You are on page 1of 2

# Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 18
1 a A is 2K(g) + 1 2 O2(g)
+ +



B is 2K (g) + 1 2 O2(g) + 2e 



C is 2K (g) + O(g) + 2e   + D is 2K (g) + O (g) + e   + 2 E is 2K (g) + O (g)  b H1att = H f {2H at[K] + 2H ion1[K] + H at[ 1  2 O2(g)] + H ea1[O] + H ea2[O]} H 1att = (361) {2 (+89) + 2 (+418) + (+249) + (141) + (+798)} H1att = (361) (+1920) = 2281kJmol1  c lattice energy of sodium oxide greater / more exothermic;  sodium ion smaller / greater charge density than potassium ion;  oxide ion smaller / greater charge density than sulfide ion;  lattice energy more exothermic the smaller the ion / higher charge density on the ions  [allow reverse arguments] d requires input of energy to bring two negative charges together / needs energy to overcome repulsion between the electron and the O ion   Total = 12 2 a i energy needed to remove one electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions ii energy needed / enthalpy change to form 1 mole of gaseous atoms from the element in its standard state b Na+(g) + e + Cl(g)
Na(g) + Cl(g) Na(g) + Na(s) +
1 Cl (g) 2 2

c a sodium ion has a lower charge density / larger ionic radius than a lithium ion;  lattice energy is more exothermic the smaller the ion / larger the charge density  [accept reverse arguments]  Total = 11 3 a
Mg2+(g) + 2I(g) Hlatt Hsol Hhyd Mg2+(aq) + 2I(aq)

MgI2(s)

##     

symbols correct [1 mark for each box correct];  arrows in the correct direction;  correct H symbols by correct arrows  b i enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous ions  completely dissolve in a very large amount of water  ii H sol = Hhyd[Mg2+] + 2 Hhyd[I] Hlatt  H sol = (1920) + 2 (314) (2327) H sol = 221kJmol1  c dipoles on water molecules;  correct orientation of water molecules  d greater charge density on magnesium;  greater attraction;  between ion and dipoles on water   Total = 15 4 a i energy change when 1 mole of an ionic compound forms from its constituent gaseous ions ii energy needed to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ions from gaseous 1+ ions     

1 2 Cl2(g)

## Mg2+(g) + 2Br(g) + 2e 2Hat Mg2+(g) + Br2(l)+ 2e 2Hea1 Mg2+(g) + 2Br(g) Hi2

Mg+(g) + Br2(l) + e Hi1 Mg(g) + Br2(l) Hat Mg(s) + Br2(l) H f MgBr2(s) Hlatt

c 

deduct 1 mark per error  H1att = H f {H at[Mg] + H ion1[Mg] + H ion2[Mg] + 2H at[ 1 2 Br2(g)] + 2H ea1[Br]}  H 1att = (524) {(+150) + (+736) + (+1450) + 2 (+112) + 2 (325)} 1 H1att = (524) (+1910) = 2434kJmol   Total = 11

6 a i enthalpy change when 1 mole of solute dissolves completely in water ii the enthalpy change when 1 mole of aqueous ions is formed from 1 mole of gaseous ions b i NaCl(s) + aq NaCl(aq) allow: NaCl(s) + aq Na+(aq) + Cl(aq) left-hand side of equation correct right-hand side of equation correct ii Cl(g) + aq Cl(aq) left-hand side of equation correct right-hand side of equation correct c A is lattice energy / lattice enthalpy B is enthalpy change of hydration / H hyd C is enthalpy change of solution / H sol d correct dipole on water molecules; correct orientation of water molecules around SO42 ions; correct orientation of water molecules around Mg2+ ions
+ H H + O O SO42 H + H + H + + H + H O O Mg2+ O H +

             
H +

H +

5 a i NaCl will have the higher lattice energy, it has smaller ions / greater charge density;  the smaller the ion the higher the lattice energy.  ii SrS will have the higher lattice energy, it has ions with 2+ and 2 charge;  the greater the charge on the ion the higher the lattice energy  b i deformation of shape / electron cloud of an ion;  of an anion by a cation  ii magnesium ion has greater charge than sodium ion;  magnesium is smaller ion than sodium ion  iii barium ion has larger radius than magnesium ion;  barium ion polarises (large) carbonate ion less well than magnesium ion;  the smaller the polarisation, the greater the thermal stability  [allow reverse argument for magnesium]  Total = 11

e any five of the following, for 1 mark each: the lattice energy and enthalpy change of hydration of magnesium sulfate are more exothermic than those of calcium sulfate; the difference in enthalpy changes is more marked for the enthalpy change of hydration than for lattice energy; it is the enthalpy change of hydration of the cation which plays the greatest part in determining the value of H sol Mg2+ has a smaller radius than Ca2+; so the enthalpy change of hydration is more exothermic for magnesium (than calcium); the enthalpy change of solution is less endothermic for magnesium sulfate (than for calcium sulfate) magnesium sulfate is more soluble because value of H sol is less endothermic (than for calcium sulfate)  [allow reverse arguments]  Total = 19