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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 9
1 a more particles per cm3 / particles closer together; [1] so more frequent collisions [1] b more particles per cm3 / particles closer together / more frequent collisions [1] c more surface area exposed to reaction; [1] therefore more frequent collisions [1] d The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy of the particles. [1] This leads to more frequent collisions. [1] More of the reactant particles possess the activation energy. [1] The frequency of successful / effective collisions increases. [1]  Total = 9 a x-axis = energy [1] y-axis = number of molecules [1] graph line rises from (0, 0) to peak [1] tails off but doesnt reach x-axis [1] b The minimum energy [1] for a collision to be effective. [1] c Ea shown as vertical line [1] area under graph to the right of Ea line is shaded [1] d labelled vertical line to the left of the original Ea line [1] e area under graph to the right of Ea(cat) line is shaded [1] f graph line starts at (0, 0), has lower slope and peak than original line so its peak is moved to the right; [1] tails off above original line [1]  Total = 12 3 a
activation energies without catalyst Enthalpy N2(g) + 3H2(g) with catalyst

Examiners tip
Question 2 has appeared on many past A-level chemistry papers in various forms. Make sure you can do it. Part a: the line starts at the origin, it rises to a curved peak then descends towards the bottom axis, but doesnt touch it or cut it. The line is not symmetrical. The label on the left hand axis is number of molecules or number of molecules with energy E, this label is not number of molecules with energy EA. Part c: the Boltzmann distribution is most relevant for a slow reaction, i.e. one with a high value of EA, so put your EA well over to the right. Part f: your second curve should also start at the origin. It should rise at a more shallow angle to the original curve. Its peak should be lower and to the right of the peak of the original curve. It should cross the original curve then stay above the original curve as it descends.

2NH3(g)

2
Number of molecules

part a part d

reactant line and product line linked by up and over curve with product line lower than reactant line [1] b as part a, but height of up and over curve is lower than in part a [1] c Activation energy shown as vertical distance from reactant line to top of curve. [1]  Total = 3

Reaction pathway

part e 0 0 Ea (cat) Ea Energy

higher temperature part f part c

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 9

Examiners tip
Question 4 is much easier to do if you can look at, and label, an energy profile like the one you drew for question3. If you have to answer a question like this, draw an energy profile first. It will help you to think, and it will help the person who is marking your paper to understand what you mean.

4 a 2NH3(g) N2(g) + 3H2(g)

b Eact = +335 92 = +243kJmol1

[1 mark for correct formulae; 1 mark for balancing; 1 mark for state symbols] [1 mark for use of these quantities; 1 mark for subtracting 92 from 335; 1 mark for correct answer with units]

[3] [3]

c It will lower the activation energy.

[1] Total = 7

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 9

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press