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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 3
1 a The energy needed to remove one electron; from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms; to form a mole of gaseous 1+ ions. b The first 3 electrons are easy to remove, so these are in the outer shell / energy level; large increase in ionisation energy between third and fourth electrons removed; so fourth electron in next shell towards nucleus; fourth to eleventh electrons in same shell as only gradual increase in ionisation energy; large increase in ionisation energy between 11th and 12th electrons removed; so 12th and 13th electrons in shell close to nucleus. c Al+(g) Al2+(g) + e d 1s2 2s2 2p6 [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] 3 a Region of space outside the nucleus where there is a likelihood of finding an electron / two electrons. [1] b i sphere / circle drawn; [1] ii correct shape of p orbital (hourglass / propeller shape) with two lobes [1] c i d block [1] ii 10 [1] iii 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 [1] iv 4p [1] Total = 7 4 a C; [1] There is a big decrease in ionisation energy between B and C; [1] the outer electron in C is in the next quantum shell. [1] b D [1] c Increase in number of protons / increased nuclear charge; [1] electrons added go into the same outer shell / quantum level; [1] so same amount of shielding; [1] greater force of attraction across period between (positive) nucleus and (negative) electrons. [1] d above 1250 [1] but below 2050 [1] e The first seven electrons removed are in the outermost energy level / quantum level; [1] there is a big jump in energy required when the eighth electron is removed; [1] the eighth and ninth electrons are in the next energy level in / towards the nucleus. [1] Total = 13 5 a i The energy needed to remove one electron; from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms; to form a mole of gaseous 1+ ions. ii The energy required to remove one electron; from each ion in a mole of gaseous 2+ ions; to form a mole of gaseous 3+ ions. b i Mg(g) Mg+(g) + e ii Mg2+(g) Mg3+(g) + e [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] [2]

[1 mark for balancing, 1 mark for state symbols]

[1] Total = 12

2 a Increase in number of protons / increased nuclear charge; [1] electrons added go into the same outer shell / quantum level; [1] so same amount of shielding; [1] greater force of attraction across period between (positive) nucleus and (negative) electrons. [1] b Outermost electron of aluminium is in p sub-shell; [1] outermost electrons of magnesium in s sub-shell (of same quantum level as p); [1] outermost electron of aluminium in sub-shell with higher energy (or further from nucleus) / outermost electron of magnesium in lower energy sub-level (or nearer the nucleus / more shielding of p electron; [1] greater force of attraction between nucleus and s electron than p electron (or reverse argument).[1] c 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 [1] d i sub-shells shown in correct order, i.e. 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p [1] ii two electrons as arrows in each box for 2s, 2p and 3s orbitals; [1] electrons shown as arrows in opposite direction in 2s, 2p and 3s orbitals; [1] 1 electron as arrow in each of the 3p orbitals with arrows pointing in same direction [1] e value less than 494 (ignore lack of units) [1] Total = 14

[1 mark for balancing, 1 mark for state symbols] [1 mark for balancing, 1 mark for state symbols]

c i 4th ionisation energy of magnesium ii 6th ionisation energy of aluminium

[1] [1] Total = 12

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 3

6 a They are in the outermost energy level / sub-shell; greatest shielding by inner electrons; least attractive force from nucleus on the outer electrons. b Third electron is in the next main energy level / principal quantum shell further in; closer to the nucleus; less shielding (by inner shells of electrons). c There are 2 electrons in the outermost energy level / quantum shell; the next 8 electrons are in the energy level / quantum shell further in; there are 2 electrons in the innermost energy level / quantum shell. d Mg4+(g) Mg5+(g) + e


[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

[1 mark for balancing, 1 mark for state symbols]

Total = 11

7 a A is in Group IV [1] B is in Group II [1] C is in Group I [1] D is in Group IV [1] E is in Group III [1] b There is a big increase in ionisation energy from the 3rd to the 4th electron removed. [1] c Correctly labelled axes; [1] gradual increase in Hi for the first 5 electrons removed; [1] sudden increase in Hi between the 5th and 6th electrons removed; [1] gradual increase between 6th and 13th electrons removed; [1] sudden increase in Hi between the 13th and 14th electrons removed; [1] gradual increase between the 14th and 15th electrons removed. [1] Total = 12

8 a The energy needed to remove one electron; [1] from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms; [1] to form a mole of gaseous 1+ ions. [1] b Correctly labelled axes; [1] gradual increase in Hi for the first 7 electrons removed; [1] sudden increase in Hi between the 7th and 8th electrons removed; [1] gradual increase in Hi between the 8th and 15th electrons removed; [1] sudden increase in Hi between the 15th and 16th electrons removed; [1] gradual increase between the 16th and 17th electrons removed. [1] c The first seven electrons are easiest to remove since they are in the outermost energy level; [1] the steady increase shows that each electron is attracted more strongly by a more positive ion. [1] There is a big jump in energy required from the 7th to the 8th electrons; [1] this is because the 8th electron is in the next energy level; [1] which is closer to the nucleus and the electrons in it are less shielded. [1] There is a large jump from the 15th to the 16th electrons because the 16th electron is in a new energy level. [1] Total = 15

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 3

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press