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# Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 1

## 1 a i The weighted average mass of the atom of

an element on a scale where one atom
of carbon-12 has a mass of exactly 12 units. [1]
(18.7 10) + (81.3 11)
ii
= 10.8
[2]
100

c i

[1]
100

[2]

## [1 mark for showing masses % abundance

or one error carried forwards from this]

## ii The average mass of an atom of a particular

isotope on a scale in which an atom of
carbon-12 has a mass of exactly 12 units.
[1]
Total = 5
3 a Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)

2NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
b molar mass of sodium carbonate calculated
correctly = 106
4.15
moles of sodium carbonate
= 0.039mol
106
moles HCl = 20.039 = 0.078mol
c The amount of substance that has the same
number of specified particles / atoms /
molecules, etc. as there are atoms in exactly
12g of the carbon-12 isotope
(or similar wording).
25.0
d i moles sodium carbonate =
0.0200
1000
= 5.0104mol
ii moles HCl = 25.0104 = 1.0103mol
1000
concentration of HCl = 1.0103
12.50
3
= 0.080moldm 

[1]

[1]

[1]

## ( 51.5 90 ) + (11.2 91) + 17.1 92 ) + (17.4 94 ) + ( 2.8 96 )

= 91.3

20
80
;H=

1.0
12.0
C = 6.67; H = 20
divide by lowest
4 a C =

[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]
Total = 6

2 a 262.5
180
b 72 Hf 

[1]
[1]
Total = 10

6.67
20
= 1; H =
= 3
6.67
6.67
empirical formula is CH3
b empirical formula mass = 15
15n = 30; n = 2, so molecular
formula is C2H6
c any 4 of:
volume of gas proportional to number
of moles;
mole ratio is 50:300:200
1mol hydrocarbon:6mol oxygen:4mol
carbon dioxide
Since 4 moles of carbon dioxide from
1 mole of hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon has
4 carbon atoms
4 carbon atoms will react with 4 moles of
oxygen molecules, leaving 2 moles of oxygen
molecules (4 moles of oxygen atoms) to react
with the hydrogen
so 4 moles of water formed, meaning
8 hydrogen atoms in hydrocarbon
equation is C4H8+6O2 4CO2+4H2O

## [1 mark for showing masses % abundance or one

error carried forwards from this]

b 2
c i 184.2
ii Fe has several isotopes.

e 0.2mol
f 0.224 = 4.8dm3

[1]
[1]

C =

600
= 0.025mol
24000
0.02544.0 = 1.1g 

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]
[1]
[1]

d moles propane =

[1]
[1]
Total = 10

5 a 4Na+TiCl4 4NaCl+Ti

[2]

[1]

[1]
[1]

## b 1 mole of TiCl4 gives 1 mole of Ti

189.9g TiCl4 47.9g Ti
47.9
1.0g TiCl4
g Ti
189.9
47.9
380g TiCl4 380
g Ti = 95.9g Ti
189.9

[1]

[1]

[1]

## c 4 moles of Na gives 1 mole of Ti

423.0g Na 47.9g Ti
[1]
47.9
1.0g Na
g Ti
4 23.0
47.9
46.0g Na 46
g Ti = 24.0g Ti
[1]
4 23.0
Total = 6

4.80
= 0.200mol
24.0
b moles of NaOCl = moles of Cl2 = 0.200mol
mass of NaOCl = 74.50.200 = 14.9g
c moles of NaOH = 2moles of
chlorine = 0.400mol

6 a i 0.0150dm3
ii 0.0200dm3
b 0.02000.0500 = 0.00100mol
c 0.00100mol
0.00100

= 0.0667moldm1
0.0150

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
Total = 5

7 a 80.0 (gmol1)
[1]
0.800
b

[1]
80.0
= 0.0100mol
[1]
c moles nitrogen(I) oxide = 0.0100
[1]
volume = 0.010024.0 = 0.024dm3 / 240cm3 [1]
Total = 5
1.20
8 a i moles of HCl =
= 0.0500mol
24.0
moles
0.0500
ii concentration =
=

3
volume in dm
0.100
= 0.500moldm3
25.0
b i 0.500

1000
= 0.0125mol
ii moles NaOH = moles of HCl
= 0.0125 mol
volume =
=

[1]
[1]

volume of NaOH =

[1]
[1]
[1]

0.400
= 0.200dm3
2.00

[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]

d Cl2(g)+2OH(aq)

Cl(aq)+OCl(aq) + H2O(l) [1]
Total = 6

## 10 a 1 mole of CaO gives 1 mole of CaCl2

56.1g CaO 111.1g CaCl2

[1]

28.05
28.05g CaO 111.1
g CaCl2
56.1
= 55.5g CaCl2
b 1 mole of CaO reacts with 2 mole of HCl
56.1g CaO reacts with 73.0g HCl
28.05g CaO reacts with

[1]

28.05
73.0
= 36.5g HCl
56.1

[1]

c mass of water is

28.05
18.0 = 9.0g
56.1

[1]

[1]
Total = 5

11 a NH3(g)+HCl(g) NH4Cl(s)

[2]

b NH3 = 17.0gmol1
HCl = 36.5gmol1
NH4Cl = 53.5gmol1

[1]
[1]
[1]

[1]

moles
concentration

0.0125
= 0.0625dm3
0.200

9 a moles of Cl2 =

## [1 mark for reactants and products;

1 mark for state symbols]

10.7
= 0.2mol
53.5
moles of NH3 and of HCl = 0.2mol
0.224.0 = 4.8dm3 of NH3 and HCl

c 10.7g NH4Cl =

[1]
[1]
[1]
Total = 8

[1]
Total = 7