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Answers to end-of-chapter questions

Chapter 22
1 a melting point decreases from carbon to lead / down the group; diamond, silicon and germanium have giant covalent structures; large amount of energy required to break the bonds / strong bonds; strength of bonds in order C C > Si Si > Ge Ge; tin and lead have giant metallic structures; but (metallic) bonding not very strong; because of the large ions b carbon dioxide has a simple molecular structure; weak intermolecular forces / weak van der Waals forces between the molecules; tin(IV) oxide has a giant (covalent / ionic) structure; requires a lot of energy to break the strong bonds c i SiO2 + 2NaOH Na2SiO3 + H2O [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2] [2] d germanium(IV) oxide is more stable than germanium(II) oxide (or reverse argument) [1] e i redox reaction; [1]  in which a substance oxidises and reduces itself / oxidation number of (a particular type of) atom goes up as well as down [1] ii 2GeO Ge + GeO2 [1] Total = 11 3 a i SnO2 ii PbO b i tin(IV) chloride more stable / lead(IV) chloride less stable / tin(IV) chloride decomposes less easily / lead(IV) chloride decomposes more easily;  (metalchlorine) bond weaker in lead(IV) chloride than tin(IV) chloride ii SnCl4 SnCl2 + Cl2 c i Ge2+  E value is most negative; so best at releasing electrons ii Pb4+ iii Pb4+ and PbO2 (+ 4H+) iv PbO2 + 4H+ + 2V2+  Pb2+ + 2H2O + 2V3+ [1] [1]

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

ii it has a giant covalent structure with very strong bonds; it takes a lot of energy to break these bonds;  so it doesnt melt in the high temperature of the furnace d i amphoteric ii SnO2 + 4HCl SnCl4 + 2H2O iii SnO2 + 2NaOH Na2SnO3 + H2O

[1 mark for formulae; 1 mark for balancing]

[1 mark for formulae; 1 mark for balancing]

Total = 12

[1 mark for formulae; 1 mark for balancing] [1 mark for formulae; 1 mark for balancing]

Total = 21

2 a i

Cl Ge

Cl  ii 109.5 b GeCl4 has a simple molecular structure; the forces keeping the molecules together are weak / van der Waals forces are weak; little energy required to overcome the (weak) attractive forces. c GeCl4 + 2H2O GeO2 + 4HCl

Cl

Cl

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

4 a any six of the following: [6] electrical conductivity increases from carbon to lead / down the group; diamond has no mobile electrons / all electrons used in bonding; diamond doesnt conduct; silicon and germanium have extremely/ very low conductivity/ are semi-conductors / are metalloids / are semi-metals; some of the electrons in Si and Ge can change position; tin and lead have metallic structures of ions in sea of delocalised electrons; delocalised / mobile electrons can move / act as charge carriers (when potential difference applied)

[1 mark for formulae; 1 mark for balancing]

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 22

b i +2 oxidation state more stable at bottom of the group / more stable for lead; [1]  [allow oxidation state +2 becomes more stable going down the group]  +4 oxidation state more stable at top of group; [1]  [allow oxidation state +4 becomes less stable going down the group]

ii 2PbO2 2PbO + O2

c CO2 and SiO2 are acidic; GeO2, SnO2 and PbO2 are amphoteric; oxides get more basic down the group. d PbO + 2NaOH Na2PbO2 + H2O

[1 mark for formulae, 1 mark for balancing]

[2] [1] [1] [1] [2]

[1 mark for formulae, 1 mark for balancing]

Total = 15

Answers to end-of-chapter questions: Chapter 22

AS and A Level Chemistry Cambridge University Press