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# Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 8
1

Examiners tip
Dynamic equilibrium is two words make sure your answer addresses both of them.

a forward and backward reactions;  happening at equal rates  b i goes to right  ii goes to right  iii no effect  iv goes to left  c If a system at equilibrium is disturbed;  reaction goes in the direction to minimise the disturbance / oppose the change.  d reaction moves to right;  some of the hydrogen must be removed;  to reduce the concentration of added hydrogen; more hydrogen reacts with CO2 to form more H2O and CO;  until value of Kc restored / to keep Kc constant   Total = 13 2 a pressure that one gas exerts / pressure of individual gas; in a mixture of gases b 13.5 106Pa / 1.35 107Pa p2 HI c K p = pH2 pI2 d K p =       

i reaction goes to the left;   increase in temperature increases the energy of the surroundings;   reaction goes in the direction that opposes the increase in energy;   reaction goes in the direction in which energy is absorbed;  endothermic reaction favoured  ii reaction moves to left;  some more iodine needed;   to increase the concentration of iodine removed;  more hydrogen iodide decomposes;   until value of Kp restored / to keep Kp constant   Total = 16 3 a A = 0.08mol B = 0.18mol b [A] = 0.04moldm3 [B] = 0.09moldm3 [C] = 0.02moldm3 c i K c = [C]2  [A][B]         Total = 8      

## (10.2 106 )2 = 48.3 (2.33 106 ) (0.925 106 ) no units e

Examiners tip
Parts e i and e ii look difficult. They are marked out of five marks each, and the individual points are probably not obvious to you. But if you look at the mark scheme you will find that all of the marking points are quite straightforward. In an exam you must make sure you write as full an answer as possible to a question like this, to give yourself the maximum chance of scoring these straightforward marks.

4 a amount of hydrogen starts at 1.00mol; amount of hydrogen decreases; during the time interval in which number of moles of hydrogen iodide are increasing; levels off; at 0.25mol b 0.25mol [0.5mol I2 reacts for every mole of HI formed. So 0.75mol I2 reacted. Therefore mol I2 at equilibrium = 1.00 0.75mol.] [HI]2 c i K c =  [H2 ][I2 ] (0.75)2 = 9 (0.25) (0.25) no units  ii K c =

 

 Total = 9

## Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 8

5 a any three of: closed system; reactants and products at constant concentration / macroscopic properties constant; equilibrium is dynamic / products are forming reactants at same time as reactants are forming products; rate of forward reaction = rate of backward reaction  2 [ NO2 ] b i K c =   [ N 2O 4 ] ii [N2O4] = 0.8moldm3 [NO2] = K c = 0.4 = 0.4moldm3 1
2

 

(0.4 ) =0.2moldm3  (0.8) c i increasing pressure has no effect on Kc;   increasing pressure increases the number of moles of NO2 so that Kc remains constant  ii increasing temperature increases Kc;  reaction is endothermic so higher yield at higher temperature   Total = 12 6 a ethanoic acid = 0.8moldm3 ethanol = 0.8moldm3 b ethanoic acid = 0.24moldm3 ethanol = 0.24moldm3 c ethyl ethanoate = 0.56moldm3 water = 0.56moldm3 [CH3COOC 2 H5 ][H2O] d i K c =  [CH3COOH][C 2 H5OH] ii K c = e f       

7 a i oxonium / hydronium / hydroxonium ii equation i: HCl is the acid and H2O the base  equation ii: NH3 is the base and H2O the acid iii amphoteric means can acts as an acid or base / as proton donor or acceptor;  in equation i, water accepts a proton from HCl; therefore water is a base;  in equation ii, water donates a proton to NH3; therefore water is an acid b i HI is the acid and HCl is the base; HI donates a proton to HCl. ii H2Cl+ is the conjugate acid of HCl and I is the conjugate base of HI c i Strong acid is (almost) completely ionised in water; weak acid is only slightly ionised in water. ii accept between pH 2 and 4 iii CH3COOH + H2O CH3COO + H3O+ 

             

[1 mark for correct products and reactants; 1 mark for equilibrium sign] 

Total = 16

8 a 32.0 mol nitrogen 96.0 moles hydrogen b 8.00 moles nitrogen + 24.0 moles hydrogen 16 moles ammonia [ NH3 ]2 = c K c  [ N 2 ][H2 ]3 (16 )2 = 9.04 (32 )(96 )3 dm6mol2 e no change f decreases  d K c = p 9 a K p = p C2H5OH  C2H4 pH2O b Pa1

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(0.56 ) (0.56 ) =5.4  (0.24 ) (0.24 ) iii all the concentration terms in the equilibrium expression cancel  no change  less ethyl ethanoate;  position of equilibrium shifted to the left  Total = 12

## AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

c i [7.00 (4.20 + 1.50)] 106 = 1.30 106Pa ii (1.30 106 ) K p= (1.50 106 ) ( 4.20 106 ) = 0.206 106 / 2.06 107 (Pa1) d Substances cannot enter or leave a closed system. e more gas molecules on the left; so position of equilibrium shifts to right; until Kp restored



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f as temperature increases % of ethene converted decreases;  backward reaction favoured by increase in temperature;  backward reaction favoured if forward reaction is exothermic  so sign of enthalpy change is negative   Total = 12