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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 5
1 a two examples of giant ionic structure, e.g. sodium chloride, magnesium oxide two examples of a simple molecular structure, e.g. carbon dioxide, bromine
[1 mark each] [2]

b silicon(IV) oxide has a giant covalent / giant molecular structure; all bonds; are strong c both compounds are covalent; no mobile electrons (to carry the current)

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] Total = 8

[1 mark each] [2] b Ionic structure is brittle because force applied along layers displaces the ions; [1] ions of like charge come near each other; [1] repulsion between like charged ions disrupts bonding. [1] Metals are malleable because force applied along layers causes layers of atoms / ions to slide; [1] there are still / there are new forces of attraction; [1] between the ions and the delocalised electrons. [1] c giant molecular structures have strong covalent bonds; [1] throughout / network of bonds; [1] takes a lot of energy to break these (strong) bonds; [1] simple molecular structures have weak forces / bonds; [1] between molecules / intermolecular forces [1] requires only a small amount of energy to overcomes these forces [1] d in graphite, each carbon atom bonded to three others; [1] fourth outer electron on each carbon atom is free / delocalised; [1] moving electrons are a flow of current / can carry current; [1] in diamond all electrons involved in covalent bond formation; [1] no moving electrons to carry current [1] Total = 21

3 a A gas in which the volume is proportional to the temperature / inversely proportional to pressure. [1] b high pressure; [1] low temperature; [1] molecules close together; [1] significant intermolecular forces between molecules / volumes of molecules must be taken into account [1] c i weak forces between atoms; [1] easy to break interatomic forces [1] ii no mobile / free electrons [allow: not an ion] [1] d change temperature to correct units 20C = 20 + 273 = 253K [1] 0.5 1000 moles of He = = 125mol [1] 4 gas equation: pV = nRT [1] rearrange gas equation correctly nRT pV = nRT so V =  [1] p 125 8.31 253 ; V = 5.256m3 V= 50000 = 5.26m3 (to 3 significant figures) [1] Total = 13 4 a a regular arrangement of ions or atoms; in three dimensions b Bromine has van der Waals forces; which are weak. Water has hydrogen bonding; hydrogen bonding (in water) is stronger than van der Waals forces / hydrogen bonding is the strongest type of intermolecular force. [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

Examiners tip
In your answers first state the structure and bonding of each substance.

a carbon dioxide has a simple molecular structure; intermolecular forces; are weak

[1] [1] [1]

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 5

c molecules in liquid kept together / close to each other because of weak attractive / intermolecular forces; molecules in liquid gain kinetic energy; this energy is sufficient to overcome attractive forces; molecules are free enough / have enough energy to move about independently / are far apart d i the pressure exerted by molecules in vapour phase above a liquid ii The rate of molecules moving from liquid to vapour is equal to the rate moving from vapour to liquid /  there is an equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. e change temperature to correct units 98C = 98 + 273 = 371K change volume to correct units 80cm3 = 8.0105m3 mRT  Mr rearrange gas equation correctly mRT Mr =  pV gas equation: pV = 0.2 8.31 371 (1.1 105 ) (8.0 10 5 ) = 70.07 = 70 (to 2 significant figures) Mr =

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

c B is simple molecular so has low melting point because of weak van der Waals forces [1] between molecules; [1] only small amount of energy needed to overcome these forces; [1] low electrical conductivity because has covalent bonding; [1] none of the electrons free to move [1] Total = 18

[the idea of movement of molecules in both directions without equality / equilibrium = 1 mark]

[1] [1] [1]

[1]

[1] Total = 17 [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

5 a i giant ionic ii poor iii poor iv simple molecular v giant covalent / giant molecular vi good vii poor b A is ionic so has high melting point because of strong electrostatic attractions; between oppositely charged ions. solid has low electrical conductivity; ions cant move; in liquid the ions are free to move

6 a ions in lattice / regularly arranged; [1] in sea of delocalised electrons [1] b layers of metal ions; [1] slide when force applied; [1] new metallic bonds formed; [1] between metal ions and delocalised electrons [1] c i aluminium has low(er) density [1] ii copper too dense on own; [1] could not support its own weight in the air; [1] aluminium has low density; [1] but has low tensile strength; [1]  steel has high tensile strength so supports the aluminium [1] d i as percentage of zinc increases tensile strength increases; [1]  up to a point because pure zinc has lower tensile strength than the alloy; [1]  zinc atoms are a different size to the copper atoms; [1]  zinc atoms disrupt the lattice structure of copper; [1]  make it more difficult for the layers to slide over each other [1] ii brass [1] e 1 mark for any three reasons [3] expensive to extract ore costs in fuel of transporting heavy ore to smelting plants conserves supply of ore expensive to melt aluminium oxide because of high melting point large quantity of electricity has to be used to electrolyse the aluminium oxide [allow reverse arguments] Total = 21 7 a They are both giant structures; containing strong covalent bonds. b i all the bonds in the layers are strong;  so difficult to break;  high tensile strength / high strength to weight ratio [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 5

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

ii layers of carbon atoms held together by weak van der Waals forces; [1]  forces easily broken; [1]  layers can slide over each other; [1]  layers can be removed onto paper [1] c i all bonds / network of bonds; [1]  strong covalent bonds; [1]  bonds are hard to break so diamond hard; [1]  poor conductor of heat; [1]  so doesnt melt at high temperatures produced on drilling [1] Total = 14 8 a regular arrangement of sodium and chloride ions; [1] in three dimensions; [1] sodium and chloride ions alternate [1] b i is ionic so has high melting point because of strong electrostatic attractions; [1]  between oppositely charged [1]  ions [1] ii solid has low electrical conductivity; [1] ions cant move; [1] in liquid the ions are free to move [1] iii strong electrostatic attractions between ions; [1]  hard to break these electrostatic attractions by scratching surface; [1]  brittle because force applied along layers displaces the ions; [1]  ions of like charge come near each other; [1]  repulsion between like charged ions disrupts bonding [1] Total = 14

9 a non-metallic inorganic substance; [1] made by heating to high temperature [1] b aluminium oxide has giant covalent structure / giant molecular structure; [1] has very high melting point; [1] because difficult to break three-dimensional network of strong bonds [1] c i e-porcelain has lower density so doesnt weigh down the power cable; [1]  combined with poor(er) electrical conductivity [1] [or reverse argument for high aluminium] ii high aluminium has high(er) tensile strength [1] d magnesium oxide is an insulator / doesnt conduct electricity; [1] has a giant ionic structure; [1] ionic structures do not conduct electricity when solid; [1] and have high melting point; [1] because strong electrostatic forces between ions; [1] prevent ions from moving [1] Total = 14

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 5