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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 10
Examiners tip
parts of several of these questions are worth 4 or 5 marks, so your answers are going to have to go into detail. Here Question 1, part b ii, and Question3, part a, involves describing the atoms involved in detail; Question 2, part b, involves describing the structure and bonding involved in detail.

1 a When it is plotted against atomic number it shows a pattern which is repeated in other periods. b i first ionisation energy

[1] [1] [1]

ii The structure and bonding in sodium and aluminium is giant metallic; [1]  the charge on the metal ions in aluminium is greater than that in sodium. [1]  Each aluminium atom donates three electrons into the sea of delocalised electrons whereas each sodium only donates one electron; [1]  therefore, more attraction between the positive ions and delocalised electrons; [1]  therefore, more energy is needed to separate the ions and melt aluminium. [1]  Total = 10 3 a i decreases across the period [1] ii Moving across a period, the outermost electron shell fills up but no new shells are occupied; [1]  at the same time the nuclear charge increases; [1]  therefore the attractive force on each electron in the outer shell increases; [1]  thus the electrons are pulled in, decreasing the atomic radius. [1] b i it increases [1] ii as the group is descended, electron shells are added to the structure [1]  Total = 7 4 a i neutral water [1] NaCl(s) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) [1] ii acidic [1] SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq) [1] iii basic / alkaline [1] Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) [1] iv acidic [1]  PCl5(l) + 4H2O(l) H3PO4(aq) + 5HCl(g) or (aq) [1] b i Mg(s) + 2H2O(l) Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) [1] ii 1012 [1]  weakly alkaline as the magnesium hydroxide is only sparingly soluble [1] c i PCl3(l) + 3H2O(l) H3PO3(aq) + 3HCl(g) or (aq) [1] ii 13 [1] iii white fumes given off [1]  Total = 14

Examiners tip
this question is about ionisation energies. Learn the list of possible explanations for different ionisation energies: different nuclear charge electron in a different shell (so distance is not the same) electron in a different sub-shell (so distance is not the same) different amount of shielding spin pair repulsion When you are answering each question ask yourself whether or not each factor is relevant. This will help you to avoid missing something. In addition, these five factors are the only factors you should use to explain different ionisation energies, so knowing this list will stop you writing about irrelevant material, like sodium has only one outer electron which is easy to lose or argon has a filled outer shell so it has a high first ionisation energy.

ii Moving across a period the outermost electron shell fills up but no new shells are added; [1]  at the same time the nuclear charge increases. [1]  Therefore the attractive force on each electron in the outer shell increases; [1] making it harder to remove an electron. [1]  Total = 7 2 a It shows a repeating pattern. [1] b i Silicon is a giant covalent structure; [1] all the bonds are strong covalent bonds. [1]  Phosphorus is a simple molecular substance; [1]  molecules held together by weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces). [1]
AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 10