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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 6
1 a
2CuO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)

Energy

Hr

2Cu(NO3)2(s)

ii taking time for copper sulfate to dissolve / energy loss to thermometer or air or calorimeter [1]  so temperature recorded lower than expected / energy loss to surroundings and therefore energy released is less [1]  or  assumption that the specific thermal capacity of the solution is the same as that of water [1]  the thermal capacity is likely to be slightly higher so the value calculated for the energy released is too low [1]  Total = 14 2 a CH3COCH3(l) + 4O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 3H2O(l) 2(C C) + 6(C H) + (C O) + 4(O O)  6(C O) + 6(O H) [1] 2(347) + 6(413) + (805) + 4(496) 6(805) + 6(465) [1] +5961 for bond breaking; 7620 for bond making; realisation that bond breaking is + and bond making is  [1] answer = 1659kJ [1] b any two of: the same type of bonds are in different environments; example e.g. C O bonds in carbon dioxide and propanone; average bond energies are generalised / obtained from a number of different bonds of the same type [2] c bond energies calculated by using enthalpy changes of gaseous compound to gaseous atoms; [1] enthalpy changes of combustion done experimentally using liquid (propanone). [1] d i Enthalpy change when 1 mol of a compound  is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions. ii 3C(graphite) + 3H2(g) + 1 2 O2(g)  C3H6O(l) [1] [1] [1] [2]

Progress of reaction

copper(II) nitrate on left and products on right with arrow showing energy going upwards; copper(II) nitrate below products; arrow in upwards direction from copper nitrate to products with H written near the arrow
2Cu(NO3)2(s) H1 Hf [Cu(NO3)2] Hr 2CuO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) H2 Hf [CuO] + 4 Hf [NO2]

[1] [1] [1]

 c Hr + H1 = H2 Hr + 2(302.9) = 2(157.3) + 4(+33.2) Hr + (605.8) = 181.8, so Hr = (+)424kJmol1 d i energy released = 100 4.18 2.9 = 1212.2J 1212.2J for 25g so for 1 mol 249.7 = 1212.2  25.0  = ()12107.5J / 12.1kJ to 3 significant figures

2Cu(s) + 2N2(g) + 6O2(g)

[3] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

[energy needed to evaporate the propanone for 2 marks]

iii Carbon does not react directly with hydrogen under standard conditions. [1]  Total = 14

[1 mark for correct equation; 1 mark for correct state symbols]

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6

3 a

240 = 0.01mol  24000 b heat change = 100 4.18 33.5 = 14003 J = 14.0kJ (to 3 significant figures) c Hc  =

[1] [1] [1]

14.0  [1] 0.01 = 1400kJmol1 [1] d Hc  = 2(394) + 3(286) [1] (85) [1] = 1561 [1] kJmol1 [1] e incomplete combustion; [1] heat losses through sides of calorimeter, etc [1] Total = 11 [1] [1] [1]

5 a enthalpy change when 1 mol of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions b C + 2H2 CH4 is the equation for Hf  Hr = sum of Hc of reactants sum of Hc of products = 2(286) 394 (891) = 572 394 + 891 = 75kJmol1 c CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O 4(C H) 4 412 2(O O) 2 496
1

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

2(C O) 2 805

4(O H) [1] 4 463 [1] [1] [1] Total = 11

Hc = 1648 + 992 1610 1852  = 822kJmol 

4 a the energy change when 1 mole is completely combusted in excess oxygen under standard conditions b i
5O2(g) + P4(white) 2984 H r 5O2(g) + P4(red) 2967

P4O10(s) for correct cycle for arrows for correct values on arrows using Hesss Law, Hr 2967 = 2984 Hr = 2984 + 2967 = 17kJmol1 ii P4(white)
17 kJ mol1 P4(red) Energy

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

6 a The average energy needed to break [1] 1 mole of bonds in the gaseous state. [1] b bond enthalpies of H2 + I2 = 436 + 151 = +587kJmol1 [1] bond enthalpies of 2HI = 2 299 = +598kJmol1 [1] enthalpy change = 587 598 = 11kJmol1 [1] c H2 and I2 on left and 2HI on right and energy label going upwards [1] H2 and I2 below 2HI [1] arrow going downwards showing Hr  [1]  Total = 8 7 a enthalpy change when 1 mole of solute is dissolved in a solvent to form an infinitely dilute solution b Hr [1] [1] [1]

2967 kJ mol1

2984 kJ mol1

aq + MgCl2(s) + 6H2O(l) H1

MgCl2.6H2O(s) + aq H2

P4O10(s) P4(red) is below P4(white) [1] for arrows from both down to P4O10 [1] for energy label [1]  Total = 11

MgCl2(aq)

1 mark for each of the three reactions with the arrows in the correct order/directions [3] for H values in correct places [1] Total = 7

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

8 a enthalpy change when reactants converted to products in the amounts shown in the equation under standard conditions b Hr
2HCl(aq) + MgCO3(s) H1 H2

[1] [1] [1]

9 a 250 4.18 23.0 = 24000J (to 3 significant figures) b Mr = 32.0

[1] [1] [1]

MgO(s) + CO2(g) + 2HCl(aq)

MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

1 mark each for the three reactions with the arrows in the correct order/directions for H values in correct places

[3] [1] Total = 7

2.9 = 0.0906 moles [1] 32.0 24000 c = 265000Jmol1 or (265kJmol1) [2] 0.0906 d heat loss [1] incomplete combustion [1] conditions not standard [1] Total = 9

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 6