum seekers and other ethnic minorities originate from polyglot cultures and are often fluent in several languages. Incorporating a multitude of methodologies, most providers described teaching approaches as being broadly communicative. Utilising task and action based techniques, emphasis is placed on acquiring functional English and realising short-term goals. Because of the availability of classes

or type of assessment used, language learners with a strong education background were frequently grouped together in beginners classes with individuals with no literacy skills. To ensure language learning is successful, the VECs and other providers need to decide whether Literacy for ESOL classes will be organised to support learners. Networking can ensure learners are referred to appropriate programmes. In the FS Asylum Seeker Unit, importance was attached to Caterpillar English as classes were designed to facilitate entry into employment. With Caterpillar English learners need to acquire basic oral communications skills to enter employment. However, the philosophy of work placement equals further language acquisition only applies to oral communications skills. Workplace literacy programmes should be expanded to include minority linguistic groups placed in employment with low levels of literacy. SPIRASI and the IILT organised specific classes for literacy learners. Teaching methodologies within the IILT were based predominantly on phonics with use of the language experience approach. A learner centred approach could not always be relied upon as learners had difficulties articulating what they wanted to study. DALC organised a separate class with a literacy tutor for learners who spoke New Englishes and needed to study Standard English. For African English speakers without communication skills in

8.14 Summary of key points


ESOL provision in the VECs for asylum seekers is area based and organised as part of adult education, adult literacy or mainstream institutions. Classes are largely organised by programme managers who are overstretched and have no background in ESOL. In other agencies, programmes were organised by designated coordinators or duties of other staff members. Ensuring that language classes are located in appropriate learning sites for adults are one of the greatest obstacles for the growth of the sector. Classes take place in a wide variety of settings, for example: unoccupied classrooms in primary and post-primary schools; VEC schools/colleges; NGOs, rented space, adult learning centres and private language schools. Within the VEC, full-time
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English, difficulties will be experienced entering third level education or working in professional occupations. Raising the consciousness of learners, the Language Continuum idea is recommended to conceptualise variation between New Englishes and Standard English. Erratic attendance of asylum seekers was one of the biggest difficulties encountered by providers. Asylum seekers are extremely unsettled and their day-to-day lives are filled with uncertainty. Basic needs such as accommodation take precedence over language provision. Approximately, 13% of respondents cited childrearing responsibilities as an obstacle for learning. To guarantee participation of parents with young children, providers must be able to offer childcare facilities. Given that women are often the main caregivers in families, organising classes without childcare facilities effectively excludes them from ESOL provision and will result in fragmentation within migrant/refugee families. Organising classes over a short period of time with specific learning targets is a possible solution. Ensuring flexibility, ESOL classes for asylum seekers need to be offered for several graded levels twice a week (four hours) with an option of more intensive tuition (eight/ten hours per week). ESOL language learning materials need to reflect the life of asylum seekers and focus on issues of relevance such as health care, housing and the asylum procedure. Commercially produced EFL materials were relied on for grammar exercises by all tutors and literacy materials were used for functional tasks such as reading medicine bottles and labels. When learners were being prepared for employment, curricula in language based programmes related to prevocational English and the development of communications skills for the workplace. The IILT have devised benchmarks for the pre-vocational sector, each describes what learners can do within specific domains. The benchmarks are a valuable tool for teaching prevocational English and are available to other users. However, no provider outside the IILT used the document in language teaching. Utilising the language experience approach, the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC have launched a

materials development project. Mainly communicative and action based, the subject areas reflect thematic situations which are relevant to newly arrived asylum seekers. The DES provided a grant to the IILT to develop materials for educationalists working with asylum seekers and other non-nationals. Introducing the European Language Portfolio and IILT teaching approaches, a series of seminar days have been delivered throughout the country. The next phase of the project will involve the establishment of a focus group of key VEC/NGO staff members to advise on the content of a materials pack. Incorporating the language experience approach, both projects need to work in conjunction with adult learners to ensure they are involved in actual materials production. Classes organised once or twice a week were less likely to formally monitor learners programmes. For more intensive programmes, tutors had incorporated formal methods of monitoring progress. Formal monitoring of learners progress in the VECs should take place and course monitoring should be built into an overall assessment framework. Evaluation is a critical part of ESOL programmes for it informs decision-making, allowing educationalists to improve provision. Most providers had not carried out any formal evaluation of provision and a small number drafted reports on progress. Accreditation needs to be offered to all learners as it motivates them to complete their studies. Accreditation currently available to ESOL learners includes commercial testing/accreditation [Cambridge, Pitman, International Language Testing System (IELTS) and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), all of which are internationally recognised] or Further Education and Training Awards Council (FETAC awards). FETAC launched Draft Module Descriptors for Communications in September 1997 and Language Foundation Level/Level 1 in September 2001. Devised for native speakers of English with low levels of literacy, the module descriptors assess communications skills and are inappropriate for ESOL learners.

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FETACs Language Certificates were designed for language learners and specify standards to be achieved in modules approved by FETAC. Each module contains a number of units, which specify learning outcomes, however, these units have been devised for EFL learners. Module descriptors linked to an ESOL curriculum need to be added.

8.15 Recommendations
It is recommended:

Disability Officer; using adaptive technology for teaching are all possible aspects of a strategy targeting people with disabilities. Care is taken to ensure programmes are located in a safe environment for black and ethnic minorities. The Health Board make Exceptional Needs Payments to asylum seekers if they have transportation costs related to accessing language provision. Providers consider arranging transportation for special needs groups.

Organisation of learning The VECs consider either appointing a VEC ESOL Coordinator or designate a current member of staff to coordinate service delivery for ESOL throughout the VEC. Programme managers are trained in the basic features of ESOL. Core tutors or senior tutors are given extra hours to assist with the recruitment of new learners, assess new learners, support staff in design and development of ESOL programmes, monitor attendance and progress, evaluate programmes and materials development. Key NGOs offering literacy and language programmes for asylum seekers are given funding for co-ordination and liaison.

Learning sites Equality of provision for asylum seekers is guaranteed by the VECs. Schools and colleges ensure ESOL a more central role when timetabling. The VECs invest in existing premises or secure adequate space for classes with asylum seekers. Learning sites for ESOL provision for asylum seekers are located in community based centres, adult education centres and mainstream schools/colleges. Classes should not be organised in emergency accommodation (hostels and hotels) and private language schools. Learning sites are close to the homes and residences of learners.

Accessibility, safety and transport The VECs develop an explicit disability policy following an audit and adaptation of existing facilities. Incorporating disability awareness training for all staff members; designating an appropriate staff member to be a
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ESOL Provision ESOL programmes are learner centred and organised around the needs of minority linguistic groups. Based on a short education needs analysis, the VECs develop specific strategies to target Roma men and women. Taking account of family structure and involving the Roma, alternative strategies such as outreach, together with family learning need to be explored. Graded language provision for asylum seekers organised over short periods of time 6/8 weeks- with short-term goals and specific objectives. Language programmes are offered for at least four hours a week and no longer than ten. Classes need to be offered in the morning, afternoon and evening. ESOL learners with literacy needs should be organised into Literacy for ESOL classes/workshops when addressing reading and writing skills. The VECs run phonics classes for ESOL learners who experience difficulties with pronunciation. For example, Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese speakers. The VECs consider involving ESOL Development/Outreach Workers as bilingual assistants in literacy classes where there is sufficient number of the same linguistic minority. ESOL Development/Outreach Workers need to be from black and ethnic minorities. The VECs consider piloting bilingual literacy programmes. Literacy providers target minority linguistic groups with low levels of literacy in the workforce. The VECs organise literacy and Standard English workshops based on the language continuum idea for African English speakers. A book of materials needs to be produced to support work with African English speakers. Reflecting the life experience of asylum seekers, materials are developed for ESOL and Literacy for ESOL classes. Black and ethnic minorities are involved at all stages in the development of materials.

The DES considers providing grant aid to the IILT to publish pre-vocational materials and train ESOL practitioners in use of the benchmarks. ESOL practitioners consider organising visits outside the classroom for learners in authentic situations. Outreach classes are organised specifically for women only throughout the city and county and the VECs consider providing community based transportation where required. Community based centres such as the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland require an injection of learning resources (computers, books and materials) to continue developing as adult learning sites Programme managers, together with tutors, monitor progress on programmes. Incorporating learner feedback, review needs to be ongoing and a formal evaluation undertaken at least once in the academic year. FETAC expand accredited Language Certificates to include ESOL modules.

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CHAPTER NINE Support services and special needs groups

9.1 Introduction
n order to ensure full participation in ESOL, support services are required for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. This chapter examines efforts providers make to offer: guidance, personal and learner support and childcare. Torture survivors constitute a significant proportion of refugees settled in Europe and this chapter makes specific recommendations to address their needs through adult education. Finally, the role of European initiatives in terms of ESOL provision is also discussed.

clubs and appointing extra Childcare Workers to increase capacity in existing crches. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC are committed to an Anti-bias approach within childcare provision which seeks to nurture the development of all children, while actively addressing issues of diversity and equity (2002: 23). Anti-racism and cultural awareness training needs to be extended to staff members in the childcare sector and Childcare Workers trained in Anti-bias Education. Finally, the VECs should recruit more childcare staff from ethnic minorities and consider organising additional childcare courses with a language component.

9.2 Childcare
Approximately 13% of survey respondents required childcare facilities in order to attend ESOL. However, the number requiring childcare services is a great deal higher given that almost 21% of respondents had one child (refer to Section 3.17).

9.3 Guidance, personal and learner supports


As outlined by the White Paper on Adult Education (2000) guidance refers to the range of activities designed to assist people to make choices about their lives and to make transitions consequent on these choices(156). It involves: information, assessment, advice, counselling, teaching/careers education, placement, advocacy, feedback, follow-up, networking, managing and innovating systems change. In 1999, the DES launched an Adult Education Guidance Initiative (AEGI) to provide a nationwide guidance service to three target groups of adult learners in: VTOS, literacy and adult/community education programmes. The pilot phase of the project involves identifying guidance needs of the target groups and developing models of good practice before mainstreaming. The initiative is being phased in throughout the country annually and the DES plans to have a comprehensive service in place by 2006. Most AEGI projects are attached to the VECs and have a Guidance Officer, as well as an Information Officer. Asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups accessing adult education programmes are entitled to attend the guidance service. Located within DALC, the City of Dublin VEC Adult Education Guidance Service has made several efforts to accommodate the needs of asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. It provides guidance sessions to all minority linguistic groups in community education in the inner city and offers guidance sessions/workshops in community based settings. In County Dublin VEC, the Adult Guidance Officer for Tallaght has also offered individual guidance sessions and several workshops to ESOL learners in the area. In July 2001 the City of Dublin VEC Guidance Education Service produced an Asylum Seekers and Refugees Information Pack and distributed it to other guidance counsellors/information officers throughout Ireland. Containing basic guidelines for guidance sessions, it includes resource lists, relevant publications and information sheets.

Figure 11 - Number of survey participants requiring childcare provision

Most providers were unable to offer any childcare facilities or sessional care to asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups attending part-time ESOL. Where childcare was available, classes were arranged when crches were not being used for other purposes (An Cosan, DALC and VEC Crumlin/Inchicore Literacy Scheme). In 1999, a National Co-ordinating Childcare Committee was established to oversee the development of a national childcare infrastructure. County Childcare Committees (includes membership of the VECs) were set up throughout the country to expand provision locally and draft strategic childcare plans for 2001-2006. However, additional strategies are required to ensure participation in adult education and ESOL provision. For example, greater use could be made of current community based facilities by opening crches in the evening, organising after schools
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Language barriers make guidance sessions for minority linguistic groups difficult if they are unfamiliar with educational terminology and have limited English language skills. All information on courses and guidance issues need to be translated into key languages and interpreters provided. Ethnic Minority Outreach Workers can be trained to deliver basic guidance and information in the community (refer to recommendations Recruitment, Marketing and Publicity in Chapter 5). Information on the educational sector in Ireland should be incorporated into language materials/curricula to allow learners to become familiar with the education structure and terminology. Finally, Guidance Officers need specific training to deliver sessions to minority linguistic groups which takes account of linguistic, cultural and emotional issues. Placement Officers with the FS Asylum Seeker Unit and staff in the IILT provided guidance/assistance with work placement for registered learners. ESOL tutors provided personal support (welfare advice, telephoning other service providers, referring clients to appropriate services) for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups if required. With caseworkers on site, NGOs were able to offer personal support to learners (SPIRASI and the Vincentian Refugee Centre). Tutors may not be equipped to deal with the complex needs of their learners and asylum seekers/refugees are vulnerable to becoming dependent. The emphasis within ESOL programmes should be self-sufficiency and clear guidelines on professional boundaries need to be included in a code of practice and issued to tutors (the VEC have a code of practice for tutors). Learning supports take account of a learners learning needs, which include: literacy, numeracy, study skills, information technology and library services (Dadzie, 1999). Providers need to consider what learning supports asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups will need to succeed in language learning (all learners in adult education require similar supports). Most ESOL providers lacked resources such as open learning centres and open access to computer facilities. Where additional supports were available, they were usually reserved for full-time learners (this is also the case for most learners accessing part-time adult education/literacy). Some efforts were made to build study skills and study time into programmes (IILT) and other providers organised visits to local libraries to introduce learners to library resources (Parnell Adult Learning Centre). The latter is particularly important for learners in emergency accommodation which generally has no study facilities. ESOL programmes need to offer extra assistance to learners with special needs or those requiring extra basic skills tuition. Study skills and an introduction to library services should be incorporated into all programmes. Basic computer courses should be offered to asylum seekers to enable them develop their communication skills and learning supports need to be assessed before learners are enrolled in new programmes. In addition, computer time should be allocated in existing VEC facilities for asylum seekers in part-time language programmes. Finally, the adult education sector requires a substantial capital injection for the provision of open learning centres.

9.4 Torture survivors


Although torture is prohibited in international law it continues to be practised in over 90 countries (Summerfield, 1999). The UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) (1985) defines torture as: .torture means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him (sic) or third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions [Article 1(1)]. Signatories to CAT must prevent torture from occurring in their own countries and respond to the multifaceted needs of torture survivors. The CAT was incorporated into Irish domestic law with the Criminal Justice (United Nations Convention Against Torture) Act, 2000 and entered into force on 11th April 2002. Ireland will submit a report to the UN Committee Against Torture in 2003. Survivors of torture have been subjected to physical and psychological abuse designed to break down a person. Common methods of physical torture include: beating, electric shocks, stretching, submersion,
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suffocation and burns. Common methods of psychological torture include: isolation, threats, humiliation, mock executions, and witnessing the torture of others. Rape and sexual assault are commonly practised against women during arrest or imprisonment, as well as during conflicts and civil war (IRCT, 2001: 1). With far reaching consequences for victims, the effects of torture can be physical, psychological and social. The International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT) (2001) maintains that survivors can experience flashbacks, severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, depression, memory lapses and a breakdown in social relations. Survivors may continue to harbour feelings of guilt and shame after the serious harm was inflicted. Requiring a holistic approach, rehabilitation should enable a survivor to resume as full a life as possible. Incorporating a multi-disciplinary approach, survivors of torture need support, counselling, legal services, assistance in finding accommodation and employment (IRTC, 2001). Language tuition for asylum seekers has an important role in recovery and rehabilitation. In responding to the needs of torture survivors who are refugees, the Adult Migrant English Programme (AMEP) (Australia) endeavours to create a safe environment for learners to acquire a new language. The language programme is designed to: 1. Restore control and safety Reducing fear and anxiety. 2. Restore attachments and connections Overcoming loss and grief. 3. Restore identity, meaning and purpose. 4. Restore value.
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This is achieved by: Facilitating language acquisition. Providing a supportive and predictable learning environment. Providing a point of access into other critical services in the resettlement process. Integrating learning objectives with practical day-to-day survival issues. Developing curricula which provides routine, flexibility, sets achievable goals and accommodates learning and emotional difficulties. Providing supportive and trusting interpersonal relationships. Providing potential for social activities which enable an experience of pleasure/fun and opportunities to undertake activities in groups. Restoring a sense of self and a future in educational, vocational and social terms (adapted from Aristotle, 1999). No research to date in Ireland has quantified the number of torture survivors among asylum seekers. However, international research demonstrates between 10%-60% of refugees settled in Europe (depending on the population studied) has experienced torture and other forms of serious harm (Begley et al., 1999). In addition, in a forthcoming study on the experiences of General Health Practitioners, approximately 10% of survey participants treated asylum seekers who had been tortured (Begley, Dempsey, Karim and Greenway, to be published by SPIRASI, 2002). The Psychology Department of the Northern Area Health Board has a long involvement with refugee groups, extending to 1992. Due to the increasing numbers of asylum seekers arriving in Ireland, the Health Board was requested by the Government in 1998 to expand its psychology service

for torture survivors. The main work of the Department includes the provision of a psychological evaluation of mental health of asylum seekers and refugees; individual, family and group psychotherapy; support and training for staff in other agencies dealing with asylum seekers and research/evaluation. The Health Board deals with bereavement and loss, traumatisation from torture and serious harm, adaptation to a new culture and previous psychological problems. Located in SPIRASI, the Centre for the Care of Survivors of Torture (CCST) is a dedicated agency to provide a multidisciplinary response to survivors of torture. Asylum seekers and refugees are offered health assessments, interventions, medico-legal reports, physiotherapy, counselling and psychological support. The Centre intends to organise tailor made orientation/language programmes (with basic computers) for torture survivors, to enable them to progress into general language and education programmes. Therapeutic learning programmes (art classes etc.) are also planned. Tutors cited lack of concentration and memory loss as possible after affects of torture (VECs, IILT and the FS Asylum Seeker Unit). Several tutors mentioned incidences where learners had divulged torture experiences in their country of origin within or after class hours. The tutors involved appeared to deal appropriately by listening, assuring the learner and suggesting counselling services. Major stakeholders need to consider developing a code of practice for practitioners aimed at restoring safety/control and ensuring confidentiality for torture survivors. Course curricula needs to include information

on relevant medical services available and survivors referred to specialised services. Information sessions need to be organised for the education sector on issues affecting survivors of torture and VECs could contribute funding towards varied therapeutic learning programmes (for example, art and photography).

9.5 The role of European initiatives


ESOL provision is relatively new for adult education and learning from/exchanging experience with other European countries is extremely important. Providers should be encouraged and supported to actively seek out European partnerships with a view to enhancing their own service. The IILT and the City of Dublin VEC are the main providers involved in European initiatives with a specific focus on ESOL. The IILT participate in the European Language Portfolio Project and Professor Little (Director of the IILT) chairs the European Portfolio project. Working in cooperation with the Irish Council of Trade Unions (ICTU)/Irish Business and Employers Confederation (IBEC), the IILT is involved in an EQUAL project with international partners from Finland and Austria. Initiated in June 2002, the main aim of the project is to develop: work-based language training programmes to support supervisors/managers/union officials communicate effectively with non-national workers, develop a work-based portfolio, language specific training for non-nationals interacting with other workers, develop two training programmes on managing diversity in the work place, develop a mentoring programme, train trainers and develop a website. Entitled the Milestone Project, the IILT is involved in another European Partnership project with organisations from Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Finland. Supported by SOCRATES funds, the objective of this project is to develop and extensively pilot a Milestone ELP for reflective learning. In 2002, the City of Dublin VEC became an associate member of a British EQUAL Transnational Partnership with the aim of improving conditions for asylum seekers and facilitating integration of persons with legal residency. Coordinated by the British Refugee Council, the project will extend to 2005 and involve: a transnational newsletter, seminars with presentations/workshops, study visits, transnational conferences and a website/resource for participant countries. The project partners include: the British Refugee Council, the Basic Skills Agency, the LLLU, the

Northern Ireland Council for Ethnic Minorities (NICEM) and the Danish Red Cross. Each agency has extensive experience with regard to integration, language provision, education and employment issues for asylum seekers and refugees. Several task groups have been established and the City of Dublin VEC is a member of the Language/Basic Skills Task Group. The group will focus on: English language teaching, assessment, accreditation, research, tutor training and training of trainers.

9.6 Summary of key points


Approximately 13% of survey respondents required childcare facilities in order to attend ESOL. Most providers were unable to offer childcare facilities or sessional care to asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Following the establishment of a National Co-ordinating Committee in 1999, County Childcare Committees were established throughout the country to expand provision locally. Strategies need to be incorporated for asylum seekers, together with other minority linguistic groups, to ensure participation in adult education and ESOL provision. The VECs are committed to an Anti-bias approach within childcare provision which seeks to nurture the development of all children, while actively addressing issues of diversity and equity. Anti-racism and cultural awareness training needs to be extended to staff members in the childcare sector and Childcare Workers trained in Anti-bias education. In 1999, the DES launched an Adult Education Guidance Initiative (AEGI) to provide a nationwide guidance service to three target groups of adult learners in: VTOS, literacy and adult/community education programmes. The pilot phase of the project involves identifying guidance needs of the target groups and developing models of good practice before mainstreaming. Most AEGI projects are attached to the VECs and have a Guidance Officer, as well as an Information Officer. Asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups accessing the aforementioned programmes are entitled to attend the guidance service.

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The Adult Education Guidance Service in the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin have provided guidance sessions to minority linguistic groups and offered workshops in community based settings. The City of Dublin VEC Adult Education Guidance Service has compiled an information pack for Guidance Officers. Language barriers can make guidance sessions difficult if learners are unfamiliar with educational terminology and have limited English language skills. All information needs to be translated and Ethnic Minority Outreach Workers trained to deliver community based guidance. Guidance Officers need specific training to deliver sessions to minority linguistic groups taking account of linguistic, cultural and emotional issues. ESOL tutors provided personal support for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. The emphasis within ESOL programmes should be self-sufficiency and clear guidelines on professional boundaries need to be included in a code of practice. Learning supports take account of learners learning needs, which include: literacy, numeracy, study skills, information technology and library services. Providers need to consider what learning supports asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups require for success in language learning. Survivors of torture have been subjected to physical and psychological abuse designed to break down a person. With far reaching
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consequences for victims, the effects of torture can be physical, psychological and social. Requiring a holistic approach, rehabilitation should enable a survivor to resume as full a life as possible. Language tuition for asylum seekers and refugees has an important role in recovery and rehabilitation by creating a safe environment. Torture survivors are referred to psychological services/support in the Health Board by other services. The Centre for the Care of Survivors of Torture is the first dedicated agency to provide a multidisciplinary approach. Asylum seekers and refugees are offered health assessments, interventions, medico-legal reports, physiotherapy, counselling and psychological support. Tutors cited lack of concentration and memory loss as possible after affects of torture. Major stakeholders need to organise training for staff and develop a code of practice aimed at restoring safety/control and ensuring confidentiality for torture survivors. Given that ESOL provision for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups is relatively new, learning from and exchanging experience with other European countries is extremely important. The IILT and the City of Dublin VEC are the main agencies involved in European initiatives with a specific focus on ESOL. The IILT participate in the European Language Portfolio Project with the Council of Europe, an EQUAL project and the Milestone Project (supported by SOCRATES funds). An associate partner of a British EQUAL Transnational Partnership, the City of Dublin VEC is involved in an EQUAL project focusing on English language teaching, assessment, accreditation, research, tutor training and training for trainers.

9.7 Recommendations
It is recommended:

Childcare Working with the County Childcare Committees, the Childcare Development Manager for the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC incorporates specific strategies for asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups. Greater use is made of current community based childcare facilities by opening crches at night and appointing new Childcare Workers to increase crche capacity. All staff within the childcare sector undergo anti-racism and cultural awareness training and Childcare Workers trained in Anti-bias Education. New Childcare Workers recruited from ethnic minorities. The VECs run childcare training courses with a language component for ethnic minorities through VTOS.

Guidance, personal and learner support All information on courses and guidance issues is translated into key languages and interpreters provided where needed. Ethnic Minority Outreach Workers trained to deliver basic guidance to minority linguistic groups within the community. These posts need to be filled by bilingual black and ethnic minorities. Information on the education sector and education terminology is incorporated into ESOL curricula. Guidance Officers receive specific training to deliver sessions to minority linguistic groups taking account of linguistic, cultural and emotional issues. The NCGE and the Institute of Guidance Counsellors take responsibility for commissioning and delivering this training. All ESOL tutors are issued with a Code of Practice that sets out obligations and professional boundaries when working with vulnerable groups. Extra support classes organised for learners who have special needs. Basic computer classes with an emphasis on communications organised for learners as part of their language programme. Study skills are built into all ESOL programmes and learners introduced to appropriate library resources. Time is allocated for learners in existing facilities in adult learning centres even if they are only part-time learners. The adult education sector receives a capital injection for the provision of open learning centres.

Torture survivors Psychological Services in the DES, the Health Board, the CCST, VEC Psychological Services and ESOL tutors, develop a code of practice with guidelines for the adult education sector in consultation with adult educators. Information sessions are organised for educational practitioners on torture survivors. Torture survivors are referred to appropriate services for treatment. Language curricula include information concerning relevant medical services available to torture survivors. The VECs consider contributing funding to special orientation/language programmes and varied therapeutic learning programmes.

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CHAPTER TEN Final summary and recommendations

SOL is a new area of provision for adult education and is delivered in a multiplicity of learning sites throughout the VEC sector, for example: Youthreach, PLCs, VTOS, adult education programmes in Further Education colleges, adult education centres, outreach, prison education, the workplace and Adult Literacy Schemes. Findings and recommendations from the present research will be used to develop provision for asylum seekers, together with other ESOL learners, as an integral part of the VECs area based adult education service within the next six years. Recommendations are made for inclusion in national strategies and specifically for the City of Dublin VEC/County Dublin VEC.

Association of Adult Education. Chief Executive Officers Association (CEOA). Foras iseanna Saothair (FS) Training and Employment Authority. Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU). Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT). Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA). Institiid Teangeolaochta ireann (IT) Linguistics Institute of Ireland. National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA). Tutor representative. Two organisations representing minority linguistic groups (to be nominated by the DES). Reporting to the Cabinet Committee on Social Inclusion, the DES established an interdepartmental group on literacy in 2000. Involving key government departments, statutory providers and NGOs are also represented. National strategic planning in ESOL would benefit from a similar measure and it is recommended the DES establish an interdepartmental group with representation from: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment; Department of Health; Department of Justice; Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs; key statutory providers and NGOs. When the National Adult Learning Council (NALC) is fully operational, it is recommended the organisation assume overall responsibility for ESOL in Adult and Further Education. Working in cooperation with existing national bodies where appropriate (ACELS, IILT and NALA), terms of reference might include: co-ordinating second language teacher education and

training, assessment, materials development, research, monitoring the delivery of programmes, reporting to major stakeholders and providing information/resources to service providers throughout the country. 2. Promoting equality and interculturalism in Adult and Further Education The Government made a commitment to promote equality and interculturalism in the White Paper on Adult Education (2000). Designed to transform adult education to accommodate difference, each is particularly relevant to asylum seekers. Promoting equality and creating an enabling environment for adult learners requires appropriate structures, resourcing, national actions and attitudinal change. It is recommended the DES award responsibility for promoting equality and interculturalism in Adult and Further Education to the NALC. Working in conjunction with the CDU, the Equality Authority and the NCCRI, the terms of reference may include: Co-ordinating national equality and intercultural actions in Adult and Further Education. Co-ordinating and delivering training. Devising equality proofing tools and codes of practice. Advising and supporting the integration of equality and interculturalism across the curriculum. Advising and supporting the VECs to adopt a whole organisation approach. Monitoring the number and progress/achievements of black and ethnic minority learners in programmes. Undertaking research and reporting to major stakeholders.

Recommendations for inclusion in national strategies


1. National ESOL Co-ordinating Committee There is a wide range of stakeholders representing the interests of different agencies/practitioners who have a key role to play in ESOL provision and support. Given there is no overall coordination at present; it is recommended the DES establish a National ESOL Co-ordinating Committee for Adult and Further Education as a matter of urgency to devise a national ESOL strategy. The Committee should be chaired/supported by the Further Education Section of the DES with representatives from: Advisory Council on English Language Schools (ACELS). Adult Education Organisers Association (AEOA). Adult Literacy Organisers Association (ALOA). AONTAS The Irish National
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Providing information and resources to service providers throughout the country. 3. Training for academic and nonacademic staff Tutors need to be equipped to cope with the diversity of learning experiences and language abilities, which exists within the asylum seeking population. Resulting in a diverse tutor profile, tutor recruitment reflected the ethos, networks and background of each provider. For example, VEC tutors varied from those with primary and masters degrees to tutors with no experience of higher education. While Adult Literacy Schemes were more likely to hire tutors with a literacy background, the vast majority of ESOL tutors had completed a Certificate in Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Although tutors had other teaching qualifications (adult and community education and postgraduate studies in linguistics), frustration was expressed at the limited opportunities for ESOL training in Ireland. ESOL programmes were largely organised by co-ordinators with no background in EFL/ESOL. Programme managers need to develop an awareness of the issues affecting learners and be trained in the basic features of ESOL. Moreover, as part of a whole organisation intercultural policy, all academic and non-academic staff needs to undergo anti-racism, cultural and language awareness training. It is recommended the DES as a matter of urgency commission and support the development of: Specialist workshops to update existing tutors with EFL training and experience in current ESOL

methods. Non-accredited induction courses and training packs for new ESOL tutors, with specific training for programme managers. Anti-racism, cultural and language awareness training for academic and non-academic staff. As a longer-term strategy, the DES should support the development of: Specialised Certificates and Diplomas for ESOL or allocate significant funding to allow current providers of accredited training in adult education and ELT to adapt existing programmes (see box 1 for guide). Conflict resolution and mediation skills for tutors working in an intercultural environment. Training for ESOL Development/ Outreach Workers to act as bilingual assistants. 4. Materials development for ESOL Provision ESOL language learning materials need to reflect the life of asylum seekers and other ESOL learners focusing on issues of relevance like health care, housing, rights and the asylum procedure. It was discovered in the present research, when course books were not being used as a guide, syllabus was devised around learner needs. When learners were preparing for employment, class syllabus related to pre-vocational English and communication skills for the workplace. However, to ensure learners and tutors have access to appropriate materials, syllabi need to be devised for a range of levels and graded classes. Tutors can refine a range of topics into a scheme of work based on initial skills/needs assessment and through negotiation with learners including short-term goals concen-

trating on specific themes, for example: Survival English, Pre-natal care, Legal and social rights, Pre-vocational English and Academic English. Several materials development projects have been initiated. Funded by the DES, the IILT is engaged in a national materials development project for tutors in ESOL working with asylum seekers and other non-nationals. The City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC are currently developing literacy for ESOL materials and NALA will also publish materials for ESOL learners. It is recommended: Incorporating the language experience approach, it is important these projects do not only focus on the norms of Irish society. Materials developers need to work in conjunction with learners, ensuring they are involved in actual materials production. Teaching materials are developed which specifically address learners with literacy difficulties. Materials reflect the lived experiences of asylum seeking women and include topics specifically relating to them. The DES considers providing grant aid to the IILT to publish prevocational materials and train ESOL practitioners on how to use the IILTs benchmarks. 5. Needs analysis and assessment Providers were often unable to carry out needs analysis of learners prior to the commencement of ESOL programmes. The DES needs to restructure current funding budgets to allow providers to engage in pre-developmental work. Recent guidelines on the Community Education Strand of the BTEI allow providers to use up to 15% of budget costs for targeting
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CHAPTER TEN

learners and planning programmes. Moreover, the DES needs to commission the development of a needs analysis procedure incorporating four steps: Finding out about an adult learner. Analysing goals. Assessment of a learners language skills. Negotiating a programme of work. In the absence of any formal assessment framework for ESOL, most providers in Dublin were using approximate TEFL guidelines loosely. In some cases, no assessment was carried out and mother tongue literacy was rarely considered. It is recommended the DES support the development of an assessment framework for use with ESOL learners. Designed for intake, ongoing assessment and stating final outcomes, it should account for learners with no literacy skills in their mother tongue or who have learning difficulties. The framework should be mapped against existing assessment tools, for example, the NALA assessment framework and Common European Framework of Reference for Language. The needs analysis and assessment should be devised on the basis of a collaborative effort involving adult education and ESOL practitioners. A broad range of perspectives is required for this undertaking ensuring all agencies and stakeholders have ownership over the process. 6. Accreditation Accreditation is crucial for adult learners as it motivates them to complete their studies. Although most providers reported they were considering arranging some form of accreditation, due to a lack of appropriate
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mechanisms very few ESOL programmes actually offered accredited programmes. While FETAC launched Draft Module Descriptors for Communications in 1997 and Language Certificates in 2001, these module descriptors are not suitable for ESOL learners. It is recommended module descriptors linked to an ESOL curriculum are added by the IT. 7. Evaluation Evaluation is a critical part of ESOL provision as it informs decisionmaking, allowing adult educators to improve provision. Although a small number of providers had drafted reports on progress, most had not carried out any formal evaluation of provision. It is recommended the DES commission the production of evaluation criteria and procedures for providers to evaluate ESOL programmes based on existing evaluation tools, for example: the NALA Evolving Quality Framework (1999; 2001). 8. Translation and interpretation services Embracing difference involves dealing with and accepting language diversity. It was discovered in the present research very few providers had actually translated promotional materials and basic information on courses. With a client population with limited reading skills in English, ensuring documentation is translated into key languages is extremely important. It is recommended: The DES commission the production of promotional materials, basic information on programmes, signs and equality policies into approximately 20 key languages. Materials should be designed to allow ESOL providers to

include information on venues and times for classes. Separate material needs to be designed to specifically target women. As a long-term measure, the DES lobby for the establishment of a government agency with responsibility for providing quality translation and interpretation services to state agencies. 9. Adult educational guidance In adult education, guidance involves: information, assessment, advice, counselling, teaching/careers education, placement, advocacy, feedback, follow-up, networking, managing and innovating systems change (White Paper on Adult Education, 2000: 156/7). While the Adult Educational Guidance Initiative (AEGI) (currently in a pilot phase) is available to asylum seekers, language barriers can make guidance sessions difficult for learners with limited English language skills and unfamiliar with educational terminology. It is recommended: All information on courses and guidance issues is translated into key languages. Guidance officers receive specific training to deliver sessions to minority linguistic groups which takes account of linguistic, cultural and emotional issues. The NCGE and the Institute of Guidance Counsellors could take responsibility for commissioning and delivering this training. Black and ethnic minorities are trained in non-formal guidance skills to deliver basic guidance sessions to their communities. 10. Research Further research needs to be undertaken into groups of ESOL learners

experiencing difficulties accessing provision, in particular, asylum seeking, refugee and migrant women (a similar recommendation was made by WERRC, 2001). Non-participation of women in ESOL provision will result in their social exclusion, fragmentation of migrant/refugee families and determine future life opportunities (refer to Section 8.9). In addition, learners progressing through current ESOL programmes need to be tracked in order to understand their effectiveness.

stakeholders, report in appropriate newsletters and develop a directory for the ESOL sector. Additional staffing needed includes: Core tutors or senior tutors being given secure contracts and extra hours to assist with the recruitment of new learners, assess new learners, design and deliver ESOL programmes, monitor attendance and progress, evaluate programmes, develop materials, undertake research and deliver training. ESOL Development/Outreach Workers from black and ethnic minorities to recruit new learners, deliver basic education guidance, tutor ESOL learners and act as bilingual assistants to literacy programmes. At least one Outreach Worker should have responsibility for working with women learners. A further Outreach Worker is needed for developing workplace literacy. 12. Infrastructure Effective information dissemination is vital for the VECs given their centres are located throughout the city and county with considerable staff numbers. A major finding in the study related to poor channels of information exchange throughout the VECs affecting the organisation and compounding tutor isolation. Many of the recommendations in this report on networking and information exchange will require a designated Information Officer in each VEC. This individual would have responsibility for: Reviewing current policies and advising on the development of a corporate identity. Devising an overall marketing strategy. Publishing directories, newsletters

and information sheets. Supporting the website.

13. Learning sites ESOL classes currently take place in a wide variety of settings. However, ensuring ESOL programmes are located in appropriate learning sites for adults is one of the greatest obstacles for sector growth. It is recommended: Learning sites for ESOL provision for asylum seekers are located in community based centres, adult education centres and mainstream schools/colleges. Classes should not be located in emergency accommodation (hostels and hotels) in Dublin or private language schools. Equality of provision for asylum seekers is guaranteed by the VECs with schools and colleges giving ESOL a more central role in timetabling. Learning sites are accessible, close to learners homes and public transportation networks. The VECs invest in existing premises or secure adequate space in community based facilities. 14. Equality and anti-discrimination Ensuring equality for black and ethnic minorities in adult education is vital. Even though discrimination was certainly found to exist, equality in adult education is in its early stages and has yet to be fully realised. The VECs need to develop a comprehensive overall action plan to promote equality and interculturalism (within its school plan), which should include: Each VEC school, college and centre adopting a whole organisation approach. Each VEC institution devising an
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Recommendations for City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC


11. Staffing Research into the settlement of new communities suggests refugee and migrant groups migrate to major cities (Boyle et al., 1998; Castles et al., 1984; Castles & Miller, 1998; Hesse, 1997; Robinson, 1996; Weiner, 1996). Staffing requirements in Dublin will be greater than in other areas and service providers will have a particular role to play in supporting black and ethnic minorities. However, the VECs in Dublin will be unable to develop a coordinated approach for service delivery without overall organisation and support. Moreover, the development of the ESOL sector will depend on its ability to maintain and attract expertise. It is recommended the VECs appoint: A VEC ESOL Co-ordinator to develop a co-ordinated policy and approach for the delivery of ESOL, co-ordinate and organise training for programme managers and tutors, initiate pilot programmes, deliver induction training, support all ESOL staff, submit annual reports to major

CHAPTER TEN

equality and anti-discrimination policy with a well publicised grievance procedure that is translated into key languages. Each VEC institution undergoing training which would include antiracism and cultural awareness for all staff members. Training tutors in conflict resolution and mediation skills to prevent the hardening of attitudes and potential for disputes. All promotional material explicitly stating the organisation is committed to an equality-based approach. Service providers implementing recruitment and selection practices to increase the number of ethnic minorities working within an organisation. Positive images and posters of ethnic minorities displayed throughout each centre.

additional training is required for tutors, programme managers and nonacademic staff. It is recommended: Tutors articulate their immediate training needs through ESOL Tutor Forums and make recommendations to programme managers. Tutors forums can be used to organise specialist workshops and deliver ongoing tutor training. Delivery of induction and courses for programme managers is the responsibility of VECs, with major contributions from national agencies (for example, ACELS, NALA, IILT and IT) and accredited tutor training programmes. Anti-racism, cultural and language awareness training for academic and non-academic staff. 17. Supporting the community Supporting the needs of the community should be a key feature in VEC ESOL strategies. Adopting the principles of community development, greater participation of black and ethnic minorities in adult education will enable the VECs to meet the diverse and complex needs of ESOL learners. It is recommended: Recruitment procedures are employed to increase the number of black and ethnic minorities working in adult education. ESOL Development/Outreach Workers from black and ethnic minorities are appointed to target new learners currently not accessing provision, deliver basic education guidance and tutor/assist literacy for ESOL programmes. Grant aid (tutor hours and coordination) is provided to NGOs and community-based centres offering ESOL programmes to asylum seekers, refugees and other minority

linguistic groups. Ensuring a gender balance, black and ethnic minorities are represented on Local Adult Learning Boards and other appropriate decision-making education bodies. Training on non-formal guidance skills is extended to black and ethnic minorities in communitybased organisations. 18. The organisation of ESOL Due to the hour allocation system, availability of classes and lack of an appropriate assessment framework, ESOL learners with a strong educational background were frequently grouped together with ESOL learners with literacy needs. To ensure language learning is a positive and successful experience, the VECs and other providers should decide whether Literacy for ESOL classes for reading and writing skills are going to be offered to learners with literacy needs (refer to Appendix K for guide on costing). It is recommended that guidelines for effective practice be drawn up to assist programme managers encompassing the following areas: Profiling and consultation. Recruitment of learners, marketing and publicity. Networking and information exchange. Tutor recruitment. Initial enrolment and record keeping. Needs analysis and planning a programme. Guidance and assessment. Choosing modes of delivery and setting up language support. Monitoring and evaluation. 19. ESOL Provision Incorporating a multitude of methodologies, most providers described

15.

Co-operation with other agencies Networking and co-operation between agencies enables providers to exchange ideas, experiences and develop relationships in order to improve practice. Valuing an interagency approach, the VECs established an Operations Group to concentrate on general language and education issues for asylum seekers. With representatives from the statutory and voluntary sector, this group should oversee and advise on the implementation of recommendations (this model may also be suitable for VECs outside the Dublin area). 16. Training The VECs require resources and supports to be responsive to staff development needs. Although the VECs organised several in-service days for staff working with asylum seekers,
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teaching approaches as broadly communicative. Operating with few resources, providers used task and action based techniques with emphasis placed on acquiring functional English. Erratic attendance was cited as one of the greatest difficulties for providers due to the unsettled nature of asylum seekers lives. Basic needs such as welfare and accommodation take precedence over language provision and asylum seekers experience difficulties motivating themselves. However, erratic attendance is also due to language programmes not fully meeting the needs of learners. Tutors considered one class a week to be insufficient and recommended specific actions are initiated to ensure participation from groups with special needs (for example, women and the Roma). It is recommended: Graded ESOL provision for asylum seekers is organised over short periods of time six/eight weeks with specific learner objectives. Programmes need to be offered for at least four hours a week and no longer than ten with classes available in the morning, afternoon and evening. ESOL tutors are developed as part of a team and are responsible for assisting with recruitment of new learners, assessing new learners, designing and delivering ESOL programmes, monitoring attendance and progress, maintaining records, evaluating programmes with the programme manager, developing materials, tutor training and undertaking research. Extra classes for ESOL learners experiencing difficulties with pronunciation (Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese speakers) are organised by the VECs. Classes specifically targeting

women only organised with childcare are organised in mainstream and community based settings. Based on a short education needs analysis, the VECs develop specific strategies to target Roma men and women. Taking account of family structure and involving the Roma, alternative strategies such as outreach, as well as family learning need to be explored. Workplace ESOL and Literacy for ESOL programmes are launched by the VECs to target ESOL learners in the workforce requiring provision. Migrant workers can also be included in these programmes and employers should provide a contribution towards provision. 20. Literacy for ESOL Provision Approximately, 7% of respondents in the survey reported they had no literacy skills in their mother tongue/another language. However, given the researcher did not administer the questionnaire with participants, the figure is reality is a great deal higher. A further 14% of respondents had only completed five years or under in primary school and a further 2% had not attended primary schools at all. These learners are under-represented in ESOL because of class availability and no consideration being given to literacy when planning ESOL. When learners with literacy needs were discovered in ESOL programmes, tutors were unable to afford them additional support during class time. Resulting in non-attendance and slow progress, specific strategies are required to address the needs of this group. It is recommended: Learners with low levels of mother tongue literacy are identified and placed in separate Literacy for ESOL

classes for reading and writing skills that can be supplemented by one-toone tuition. Teaching materials are developed which specifically address learners with literacy difficulties. Learning opportunities in the first language are offered with bilingual assistants where there are sufficient numbers. Literacy providers target ESOL learners with literacy needs in the workforce (refer to Section 8.7). As a long-term strategy, the VECs explore the possibility of piloting bilingual literacy programmes.

21.

Standard English for African English speakers While a major proportion of the asylum seeking population is made up of African English speakers, few providers had devised specific strategies for this target group. African English speakers using English Pidgins/Creoles without communication skills in Standard English will experience difficulties when entering professional occupations and higher education. It is recommended: The VECs organise literacy and communications workshops for African English Speakers on Standard English. Materials (accompanied by training) are developed to support this client group. 22. Torture survivors Survivors of torture have been subjected to physical and psychological abuse designed to break down a person. Requiring a holistic approach, rehabilitation should enable a survivor to resume as full a life as possible. Although no research to date has quantified the number of torture survivors in Ireland, several providers
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CHAPTER TEN

had worked with them. Recognising that language tuition has an important role in recovery and rehabilitation, it is recommended: Psychological Services in the DES, the Health Board, the CCST, VEC Psychological Services and ESOL staff develop a code of practice with guidelines for education practitioners for working with survivors of torture. ESOL programmes include information on relevant medical services available and survivors are referred to specialised services. Information sessions are organised for ESOL staff on the needs of torture survivors. The VECs fund therapeutic adult education programmes and in some cases separate ESOL classes for survivors. 23. Childcare Most providers were unable to offer any childcare facilities to asylum seekers attending ESOL programmes. Given that women are often the main caregivers in families, organising ESOL without childcare facilities effectively excludes them from provision. Leading to fragmentation in migrant/refugee families, this will have far-reaching implications for their children. As a matter of urgency, it is recommended: Greater use is made of current community based facilities by opening crches in the evening and appointing new Childcare Workers to increase capacity. Working with the County Childcare Committees, the Childcare Development Manager for the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC needs to incorporate specific strategies to accommodate children of ESOL learners.
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All staff within the childcare sector undergo anti-racism and cultural awareness training and Childcare Workers are trained in Anti-bias Education. As a longer-term strategy, the VECs should consider running childcare training courses with a language component for ethnic minorities through VTOS. 24. Personal and learner support Providers need to consider personal and learning supports required by asylum seekers and other minority linguistic groups for successful language learning. ESOL tutors provided personal support (welfare advice, telephoning other service providers, referring clients to appropriate services) to asylum seekers if required. However, most ESOL providers were unable to offer learning supports, for example open learning centres and open access in computer facilities. Efforts were made to build study skills/study time into programmes and visits to local libraries were organised to introduce learners to library resources. In addition, ESOL programmes need to offer extra assistance to learners with special needs or those requiring basic skills tuition. It is recommended: Extra support classes are organised for learners who have special needs. Basic computer classes with an emphasis on communications are organised for learners as part of their language programme. Study skills are built into existing ESOL programmes and learners introduced to library services. Time is allocated for learners in existing facilities in adult learning centres, including part-time learners. ESOL Development/Outreach

Workers from black and ethnic minorities are trained in non-formal guidance skills to deliver basic guidance sessions. 25. Implementation of recommendations All adult educators in the City of Dublin and County Dublin VECs adult learning service will be involved in the implementation of the recommendations in this report. Ensuring transparency and dialogue, it is recommended the City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC devise three-year strategic implementation plans following a consultation process with key staff members and organisations.

APPENDIX A Research Methodology

he research methodology was devised following an initial review of language provision for asylum seekers (together with other minority linguistic groups) and a series of informal meetings (statutory and non-statutory providers in the Dublin area). The informal meetings familiarised the researcher with salient issues for asylum seekers and the operational structure of education sector. Involving key informants, these meetings were held with the RIA, FS, the IILT, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and academics.

generate a detailed profile of the survey participants in order to establish: gender, age, nationality, marital status, legal status, domestic situation and location. The second was devised to elucidate the educational background of those who took part. Finally, the last section pertained to language learning and preferences of the participants for future programme development (please refer to Appendix D for the questionnaire). The questionnaire had 21 questions and overall objectives of the survey were explained on the first page and confidentiality was guaranteed. Most of the questions were close ended and the questionnaire was available in Arabic, English, French, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian and Russian.

Access to population
The main objective was to compile a representative sample of the asylum seeking population in the designated research areas at a fixed point in time. Previous research on asylum seekers used surveys to establish needs (Begley et al., 1999; Fanning et al., 2001; Faughan & Woods, 2001; Amnesty International, 2001, Kennedy & Murphy-Lawless, 2002). Researchers accessed the population through statutory service providers, NGOs, or by personally approaching asylum seekers in emergency accommodation. The respondents in these surveys were not randomly selected and the researchers in question readily admit there was a substantial element of self-selection (Faughan & Woods, 2001; Amnesty International, 2001). This self-selection meant that the most educated and self-motivated individuals were more likely to participate in these studies (Begley et al., 1999; Fanning et al., 2001; Faughan & Woods, 2001). It was therefore decided to ensure that asylum seekers who do not usually avail of the services of statutory or non-statutory agencies would be reached. This could only be accomplished by working in partnership with the Health Boards. All newly arrived asylum seekers have contact with their local Health Board. As explained in Section 3.7 the Health Board provides both emergency accommodation and material support to asylum seekers. Recognising the importance of the research, the East Coast Area Health Board and Northern Area Health Board agreed to cooperate with this study. Many of its officers have experienced communication difficulties with asylum seekers on a regular basis because of language barriers, cross-cultural issues and lack of a properly funded interpretation service that is widely available.

Sampling framework
The survey of the asylum seeking population was drawn from a total number of 2,843 claimants living in Dublin 1, 6, 7 and 24 in February 2001 (asylum seekers with work rights and in employment were excluded from this survey). The sample was divided into three groups because of the different support mechanisms in existence for asylum seekers in Ireland. Refer to Appendix E for a more detailed breakdown of the sample populations by area.
Table 10: Sample Populations
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in emergency accommodation - 486 Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in private rented accommodation 2,083 Asylum seekers in receipt of UA 274

Research areas
The survey of the asylum seeking population was restricted to certain geographical areas within the service provision regions of City of Dublin VEC and County Dublin VEC - the Inner City (Dublin 1), Rathmines (Dublin 6), Dublin 7 and Dublin 24.

Conducting the research Questionnaire design


The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The first section related to personal information and was designed to Following an initial pilot in March 2001, the survey commenced in April 2001 and was complete by May 2001. Several means of disseminating the questionnaire were employed for the three sample populations. Community
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APPENDIX A Research Methodology

Welfare Officers (CWOs) are based in the Health Boards and are responsible for welfare/support for asylum seekers. CWOs distributed the questionnaires to asylum seekers in emergency accommodation (Sample 1) and the questionnaires were posted out to asylum seekers in private rented accommodation (Sample 2). Asylum seekers with work rights and who are unemployed (Sample 3) receive Unemployment Assistance (UA) as they are actively seeking work. Contact with the Health Board is limited as they receive material support through another mechanism. However, this sample population is obligated to attend the FS Asylum Seeker Unit to seek employment. The Placement Officers within the Unit agreed to distribute the questionnaires. In all cases, prepaid postage envelopes were included with the questionnaires. Asylum seekers were not obligated to respond to the questionnaire and as a result there was a certain degree of selfselection.

guidelines to enable them to deal with asylum seekers needing assistance completing the questionnaire. This document also included the contact details of the researcher and another member of VEC personnel should a survey participant have literacy difficulties or require an interpreter. Finally, the project was publicised through an information sheet, a poster campaign and an article in Metro Eireann.

Survey response rate


The project was ambitious in targeting a diverse and disparate group of people and it came at a time when the target population is over-researched (Amnesty International, 2001). Of the total sample population of 2,843, 767 questionnaires were returned. This represents an overall response rate of 27%. Approximately, 39% of asylum seekers in emergency accommodation responded to the survey (Table 11). A further 24% returned questionnaires living in private rented accommodation and 17% of asylum seekers with the right to work. The data from the questionnaires was input into an SSPS package for final analysis and is discussed thematically, in detail, in Chapter 3.
Table 11: Survey response rate*
Sample 1: Asylum seekers in emergency accommodation Total number 486 Responses received 192 Percentage of total 39% Sample 2: Asylum seekers in private rented accommodation Total number 2,083 Responses received 498 Percentage of total 24%
*33 responses are not included in these statistics

Sample 3: Asylum seekers with the right to work Total number 274 Responses received 44 Percentage of total 17%

Promoting the research


In order to ensure the success of the survey and promote the project, the researcher visited: Health Board Superintendent CWOs in Dublin 1, 6, 7 and to CWOs that worked within their community care areas. FS Asylum Seeker Unit Placement Officers in Coolmine and Tallaght (Dublin) (refer to Appendix F). The aims and objectives of the project were explained, together with the research methodology. The CWOs and Placement Officers were issued with
Appendix A | Page 94

Evaluating language and literacy provision


Qualitative interviews The second part of the primary research included an evaluation of current language provision for refugees and asylum seekers. This was achieved through the administration of a broad subject based semi-structured interview (please refer to Appendix G). The purpose of the interview was to first establish the role of each statutory and non-statutory provider and to gain an insight from their work with non-nationals. It also concentrated on: co-ordination and referral between agencies; networking and information exchange; accessibility, safety and transport; equality and anti-discrimination policy; resources and childcare; learning sites; teaching approaches and materials; teacher training, teacher induction and support; learner support and guidance; targeted interventions; outreach centres and family groups; accreditation and the role of European initiatives. The agencies and organisations targeted included: Community Groups, FS Asylum Seeker Unit, the IILT, NGOs, VEC Adult Literacy Schemes, VEC ESOL

programmes and the VEC Prison Education Service operating within Dublin city and county. VEC schools and colleges were interviewed where a mainstream programme contained a substantial language component. The objective was not to evaluate the course, but rather to appreciate it in the context of other ESOL adult education programmes. Directors, principals, programme managers were interviewed with tutors. The list of interviewees is delineated in Appendix H. Two tutors were interviewed in centres with a range of programmes. They included: Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC), FS Asylum Seeker Unit, Parnell Adult Learning Centre, IILT and SPIRASI. Fifteen tutors in total were interviewed, four of whom worked in more than one centre. The interviews were held between June 2001 and January 2002. Focus groups Focus groups were organised with individuals currently accessing ESOL provision in adult and community education. Participants were asked to discuss their previous education experience and future aspirations. Focusing on the needs of learners, participants made recommendations for the organisation of ESOL provision and required supports. Focus groups were held in: An Siol (Community Development Project), Dochas Centre (Womens Prison), Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland (ICI) and the Vincentian Refugee Centre between April and September 2002.

Page 95 | Appendix A

APPENDIX B Management Committee

Chair:

Jacinta Stewart Education Officer City of Dublin VEC Inez Bailey Director National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) Michael Begley Director Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI) Anne Brown Principal - Whitehall College of Further Education, Dublin 12 Aidan Clifford Deputy Director Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) Kathleen Forde Adult Education Organiser (AEO) City of Dublin VEC Fiona Hartley Education Officer - County Dublin VEC Barbara Lazenby-Simpson Assistant Director - Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT) Rutilo Lopez Association of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Ireland (ARASI) San MacGabhann (replaced by Audrey Scott) Assistant Chief Inspector - Department of Education and Science Frank Mills General Manager Special Needs, Northern Area Health Board (NAHB) Breda Naughtan Assistant Principal Officer (AP1) - Reception and Integration Agency (RIA), Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform Michael ORiordan Assistant Manager - FS Asylum Seeker Unit Audrey Scott Inspector, Department of Education and Science Bernadette Sproule Adult Education Organiser (AEO) City of Dublin VEC

Members:

Appendix B | Page 96

APPENDIX C Second language acquisition and cognitive language learning

econd Language Acquisition (SLA) is the systematic study of how people learn a language other than their mother tongue (Ellis, 2000) and stems from foreign language teaching. Sharing a common knowledge base with ESL/ESOL, most foreign language teaching occurs in private language schools, PLC courses and third level institutions. Often driven by accreditation mechanisms, EFL can reflect a different ethos to adult education and literacy. A branch of applied linguistics, SLA research originally concentrated on examining a set of factors called learner variables. Emerging out of comparative studies between similarities and differences in language learning, SLA was influenced by behaviourism (a popular psychological theory that influenced the social sciences). Prior to 1960s, language learning was seen as a process of imitation and reinforcement in which learners tried to copy what they learned. Subsequently, a major shift in SLA studies occurred which led to a new direction in research - the mentalist or cognitive view of language learning.

linked to emotional, attitudinal and social factors. When naturalistic acquirers are unhappy with their situation, resent the fact that it imposes a language learning burden on them, feel inferior to native speakers of the language in question, and have restricted access to the society in which they are living, their language learning is unlikely to progress very far(Little, 2000: 4). 3. There is no clear divide between oral proficiency naturalistic and instructed language acquisition. A learner may acquire language abilities through everyday experiences outside a classroom situation [For example, the workplace is an important source of naturalistic language learning]. 4. However, formal instruction will accelerate the language learning process (adapted from Little, 2000). Describing motivation as a complex phenomenon, Littlewood (1996) cites an individuals personal drive, achievement for success and desire for new stimulation as motivating forces. Learners are more likely to acquire the target language if they have a communicative need for example, to carry out everyday tasks and fulfil social interactive needs. For many language learners, belonging to a minority linguistic group necessitates acquiring skills in another language and this is particularly relevant for many asylum seekers. However, Littlewood (1996) considers attitudes towards the second language community to be important. For example, where learners have a positive attitude towards the host society and regular contact, they will feel more compelled to learn the target language. If this attitude is negative, there may be strong internal barriers against learning, and if learning has to take place because of external compulsion, it may proceed only to the minimum level required by these external demands(Littlewood, 1996: 56). Asylum seekers may have negative attitudes towards Irish society because of their own experiences living in Ireland. Suffering from social exclusion and alienation, many asylum seekers have already experienced racism (see Fanning et al., 1999 and FAQs Research/Loyal & Mulcahy, 2001). Comparable to Irish Travellers, negative experiences and little prior contact with Irish society are demotivating factors. Even for individuals with refugee status, their previous experience of being isolated and marginalized will affect their attitude towards learning English. Lack of motivation is one of the most widespread causes for failure to learn a second language. The directions in SLA research, as outlined, have been criticised by other applied linguists. Tollefson (1991; 1995) is critical of research that centres solely on learner variables
Page 97 | Appendix C

Cognitive view of language learning


The cognitive view of language learning is based on the premise that the human mind is equipped with a faculty for language learning known as the Language Acquisition Device (Chomsky, 1968). As a faculty, it enables learners to work out the structural morphology (structure of a language) of a new language through various activities and logical reasoning. Research reveals learners enter through a series of transitional phases when another language is acquired. At each phase, they are in control of a linguistic system that is neither the first nor the second language (Crystal, 2000). Selinker (1972) coined the term interlanguage to describe each phase by examining the errors learners made. Throughout this period many studies used error analysis as a means of understanding SLA. During the 1970s and 1980s, SLA researchers began to look at how an individuals first language was acquired as a guide for SLA through error analysis. Four points can be concluded from this research: 1. Second language learners pass through successive developmental stages, similar to those observed for child language acquisition. They use their cognitive skills to try and develop full proficiency and accuracy in the target language. Many never attain this level of accuracy because of fossilisation. 2. Fossilisation is a complex topic in SLA. Reasons may be

APPENDIX C Second language acquisition and cognitive language learning

and refers to it as the neoclassical approach. Studies (particularly from Canada) sought to establish the effectiveness of deliberate efforts to increase motivation with a view to improving learning. The rationale of individuals was frequently emphasised in research findings. Motivation is not only a learner variable because motivation is [also] determined by broader socio-political factors, such as economic interest associated with different language varieties, ideological support for language learning, and access to quality education(Tollefson, 1991: 33). For Tollefson (1991) the language of SLA research is dehumanising and scientific, it suppresses any direct expression of human experience. Language-teaching professionals seek pedagogical solutions to situations caused by inequality. Pedagogy cannot separate language issues from situational difficulties: While these may affect the quality of education, they do not confront the historical and structural forces that impose policies of inequality and that ensures that non-pedagogical factors will overwhelm even the most well-motivated learners: problems with childcare and transportation, the need to work two jobs to support family members, hostility from speakers of the dominant language, and, most importantly, exclusion from decision-making institutions (Tollefson, 1991: 209). Consideration must be given to the immense range of factors affecting adult learners in everyday life. Failure to participate in language programmes is not always because of individual choice or through the utilisation of different language learning tools; situational barriers can sometimes be the determinant factor for the adult learner. Significant adult education research involving Irish adults cite situational barriers as a major obstacle for learners (Bailey & Coleman, 1998; Owens, 2000). Asylum seekers are one of the most materially disadvantaged groups in Irish society. Full participation in language programmes cannot be guaranteed unless their fundamental needs are met. Therefore, any progress in educational provision needs to be accompanied by improvements in other areas. Language and literacy provision must be viewed holistically.

Appendix C | Page 98

APPENDIX D Survey questionnaire

Dear participant, In July 2000, the Irish Government announced that asylum seekers would have free access to literacy and English language classes. The City of Dublin Vocational Education Committee (CDVEC) wants to undertake a survey of asylum seekers in Dublin in order to design and plan a language programme that addresses your needs. The CDVEC already provide an education service to young people and adults in Dublin. Any information you provide will remain strictly confidential and it is not necessary for you to supply your name and address. However, the success of this project depends on your participation and assistance, as we need to understand your needs so we can address them appropriately. Once you have completed this questionnaire, please place it in the self- addressed envelope that is provided and post it to the CDVEC, which is free. Otherwise you can give it to your Community Welfare Officer or FS Asylum Seeker Unit. If you would like any further information regarding this project, please contact our researcher below: [ Contact details of researcher ]

Personal information
1. Gender? Please tick Male Female 2. What is your nationality? Please write

3. What is your age? Please tick one 13-17 years 51-60 years 18-21 years 61-70 years 22-30 years 71-80 years 31-40 years 80- years 41-50 years 4. What is your marital status? Please tick Single Living with a partner Married Separated or divorced Widowed

Page 99 | Appendix D

APPENDIX D Survey questionnaire

5. Do you have any children or dependents (e.g. parents, grandparents, nieces or nephews etc.) living with you in Ireland? Please write (a) Children Gender (b) Dependants Gender Age

Age

6. In which area do you live in Dublin (e.g. Phibsboro, Tallaght, Rathmines etc.)? (a) (b) What is your postal or area code? Please tick one Dublin 1 Dublin 6 Dublin 7 Dublin 24

7. What type of accommodation do you live in? Please tick B&B Hostel Hotel Private rented accommodation 8. What is your current legal status? Please tick
Please go to the end of this document (appendix) for an explanation of what each of these categories mean

Convention refugee Humanitarian leave to remain Asylum seeker Asylum seeker with the right to work Parent of an Irish born child Lodged an asylum appeal and waiting for an answer Lodged a humanitarian application and are waiting

Education background
9. What is your mother tongue or first language? (a) Can you read in it or another language? Please tick Yes No (b) Can you write in it or another language? Please tick Yes No

Appendix D | Page 100

10.

Details of education Primary Schools attended

Years attended

Qualifications obtained

Secondary Schools or tech. colleges attended

Years attended

Qualifications obtained

Third level institutions Colleges or universities attended

Years attended

Degrees or diplomas obtained

Language learning
11. Have you ever studied another language other than your mother tongue or first language? Please tick Yes No If the answer is yes, please specify

12.

If the answer is yes, how did you learn this language? Please tick Living or working in a foreign country In school or college Self-taught Are you currently studying English in Ireland? Please tick Yes No

13.

14. Where are you learning English? Please tick Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC) FS Asylum Seeker Unit Refugee Language Support Unit (RLSU) Rathmines Senior College SPIRASI VEC school, college or programme Vincentian Refugee Centre Other, please write
Page 101 | Appendix D

APPENDIX D Survey questionnaire

15.

Why are you learning English? Please tick as appropriate Day-to-day needs To communicate with local population To find employment To improve my English and upgrade my qualifications To prepare myself for studying in Ireland What prevents you or would prevent you from going to class? Please tick as appropriate No childcare facilities I have child rearing responsibilities I spend my time trying to find accommodation Classes are too far away Cultural constraints prevent me I have problems motivating myself The things we study in class are not important for my life My partner will not allow me to attend classes I have too many other worries It costs too much money Do you have a private space to study where you live? Please tick Yes No Would you require childminding facilities to attend classes? Please tick Yes No What time of day would you prefer to attend classes? Please tick one only 9 am 1 pm 2 5pm 6 9 pm Do you use libraries regularly in Ireland in order to learn English? Please tick Yes No Would you be interested in studying technical English in order to upgrade your qualifications? Please tick Yes No

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

Appendix D | Page 102

APPENDIX E Sample frame

1. Sample frame of asylum seeking population


Table 12: Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in emergency accommodation - Feb. 2001
Source: Eastern Regional Health Authority

Table 16: Total sample and overall response rates*


Total sample Total number of responses received Overall response rate 2,843 767 27%

Postal Area Dublin 1 Dublin 24 Rathmines -Dublin 6 Dublin 7 Total

Adults 100 43 0 225

Adult Dependants Both Adults 46 146 28 71 0 0 44 269 486

*33 responses are not included in these statistics

Table 13: Asylum seekers in receipt of SWA in private rented accommodation - Feb. 2001
Source: Eastern Regional Health Authority

Postal Area Dublin 1 Dublin 24 Rathmines -Dublin 6 Dublin 7 Total

Adults 604 282 223 450

Adult Dependants Both Adults 202 806 144 426 43 266 135 585 2083

Table 14: Asylum seekers with the right to work on Unemployment Assistance Feb. 2001
Source: Department of Social, Community and Family Affairs

Postal Area Dublin 1 Dublin 24 Rathmines -Dublin 6 Dublin 7 Total

Adults 80 35 84 75 274

2. Response rate
Table 15: Response rate by each sample population*
Sample 1: Asylum seekers in emergency accommodation Total number 486 Responses received 192 Percentage of total 39% Sample 2: Asylum seekers in private rented accommodation Total number 2,083 Responses received 509 Percentage of total 24%
*33 responses are not included in these statistics

Sample 3: Asylum seekers with the right to work Total number 274 Responses received 33 Percentage of total 12%

Page 103 | Appendix E

APPENDIX F Statutory agencies visited during research project and issued with guidelines

1. Northern Area Health Board


Refugee Applications Centre, Lower Mount Street, Dublin 2 Paraig Rehill & Pat Lennon Superintendent Officers with (CWOs) Dublin 1 Teresa Keogh Superintendent Officer (with CWOs) Dublin 1 Paraig OShuirchi Superintendent Officer (with CWOs) Dublin 1/7 Gerry Kenny Superintendent Officer (with CWOs) Gerry Kelly Superintendent Officer (with CWOs) Dublin 6 Nora Nowlan Superintendent Officer (with CWOs)

2. FS Asylum Seeker Unit


FS Asylum Seeker Unit Coolmine, Dublin 15 Michael ORiordan Assistant Manager (with Placement Officers) FS Asylum Seeker Unit Tallaght, Dublin 24 Michael ORiordan Assistant Manager (with Placement Officers)

Appendix F | Page 104

APPENDIX G Semi-structured interview

Interview details
1. 2. 3. 4. Who? Organisation? Date of interview? Time and place?

Equality and anti-discrimination policy


25. 26. Does your organisation or centre have a Race Equality/Anti-discrimination policy? Is there a grievance procedure in place for an adult learner who may have been mistreated or discriminated against on any of the following grounds: gender, marital status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race and being a member of the Travelling community? Have any of your staff members had training on dealing with people who are non-English speakers?

Organisational profile
5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. What is the name of your organisation or centre? What is your address? When was it established or opened? Who are the main promoters of your organisation? Who are the principal core funders and what is your annual budget? Describe the aims and objectives of your organisation or centre? List the functions of projects/services offered by your organisation or centre? How many staff members do you have? What position do they occupy? On what basis are they employed? What is the management structure of the organisation or centre? Do you have any bilingual speakers working in your organisation? Are asylum seekers or refugees represented in the management structure in anyway? 27.

Language classes: numbers and details


28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Number of classes: Times: Number of learners; is the current profile reflective of previous classes? Gender: Nationality and legal status of client groups Age range of client group in reflective percentage terms: Terms if any and length of programmes:

Consultations with ethnic minorities


35. 36. Did you consult with the asylum seeking or refugee community for each academic year? If the answer is yes, how did you go about it?

Accessibility, safety and transport


18. 19. 20. Is your organisation or centre accessible to people with disabilities and people with children? Is your organisation or centre well connected to public transport networks? Is the area in which you are located safe for learners to walk through, particularly at night?

Finding learners, networking and information exchange


37. 38. How do you find learners? Is information available in the form of leaflets or booklets on courses you offer asylum seekers or refugees? Are they translated into any languages? Do you network with any service providers that offer programmes and courses to asylum seekers? If so, how is this done? Does your organisation or centre work with any other service providers in partnership on any programmes, which are designed for asylum seekers and refugees?

Resources and childcare


21. What facilities does your organisation offer service users (resource rooms, libraries, canteen, computers, study facilities, meeting rooms, sports facilities etc.)? Are they available to asylum seekers? Does your organisation or centre offer childcare facilities (or support)? If the answer is yes: a) How many childcare places does it provide? Are there plans to expand? b) How many childcare workers are there? c) Is there a capacity to offer places to the children of asylum seekers?

39. 40.

41.

22. 23. 24.

Teacher recruitment, training and induction


42. How did you recruit or find your English language teachers? Are they paid or voluntary? If they are voluntary, how many have you had in the last six months? Are any of your teachers bilingual speakers? Are any non-nationals?
Page 105 | Appendix G

43.

APPENDIX G Semi-structured interview

44. 45.

46.

47. 48. 49.

What induction is in place for new English language teachers? Have your English language teachers undergone any training in literacy or teaching English to speakers of a foreign language? If so, what kind? Have any been trained by the Refugee Language Support Unit? Have your English language teachers undergone any training on interculturalism or specific training on asylum and refugees issues? Do your teachers have any understanding of the mother culture of their learners? Have they had any training on the culture of their country of origin? What support, if any is available for teachers any other staff that work with asylum seekers and refugees? What supports are they seeking?

Premises
50. Where do the language classes take place?

Profiling, records and portfolios


51. 52. 53. Explain the enrolment procedure that has been put in place for language learners? How do you assess new learners? Do you use portfolios for learners?

Needs analysis and determining course objectives


54. Who set the agenda for class? 55. Do you use the Council of Europe language portfolio?

Learning targets, progress and evaluation of learners


56. 57. How do you set learning targets for adult learners? Are the learners themselves involved in this process? How do you monitor the progress of learners in your classes?

Teaching approaches
58. What teaching approaches are used for language learning for asylum seekers (i.e. communicative approach, grammar-translation, audio lingual, etc.)? How do you determine which ones are used? What teaching approaches and activities are utilised to develop literacy skills with asylum seekers? What specific materials are used for this task? Describe the classroom methodology that is used for each (i.e. Group work Debates, Puzzles, Individual work, Role play, Class presentations; Oral communication - Dialogues, questions and answers; Work with

59. 60.

authentic materials bus timetables etc. and any other activities)? (a) How are lessons planned? Are they determined by learners needs? (b) How do you develop general competencies with learners (i.e. use texts which illustrate new areas of knowledge, special courses and text books, through study of socio-cultural backgrounds of learners and native speakers, through role play, use of self-made materials etc.)? (c) How do you develop a learners oral proficiency (informal conversations, discussions and debates, presentations)? (d) How do you develop a learners pronunciation (i.e. through ear-training and phonetic drilling, reading aloud, use of audio-visual materials)? (e) How do you develop a learners ability to use grammatical elements and structures (i.e. gap filling, questions and answers, multiple choice, sentence constructions on a given model)? (f) How do you generally develop a learners reading and writing? (g) How is vocabulary presented and learned by learners (use with authentic texts, dictionaries, course books, visuals)? (h) How do you deal with errors and mistakes of the following nature: Phonetic errors and mistakes, written vocabulary, syntactic, socio-linguistic and socio-cultural? (i) How do you develop a learners own learning strategies? Is there an attempt to enable them to be autonomous? Is the learner made aware of his or her own language learning abilities and styles? Does the learner acquire study skills? 62. Is there any acknowledgement or use of language learners other languages in class? Is there any acknowledgement of their mother culture? 63. Do you organise any visits outside the classroom setting for adult learners? 64. Do you use any other mediums for language learning (i.e. art, computers, photography etc.)? 65. Describe some of the problems you have encountered with asylum seekers and they have had with current teaching approaches, activities and materials your centre uses?

61.

Language learning and levels


66. How many levels are there?

Appendix G | Page 106

Evaluation and teaching programmes


67. Are your teaching programmes evaluated? If so, how is this done?

Materials and curricula


68. What kinds of materials are used for language learning with asylum seekers (i.e. learning journals, cassettes, learning passports, textbooks etc.)? Have you developed any of these yourself? Have you developed any special programmes and materials for groups with particular learning targets and expectations? Do you use the bench marker system designed by the Refugee Language Support Unit?

69. 70.

71.

Accreditation
72. 73. Are the language programmes your organisation or centre offer accredited? Is the answer is yes, who accredits them?

Outreach centres and family groups


74. Do you have any outreach centres of family groups for adult learners?

Problems faced by learners


75. 76. In your opinion what obstacles currently prevent asylum seekers from attending current programmes? Describe some of the problems you or your learners have encountered within the classroom setting?

Learner support
77. 78. If learners come to you with problems, what do you do? What guidance service is available for learners ?

Groups with special needs


79. Do you work with or have any programmes for asylum seekers or non-nationals with special needs such as torture survivors, unaccompanied minors/separated children, women, people with disabilities and older people?

European initiatives
80. Is your organisation or centre involved in any European initiatives?

Page 107 | Appendix G

APPENDIX H Qualitative Interviews

City of Dublin VEC


Adult Literacy Schemes City Centre Marie Casey/Nuala Byrne Adult Literacy Organisers (ALOs) Crumlin/Inchicore Frances Ward Adult Literacy Organiser (ALO)

FS Asylum Seeker Unit


Michael ORiordan Assistant Manager

Integrate Ireland Language and Training (IILT)


Mervyn Morrissey Co-ordinator of General Language

Non-governmental organisations
Finglas Celia Rafferty Adult Literacy Organiser (ALO) Rathmines/Ringsend Kathleen Ingoldsby Adult Literacy Organiser (ALO) VEC Prison Education Service Dochas Centre (Womens Prison) Marcie Barron Supervising Teacher Mountjoy Training Unit Stephen OConnor Supervising Teacher VEC Schools and colleges Ballsbridge College of Further Education Paul Whelan Parnell Adult Learning Centre Brid Ni Chionaola Acting Co-ordinator Rathmines Senior College Mary Lonergan Principal Whitehall College of Further Education Anne Browne Principal An Siol Jennifer Wallace Refugee Liaison Officer Bosnian Community Development Project (BCDP) Haris Bijedic Information Officer Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC) Mary Maher Director Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI) Michael Begley Director Bernadette Freyne Co-ordinator of Language Classes Tallaght Refugee Project Alice Binchy Co-ordinator Vincentian Refugee Centre Breege Keenan Social Worker

County Dublin VEC


Tallaght Pauline Ryan ESOL Project Support Worker Marette Murphy Literacy Organiser Heather Johns VTOS Co-ordinator for Springfield

Appendix H | Page 108

APPENDIX I Mother tongue of respondents organised by language family * **

ALTAIC
Language Turkish Family sub-group Turkish Number of Percentage respondents of total 2 0.3% Where spoken Turkey, Europe

INDO-EUROPEAN
Language Albanian Armenian Family sub-group Albanian Armenian Number of Percentage respondents of total 18 5 1 1 3 2% 0.7% 0.1% 1% 0.4% 4% Where spoken Albania, Balkans Armenia and Middle East Belarus, Poland Bulgaria and surrounding areas Czech Republic UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, worldwide second language use France, Canada, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Monaco and second language Germany, Austria, Switzerland, E Europe and widespread second language use Sierra Leone Iraq, Iran, Turkey Latvia Lithuania Moldovo Iran & nearby areas Poland and surrounding areas Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa Pakistan, India Romania and Moldova Russia and surrounding areas Balkans Ukraine and nearby areas India, Pakistan
Page 109 | Appendix I

AFRO-ASIATIC
Language Arabic Berber Hausa Somalia Tigrinya Family sub-group Semitic Berber Chadic Cushitic Semitic Number of Percentage respondents of total 56 5 2 1 2 7% 0.7% 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% Where spoken N Africa, Middle East, Arabian Peninsula Morocco, Algeria Nigeria, Niger and surrounding areas NEC Africa Eritrea, Ethiopia

Belorussian Slavic Bulgarian Czech English Slavic Slavic

Indo-European 3

French

Romance

36

5%

AUSTRO-ASIATIC
Language Family sub-group Number of Percentage respondents of total 3 0.4% Where spoken Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos German Germanic 1 0.1% Vietnamese AustroAsiatic

CAUCASIAN
Language Georgian Family sub-group Causcasian Number of Percentage respondents of total 2 0.3% Where spoken Georgia Krio Kurdish Latvian Germanic Iranian Baltic 8 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 213 59 1 8 1 1% 0.1% 0.1% 1% 4% 0.1% 3% 2% 0.3% 28% 8% 0.1% 1% 0.1%

Lithuanian Baltic Moldovan Romance (Romanian) Persian (Farsi) Polish Indo-Aryan Slavic

Portuguese Romance Punjabi Indo-Aryan

RomanianRomance Russian Serb-Croat Ukrainian Urdu Slavic Slavic Slavic Indo-Aryan

APPENDIX I Mother tongue of respondents organised by language family * **

NIGER-CONGO
Language Bajun Family sub-group Bantu Number of Percentage respondents of total 4 1 8 1 1 1 19 2 1 5 1 1 14 0.5% 0.1% 1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 2% 0.3% 0.1% 0.7% 0.1% 0.1% 2% Where spoken Somalia, Kenya Senegal, Guinea Bissau Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Nigeria Angola, DRC-Congo Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda Togo, Benin, Ghana DRC-Congo, Congo (Brazzaville), Central African Republic Togo, Benin Mali, Senegal East Coast Africa DRC-Congo DRC-Congo Ghana, Cte dIvoire Nigeria South Africa Nigeria, Benin South Africa

Does not include eight languages/dialects recorded in survey, as they could not be found in linguistic ethnologies.

Diola Adamawa-Ubangi Edo Ebira Etsako Igala Ishan Isoko Kikongo Kirundi Kotokoli Lingala Benue-Congo Benue-Congo Benue-Congo Benue-Congo Benue-Congo Benue-Congo Bantu Bantu Gur Bantu

** Tables compiled using Grimes, B.F. & Grimes, J.E.


(2001) Ethnologue: Languages of the World and Crystal (2001) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language.

Igbo/Ibo Benue-Congo

Losso Malinke Swahili Tetela Tshiluba Twi Xhosa Yoruba Zula

Gur Mande Bantu Bantu Bantu Kwa Bantu Benue-Congo Bantu

1 1 5 1 2 3 2 2 84 2

0.1% 0.1% 0.7% 0.1% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 11% 0.3%

Urhobo Benue-Congo

NILO-SAHARAN
Language Sonrai Family sub-group Nilo-Saharan Number of Percentage respondents of total 1 0.1% Where spoken Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso

URALIC
Language Hungarian Family sub-group Uralic Number of Percentage respondents of total 5 0.7% Where spoken Hungary, Romania
Appendix I | Page 110

APPENDIX J Full-time courses with English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in the City of Dublin VEC

1 Ballsbridge College of Further Education English (EFL) & Business Communications 2. Killester College of Further Education English (EFL) & Business English (EFL) & Computers 3. Rathmines Senior College European Executive Assistant Teleservices (English Language) 4. Ringsend Technical Institute Certificate in Teleservices (English Language) 5. Whitehall College of Further Education English for Overseas Learners

Page 111 | Appendix J

APPENDIX K Recommended sample programmes

Sample Programme 1 Programme description

ESOL Programme for two groups Eight-week ESOL programme offered to two separate groups (12-15 in a group) of learners, with similar educational backgrounds and communicative skills in English.
2,675 (see below for breakdown of costs)

Total cost

Implementation costs
Tuition (two tutors) Publicity and outreach Recruitment Administration Management and organisation Overheads (existing premises) Technical support Assessment and certification Total

Cost
1,024 365 80 60 640 160 80 266 2,675

Sample Programme 2 Programme description

ESOL Programme for Women Eight-week programme includes 10-12 participants with mixed abilities. While group work is involved, two tutors (one ESOL and one literacy for ESOL tutor) work separately when focusing on reading and writing skills. Childcare is provided for eight participants.
3,701 (see below for breakdown of costs)

Total cost

Implementation costs
Tuition (two tutors) Publicity and outreach Recruitment Administration Management and organisation Overheads (existing premises) Technical support Assessment and certification Childcare Total

Cost
1,024 365 80 60 640 160 80 266 1,026 3,701

Appendix K | Page 112

APPENDIX L International, European and National Instruments

International instruments
UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT), 1985 UN Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 and 1967 Protocol UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1996

European instruments
The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1950

National instruments
Belfast Agreement, 1998 Constitution of Ireland, 1937 Employment Equality Act, 1998 Equal Status Act, 2000 Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act, 2000 Immigration Act, 1999 Qualification (Education and Training) Act, 1999 Refugee Act, 1996 (as amended) Vocational Act, 1930 Vocational (Amendment) Act, 2001

Page 113 | Appendix L

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

he following bibliography is organised by subject area and many of the references in this report are drawn from articles, books, government publications, information packs, reports and websites from Irish and international (American, Australian, British, Canadian, Danish, European and UN) sources.

Farrell, F. & Watt, P. (eds) Responding to Racism in Ireland, Veritas: Dublin, pp. 179-191. DARKENWALD, G.G. & MERRIAM, S.B. (1974) Adult Education: Foundations of Practice, Harper & Row Publishers: New York. DARVILLE, R. (1994) The Language of Experience and the Literacy of Power in Taylor, M. & Draper, J. (eds), Adult Literacy Perspectives, Krieger Publishing: Florida, pp.25-69. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT. (2000) Breaking the Language Barriers: The Report of the Working Group on English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL), DfEE: UK. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. (1998) Green Paper on Adult Education: Adult Education in an Era of Lifelong, Government Stationary Office. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. (2000) White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life, Government Stationary Office. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. (2001) From Lisbon to Stockholm: Basic Skills for Employability and Citizenship, available from the Department of Education and Science. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE. (2001) Letter to CEOs/Principals/Co-ordinators from Peter Kelly, APO, Re: Access to PLC, VTOS and Youthreach programmes for non-EU nationals. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, EQUALITY AND LAW REFORM. (1999) Integration: a Two-Way Process, Government Stationary Office. DU VIVIER, E. (1991) Learning to be Literate, DALC: Dublin. FREIRE, M. (1990) Refugees: ESL and Literacy Trying to Reinvent the Self in a New Language, Refuge, Vol.10, No.2. pp.3-6. FREIRE, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Penguin: New York. FREIRE, P. (2001) Pedagogy of Freedom Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage, Rowman & Littlewood: Boston.

General background and adult education references:


ARUNDEL, L. (1999) City of Dublin VEC an organisation like no other? Or City of Dublin VEC an organisation within the VEC tradition? City of Dublin VEC. AUERBACH, E. (1993) Re-examining English only in the ESL classroom, TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), pp.9-32. BAILEY, I. & COLEMAN, U. (1998) Access and Participation in Adult Literacy Schemes, NALA: Dublin. BOYLE, P., HALFACREE, K. & ROBINSON, V. (1998) Exploring Contemporary Migration, Longman: Harlow. BYRNE, A. & LENTIN, R. (eds) (2000) (Re) searching Women: Feminist Research Methodologies in the Social Sciences in Ireland, Institute of Public Administration: Dublin. CARR-HILL, R., PASSINGHAM, S., WOLF, A. & KENT, N. (1996) Lost Opportunities: The Language Skills of Linguistic Minorities in England and Wales, The Basic Skills Agency: London. CARRON, G. & CARR-HILL, R.A. (1993) The Diversification Educational Field: Information and Planning Issues, Institute for Educational Planning: Paris. CASSARA, B. (ed) (1994) Adult education in a multicultural society, Routledge: London & New York. CASTLES, S., BOOTH, H. & WALLACE, T. (1984) Here for good: Western Europes new ethnic minorities, Pluto Press: London. CASTLES, S. & MILLER, M.J. (1998) The age of migration: international population movements in the modern world, MacMillan Press: Basingstoke. CLARKE, M. (1999) Response by the City of Dublin VEC to the Green Paper on Adult Education, City of Dublin VEC. CROWLEY, N. (2001) Legal and institutional responses in
References | Page 114

GRIMES, B.F. & GRIMES, J.E. (2001) Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Summer Institute of Linguistics: Dallas. GROSSER, K. & SAKHO, H. (1986) Educating Nita: Education for Refugees in the UK, Links 27, pp.22-24. HAILBRONNER, K. (1999) Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy of the European Union, Kluwer Law International: The Hague. HENSEY, P. (1995) Making Materials Work, City of Dublin VEC. HENSEY, P. (1999) Working on Words: A Resource Pack, City of Dublin VEC. HOLEC, H. (1981) Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning, Pergamon Press: Oxford. IRCT. (2001) Facts about torture in Introduction to the IRCT, IRCT: Copenhagen. JONES, C. & WALLACE, J. (2000) Making EMAG Work, Trentham Books: London. KHAN, D. (2001) Expectations for Multi-cultural Britain in the 21st Century Social Policy and Public Service presented at Delivering Effective Race Equality and Community Cohesion Learning from Summer 2001, QWM Public Policy Seminars, University of London, 20th December 2001. HAMP-LYONS, L. (2001) English for academic purposes in Carter & Nunan (eds.) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, Cambridge University Press, pp. 126-130. MCCRUM, R., MACNEILL, R. & CRAN, W. (2002) The Story of English, Faber & Faber: London. MCKEVITT, M. (2002) Childcare Standards, Policies and Procedures for VEC Facilities: Manual for Managers, Supervisors, Childcare Workers and Students, City of Dublin VEC/County Dublin VEC. MEITE, A. (2001) But the problem was reading and writing and childcare, The Adult Learner, 2001, AONTAS: Dublin, pp.49-51. MURPHY, P. (2002) Roma in Ireland an initial needs analysis,

Roma Support Group & Pavee Point: Dublin. NALA. (1991) Guidelines for Good Adult Literacy Work, NALA: Dublin. NALA. (1999) Evolving Quality Framework for Adult Basic Education, NALA: Dublin. NALA. (2000) NALA Information Pack, NALA: Dublin. NALA. (2001) Evolving Quality Framework, NALA: Dublin. NALA. (2002a) NALA Strategic Plan 2002-2006, NALA: Dublin. NALA. (2002b) History: History of the National Adult Literacy Agency and the Literacy Movement in Ireland, refer to NALA website (www.nala.ie). NALA. (2002c) Workplace Literacy Programmes: Irish Case Studies, NALA: Dublin. NAPS. (1997) Sharing in Progress National Anti-Poverty Strategy, Government Stationary Office. OWENS, T. (2000) Men on the Move, AONTAS: Dublin. OSULLIVAN, E. (1999) CDVEC Adult Literacy Provision: Who are the Participants? What are the Issues? City of Dublin VEC. PHILIPSON, R. & SKUTNABB-KANGAS, T. (1994) Language rights in postcolonial Africa in Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Phillipson, R. (eds), Linguistics Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination, Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin & New York, pp. 335-345. REFUGEE AGENCY. (2001) Refugee Agency Annual Report 99/00, available from the RIA. ROBINSON, V. (1996) Inter-generational differences in ethnic settlement patterns in Britain in Ratcliffe, P. (ed) Ethnicity in the 1991 Census Volume 3: Social geography and ethnicity in Britain: geographical spread, spatial concentration and internal migration, HMSO, pp. 175-199. ROBINSON, V. (1998) The importance of information in the resettlement of refugees in the UK, Journal of Refugee Studies, 11 (2), pp.146-60.

Page 115 | References

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

SHERIDAN, V. (1998) Social distance and language training: a case study of the Irish-Vietnamese community in Lentin, R. (ed) Expanding Nation, Ethnic and Racial Studies: Dublin, pp.55-65. SKUTTNABB-KANGAS, T. & PHILLIPSON, R. (eds) (1994) Linguistic Human Rights: Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination, Mouton de Gruyter: Berlin & New York. SKUTTNABB-KANGAS, T. (2000) Linguistic Genocide in Education or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers: Mahwah, New Jersey, London. UNHCR. (1997) The State of the Worlds Refugees, Oxford University Press. UNIQUE PERSPECTIVES. (2000) Report of the Strategic Review, Audit and Evaluation of the Co. Dublin VEC Adult Literacy Service for County Dublin VEC, unpublished report for internal planning purposes only. TASKFORCE ON THE TRAVELLING COMMUNITY. (1995) Report of the Travelling People Review Body, Irish Government: Government Stationary Office. WARD, E. (1996) A big show-off to show what we could do Ireland and the Hungarian Crisis of 1956, Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 7, pp. 131-141. WEERC. (2001) At the Forefront: The Role of Womens Community Education in Combating Poverty and Disadvantage in the Republic of Ireland, AONTAS: Dublin.

mation Pack, The Equality Authority: Dublin. FAQs Research/LOYAL, S. & MULCAHY, A. (2001) Racism in Ireland: The Views of Black and Ethnic Minorities, Amnesty International: Dublin. FARRELL, F. & WATT, P. (eds) (2001) Responding to Racism in Ireland, VERITAS: Dublin. GUNDARA. J. S. (2000) Interculturalism, Education and Inclusion, Paul Chapman Publishing: London. LENTIN, R. (2001) Responding to the Racialisation of Irishness: Disavowed Multiculturalism and its Discontents pp.1-23 in Sociological Research Online, Vol. 5, No.4. LENTIN, R. & MCVEIGH, R. (eds) (2002) Racism and Antiracism in Ireland, Beyond the Pale: Belfast. LYNCH, K. (2002) Equality in Education, Studies, Vol. 90, No. 360, pp.395-411. LYNCH, K. (1999) Equality in Education, Gill & MacMillan: Dublin. MULLALLY, S. & SMITH, O. (2000) Partnership 2000 Working Group Report on Equality Proofing, Government Stationary Office. MULLALLY, S. (2001) Mainstreaming equality in Ireland: a fair and inclusive accommodation?, Legal Studies, Vol. 21, No.1, pp. 99-115. MONSHENGWO, K. (2001) Guidelines on Anti-racism and Intercultural Training, NCCRI: Dublin.

Anti-racism, equality and interculturalism:


---------------. (2001) Acknowledging Difference, The Adult Learner, AONTAS: Dublin. DADZIE, S. (1999) Adult Education in Multi-ethnic Europe, NIACE: Leicester. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, EQUALITY AND LAW REFORM. (2002) Towards a National Action Plan Against Racism in Ireland: A Discussion Document to Inform the Consultative Process, available from Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. EQUALITY AUTHORITY. (2001) Equality Authority InforReferences | Page 116

TASKFORCE ON THE TRAVELLING COMMUNITY. (1995) Report of the Travelling People Review Body, Government Stationary Office.

Assessment and needs analysis in language teaching:


COTTIER, J. (1999) A Survey of Second Language Tests: Development and Standards in Other countries, A Report Prepared for the Executive Director and the Board of Directors of the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. LLLU. (1993) Criteria for the Assessment of English Language

Skills, LLLU:London. LLLU WORKING PARTY ON ASSESSMENT LEVELS. (1995) Multi-lingual Negotiation Pack, LLLU: London. LLLU WORKING PARTY ON ASSESSMENT LEVELS. (1995) Working with the Criteria for the Assessment of English Language Skills: Examples of Current Practice, LLLU: London. MERRIFIELD, J., MCDONAGH, O. & COLEMAN, U. (2001) Mapping the Learning Journey: NALA Assessment Framework for Literacy and Numeracy, NALA: Dublin.

Asylum in Ireland, SSRC: Dublin. GUERIN, P. (2001) Refugees and Asylum Seekers in County Monaghan: Population Profile Needs & Analysis, County Monaghan Partnership. IVEA. (2001) IVEA Policy on Educational Provision for Asylum Seekers, Refugees and other Non-nationals, IVEA: Dublin. KENNEDY, P. & MURPHY-LAWLESS, J. (2002) The Maternity Care Needs of Refugee and Asylum-seeking Women A Research Study Conducted for the Womens Health Unit, available from the Northern Area Health Board. LITTLE, D. & LAZENBY-SIMPSON, B. (1996) Meeting the language needs of refugees, unpublished report submitted to the Department of Education and Science. LITTLE, D. (2000) Meeting the Language Needs of Refugees, RLSU Occasional Papers, No.1, available from the IILT. SULTAN-PRNJAVORAC, F. (1999) Report of a Survey Barriers and Needs of Bosnian Refugee Women with Regard to Education, Employment and Social Inclusion, The ZENA Project/Bosnian Community Development Project: Dublin.

Education, employment and health issues for asylum seekers and refugees:
ARISTOTLE, P. (1999) The Role of the AMEP in Building a Holistic Settlement and Multicultural Program: Responding to the Needs of Refugees and Survivors of Torture and Trauma, Paper delivered at The AMEP: 50 Years of Nation Building, Melbourne. BEGLEY, M., GARAVAN, C., CONDON, M., KELLY, I., HOLLAND, K., STAINES, A. (1999) Asylum in Ireland: A Public Health Perspective, UCD/SPIRASI: Dublin. CLANN HOUSING. (1999) From Bosnia to Irelands Private Rented Sector: A study of Bosnian housing needs Ireland, Clann Housing Association: Dublin. COLLINS, A. (2001) Meeting the Needs of Asylum Seekers in Tralee, Kerry Action for Development/Partnership Tr Li. ECRE. (1997) Position on Reception of Asylum Seekers, ECRE: London. FANNING, B. & MACINR, P. (1999) Regional Reception of Asylum Seekers in Ireland: A Strategic Approach, Irish Centre for Migration Studies: Cork. FANNING, B., LOYAL, S. & STAUNTON, C. (2000) Asylum Seekers and the Right to Work in Ireland, Irish Refugee Council: Dublin. FANNING, B., VEALE, A. & OCONNOR, D. (2001) Beyond the Pale, Asylum-seeking children and social exclusion in Ireland, Irish Refugee Council: Dublin. FAUGHAN, P. & WOODS, M. (2000) Lives on Hold Seeking

Legal issues for asylum seekers and refugees in Ireland:


ALMIRALL, L. & LAWTON, N. (2000) Asylum in Ireland, Irish Refugee Council: Dublin. AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL. (2000) Asylum Law and Policy in Ireland: A Critical Guide, Amnesty International: Dublin. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, EQUALITY AND LAW REFORM. (2000) Information leaflet for applicants for refugee status in Ireland, available from the Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform. IRISH REFUGEE COUNCIL. (2000) Guide to the Irish Refugee Act 1996 (as amended), Irish Refugee Council: Dublin. OFFICE OF THE REFUGEE APPLICATIONS COMMISSIONER. (2002) Annual Report 2001, RAC: Dublin.

Page 117 | References

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

Immigration in Ireland:
MACENR, P. (2001) Immigration Policy in Ireland in Farrell, F. & Watt, P. (eds) Responding to Racism in Ireland, Veritas: Dublin, pp.46-87. WARD, T. (2001) Immigration and Residency in Ireland, City of Dublin VEC.

Languages, Routledge: London & New York, pp.33-42. RLSU. (2000) English language proficiency benchmarks for the pre-vocational sector, RLSU: Dublin. SCHELLEKENS, P. (1996) TEC Provision for English as a Second Language Guidelines for effective practice, DfEE: UK. SWARBRICK, A. (2001) Teaching Modern Languages, Routledge: London & New York.

Second language acquisition and language teaching:


AUERBACH, E. (1995) The politics of power in the ESL classroom: Issues of power in pedagogical choices in Tollefson, J.W. (ed) Power and Inequality in Language Education, Cambridge University Press, pp. 9-29. CARTER, R. & NUNAN, D. (eds) (2001) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, Cambridge University Press. COUNCIL OF EUROPE. (1996) Learning, Teaching, Assessment: Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, Council of Europe: Brussels. CULLEN, P. (2000) Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Ireland, UCC Press: Cork. CRYSTAL, D. (2000) The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Language, Cambridge University Press. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS. (2001) Adult ESOL core curriculum, DfES: UK (available for free from the Basic Skills Agency). ELLIS, R. (2000) Second Language Acquisition, Oxford University Press. JORDAN, J. (2001) An introduction to teaching English as an Additional Language to Adults, Basic Skills Agency: London. LITTLE, D. (1991) Learner Autonomy 1: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin: Authentik: Dublin. LITTLEWOOD, W. (1996) Foreign and Second Language Learning, Cambridge University Press. MITCHELL, R. (2001) The communicative approach to language teaching in Swarbrick, A. (ed) Teaching Modern
References | Page 118

WILLIS, D. & WILLIS, J. (2001) Task-based language learning in Carter, R. & Nunan, D. (eds) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, Cambridge University Press, pp. 173-179.

Teaching literacy to ESOL learners:


ALBSU. (1985) ESL Literacy, An Introductory Handbook for Tutors, ALBSU: London (out of print). BURNABY, B. & BELL, J. (1994) The Role of Literacy in Methods of Teaching English as a Second Language in Taylor, C.C & Draper, J.A. (eds) Adult Literacy Perspectives, Krieger: Canada, pp.185-195. GRAHAM, C. R. & COOKSON, P.S. (1994) Linguistic minorities and adult education in the United States in Cassara, B. (ed), Adult education in a multicultural society, Routledge: London & New York, pp.45-59. LLLU. (2001) Teaching Basic Literacy to ESOL Learners: A Training Course for ESOL Practitioners, devised by Marina Spiegel & Helen Sunderland, LLLU/Avanti: London. WALLACE, C. (1989) Participatory Approaches to Literacy with Bilingual Adult Learners, Language Issues, Vol. 3, No.1, Spring/Summer, pp.6-11.

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN RESOURCES

Specialist publications:
ASYLAND, published quarterly by the Irish Refugee Council: Dublin. EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL. (2001) 2001 Barometer on Trade Union and Human Rights in the Education Sector, Education International: Brussels. NEW INTERNATIONALIST. (2000) The World Guide 1999/2000, New Internationalist Publications: Oxford. NEW INTERNATIONALIST MAGAZINE, published monthly by New Internationalist Publications: Oxford. METRO EIREANN, published monthly by Metro Eireann, 213 North Circular Road, Dublin 7. UNESCO. (2001) Education for All 2001 Assessment Country Reports, UNESCO: Paris.

Websites featuring country reports:


Amnesty International www.amnesty.org Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board www.cisr.gc.ca/ Education International www.ei-ie.org Human Rights Watch www.hrw.org Minority Rights Reports www.minorityrights.org United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization www.unesco.org United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees www.unhcr.ch US State Country Background Notes www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/

Page 119 | Resources

RESOURCES AND SPECIALIST LIBRARIES

The Curriculum Development Unit Resource Centre is open to all City of Dublin VEC staff as well as researchers. The library contains books, journals, videos, CD-ROMs on all aspects of education, together with human rights and intercultural education. For more information, contact: Eva Hornung Head Librarian Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) Sundrive Road Crumlin Dublin 13 Tel: (01) 453 5487 E-mail: eva.hornung@cdu.cdvec.ie Website: www.curriculum.ie

Largas The Exchange Bureau operates under the aegis of the DES and manages/develops services for a wide range of transnational programmes on behalf of the Government and EU, for example: European co-operation projects; European learning partnerships; opportunities for practitioners to attend international conferences/training courses, together with study visits; international teaching placements and funding for establishing international partnerships. Through its language programmes (Lingua 1 and Lingua 2), grant aid can be provided for innovative actions enhancing language teaching and learning. For more information contact: Education Service Largas The Exchange Bureau 189-193 Parnell Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 873 1411 E-mail: education@leargas.ie Website: www.leargas.ie/education

The Institiid Teangeolaiochta ireann (Linguistics Institute of Ireland) (IT) has a specialist library with books, pamphlets, microfiches, journals on all aspects of linguistics and modern language teaching, including: theoretical linguistics, applied linguistics, phonetics and phonology, sociology and psychology of language, language teaching and learning, teaching methods and testing. The library is open to lecturers, language tutors, tutor trainers and researchers. For more information, contact: Rnn Loingsigh Librarian IT 31 Fitzwilliam Place Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 676 5489 E-mail: ronan@ite.ie Website: www.ite.ie

The National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) has a National Literacy Resource Centre which is open to adult learners, tutors, tutor trainers and others with an interest in or involved in the field. Materials are available for adult basic education tuition and ESOL on the following areas: reading, writing skills, spelling, dictionaries, grammar, multipurpose material, workplace literacy, training and reference material, dyslexia, numeracy, information technology and specialist ESOL resources. For a resource guide or more information, contact: Sandra Peel Administrator/resource person National Adult Literacy Agency 76 Lower Gardiner Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 855 4332 E-mail: speel@nala.ie Website: www.nala.ie/resource_room/

Resources | Page 120

CONTACT LIST OF STATUTORY AND NON-STATUTORY AGENCIES

Government Departments
Education and Science (Department of) Marlborough Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 873 4700 Fax (01) 889 2367 Website: www.education.ie Enterprise, Trade and Employment (Department of) Kildare Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 631 2121 Website: www.entemp.ie Health and Children (Department of) Hawkins House Poolbeg Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 635 4000 Locall: 1890 200 311 Website: www.doh.ie Justice, Equality and Law Reform (Department of) 72-76 St. Stephens Green Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 602 8202 Fax: (01) 661 5056 Website: www.justice.ie

Government & State Agencies


Advisory Council for English Language Schools (ACELS) 44 Lesson Place Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 676 7374 Fax: (01) 676 3321 Website: www.iol.ie/~acels Asylum Seekers Unit (ASU) (Northern Area Health Board) 77 Upper Gardiner Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 858 5100 Fax: (01) 858 5149 Website: www.nahb.ie City of Dublin VEC Town Hall Merrion Road Ballsbridge Dublin 4 Tel: (01) 668 0614 Fax: (01) 668 0710 Website: www.cdvec.ie Combat Poverty Bridge Water Centre Cunnigham Road Islandbridge Dublin 8 Tel: (01) 670 6746 Fax: (01) 670 6760 Website: www.cpa.ie County Dublin VEC Main Road Tallaght Dublin 24 Tel: (01) 452 9600 Fax: (01) 451 5196 Website: www.codubvec.ie

Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) Anti-racism and Intercultural Unit Sundrive Road Crumlin Dublin 12 Tel: (01) 453 5487 Fax: (01) 453 7659 Website: www.curriculum.ie Equality Authority Clonmel Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 417 3333 Fax: (01) 417 3366 Website: www.equality.ie Irish Vocational Education Association (IVEA) McCann House 99 Marlborough Road Donnybrook Dublin 4 Tel: (01) 496 6033 Fax: (01) 496 6460 Website: www.ivea.ie National Centre for Guidance in Education (NCGE) 1st Floor 42/43 Prussia Street Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 869 0715 Fax: (01) 869 0717/882 3817 Website: www.ncge.ie National Consultative Committee on Racism and Interculturalism (NCCRI) 26 Harcourt Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 478 5777 Fax: (01) 478 5778 Website: www.nccri.com

Page 121 | Contact

CONTACT LIST OF STATUTORY AND NON-STATUTORY AGENCIES

Reception and Integration Agency (RIA) Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform 2nd Floor 94 St. Stephens Green Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 418 3200 Fax: (01) 418 3271 Refugee and Asylum Seeker Service Department of Psychology St. Brendans Hospital Rathdown Road Dublin 7 Tel/Fax: (01) 868 0166 Refugee Applications Commissioner (RAC) Refugee Applications Centre 79-83 Lower Mount Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 602 8000 Fax: (01) 602 8124 Locall: 1890 202 418 Refugee Appeals Tribunal (RAT) 6/7 Hanover Street East Dublin 2 Locall: 1890 201 458 Refugee Legal Service (RLS) 48/49 North Brunswick Street Georges Lane Smithfield Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 646 9600 Fax: (01) 476 0271 Website: www.legalaidboard.ie

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)


Access Ireland 41 Dominick Court Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 878 0589 Fax: (01) 878 0591 African Refugee Network (ARN) 90 Meath Street Dublin 8 Tel: (01) 473 4523 Fax: (01) 454 0745
Website:www.refugee.150m.com/home.shtml

Centre for the Care of Survivors of Torture (CCST) Spiritan House 213 North Circular Road Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 838 9664 Fax: (01) 868 6500 Website: www.spirasi.ie Clann Housing Association 3rd Floor 18 Dame Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 677 5010 Fax: (01) 677 5025 Comhlamh (Association of Returned Development Workers) 10 Upper Camden Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 478 3490 Fax: (01 478 3738 Website: www.comhlamh.org Dublin Adult Learning Centre (DALC) 3 Mountjoy Square Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 836 4301/878 7266 Fax: (01) 836 4755 Website: www.dalc.ie Free Legal Aid Centre (FLAC) 49 South William Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 679 42 39 Fax: (01) 679 1554 Website: www.flac.ie Immigrant Council of Ireland (ICI) Social Innovations 42 Upper Dorset Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 865 6525 Fax: (01) 874 9695

Amnesty International (AI) 48 Fleet Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 677 6361 Fax: (01) 677 6392 Website: www.amnesty.ie AONTAS (National Association of Adult Education) 22 Earlsfort Terrace Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 475 4121 Fax: (01) 838 1143 Website: www.aontas.com Association of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Ireland (ARASI) 213 North Circular Road Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 838 1142 Fax: (01) 838 1143 Website: indigo.ie/~arasi/ Bosnian Community Development Project (BCDP) 40 Pearse Street Dublin 2 Tel/Fax: (01) 671 9202

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Institiid Teangeolaiochta ireann (IT) (Linguistics Institute of Ireland) 31 Fitzwilliam Place Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 676 5489 Fax: (01) 661 0004 Website: www.ite.ie Integrate Ireland Language & Training (IILT) Unit 4A Trinity Enterprise Centre Grand Canal Quay Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 677 5344 Fax: (01) 677 5334 Integrating Ireland C/O Comhlamh 10 Upper Camden Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 478 3490 Fax: (01) 478 3738 Website: www.comhlamh.org Irish Refugee Council 40 Lower Dominick Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 873 0042 Fax: (01) 873 0088 Website: www.irishrefugeecouncil.ie Regional Office: 1 Bank Place Ennis Co. Clare Tel/Fax: (065) 682 2026 National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) 76 Lower Gardiner Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 855 4332 Fax: (01) 855 5475 Website: www.nala.ie

NASC The Irish Immigrant Support Centre St. Maries of the Isle Sharman Crawford Street Cork City Tel: (021) 431 7411 Fax: (021) 431 7402 Website: homepage.eircom.net/~iisc/ Pavee Point 46 North Great Charles Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 878 0255 Fax: (01) 874 2626 Website: www.paveepoint.ie Refugee Information Service (RIS) Richmond Business Campus Morning Star Avenue Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 809 0437 Fax: (01) 872 6252 Website: www.ris.ie Refugee Project Columba Centre Maynooth Co. Kildare Tel: (01) 505 3157 Fax: (01) 601 6401 Spiritan Asylum Services Initiative (SPIRASI) 213 North Circular Road Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 868 3504 Fax: (01) 868 6500 Website: www.spirasi.ie Vincentian Refugee Centre St. Peters Church New Cabra Road Phibsboro Dublin 7 Tel: (01) 810 2580 Fax: (01) 838 9950 Website: www.vincentians.ie/VRC.htm

Academic Institutions
Adult Education Centre Library Building University College Dublin Belfield Campus Dublin 4 Ireland Tel: (01) 716 7000 Fax: (01) 716 7500 Website: www.ucd.ie/~adulted Centre for Adult and Community Education National University of Ireland, Maynooth County Kildare Tel: (01) 628 5222 Fax: (01) 708 4687 Website: www. may.ie/academic/adulted Department of Adult Education Waterford Institute of Technology (WIT) Cork Road Waterford Tel: (051) 302 040 Fax: (051) 302 487 Website: www.wit.ie Equality Studies Centre Room 511 Library Building University College Dublin Belfield Campus Dublin 4 Tel: (01) 716 7104 Fax: (01) 716 1107 Website: www.ucd.ie/~esc/ Irish Centre for Human Rights National University of Ireland, Galway Galway Tel: (091) 750 464 Fax: (091) 750 575
Website: www.nuigalway.ie /human_rights/

Page 123 | Contact

CONTACT LIST OF STATUTORY AND NON-STATUTORY AGENCIES

Irish Centre for Migration Studies (ICMS) National University of Ireland, Cork Western Road Cork Tel: (021) 490 2889 Fax: (021) 490 3326 Website: migration.ucc.ie Social Science Research Centre (SSRC) Room 524 5th Floor Library Building University College Dublin Belfield Dublin 4 Tel: (01) 716 7001 Fax: (01) 716 7057 Website: www.ucd.ie/~ssrc/index

European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE) Clifton Centre 110 Clifton Street London EC2A 4HT United Kingdom Tel: + 44 20 7729 5152 Fax: +44 20 7729 5141 Website: www.ecre.org International Organisation for Migration (IOM) (Irish address) 9 Marlborough Court Marlborough Street Dublin 1 Tel: (01) 878 7900 Fax: (01) 878 7901 Website: www.iom.int London Language and Literacy Unit (LLLU) South Bank University Caxton House 103 Borough Road London SE1 OAA Tel: +44 20 7815 6290 Fax: +44 20 7815 6296 Website: www.sbu.ac.uk/lllu National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages (NATECLA) NATECLA National Centre South Birmingham College 99-103 Clifton Road Birmingham B12 8SR United Kingdom Tel: + 44 121 688 8121 Fax: +44 121 694 6189 Website: www.natecla.org.uk National Organisation for Adult Learning (NIACE) DE Montfort Street LE 17 GE LEI 7 GE Leicester United Kingdom Tel: +44 116 204 4200/4201 Fax: +44 116 285 4514 Website: www.niace.org.uk

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (Irish address) 27 Upper Fitzwilliam Street Dublin 2 Tel: (01) 632 8675 Fax: (01) 632 8676 Website: www.unhcr.ch

International Organisations
Basic Skills Agency 7th Floor Commonwealth House 1-19 New Oxford Street London WC1A 1NU United Kingdom Tel: + 44 20 7405 4017 Fax: + 44 20 7440 6626 Website: www.basic-skills.co.uk Council of Europe Language Policy Division, DG IV Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport Council of Europe Allee de la Robertsau 67075 Strasbourg Cedex France Tel: +33 3 88 41 23 84 Fax: +33 3 88 41 27 88 / 06 Website: culture.coe.int

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