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MAGLEV TRAIN

INTRODUCTION Magnetic levitation is the latest in transportation

technology and has been the interest of many countries around the world. The idea has been around since 1904 when Robert Goddard, an American Rocket scientist, created a theory that trains could be lifted off the tracks by the use of electromagnetic rails. Many assumptions and ideas were brought about throughout the following years, but it was not until the 1970s that Japan and Germany showed interest in it and began researching and designing. The motion of the Maglev train is based purely on magnetism and magnetic fields. This magnetic field is produced by using high-powered electromagnets. By using magnetic fields, the Maglev train can be levitated above its track, or guideway, and propelled forward. Wheels, contact with the track, and moving parts are eliminated on the Maglev train, allowing the Maglev train to essentially move on air without friction.

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MAGLEV TRAIN

Maglev can be used for both low and high speed transportation. The low speed Maglev is used for short distance travel. Birmingham, England used this low speed transportation between the years of 1984 and 1995. However, engineers are more interested in creating the high-speed Maglev vehicles. The higher speed vehicle can travel at speeds of nearly 343mph or 552 km/h. Magnetic Levitation mainly uses two different types of suspension, which are Electromagnetic Suspension and Electrodynamic Suspension. However, a third suspension system (Intuctrack) has recently been developed and is in the research and design phase. These suspension systems are what keep the train levitated off the track.

The only alternatives to airplanes...Feet, cars, buses, boats, and conventional trains are just too slow for todays fast-paced society. However there is a new form of transportation that could revolutionize transportation of 21st century. A few countries are using powerful electromagnets to develop high speed trains, called maglev train. Maglev is short for magnetic levitation, which means that these trains will float over a guide way using the basic principles of magnets to replace the old steel wheel and track trains.

ELECTROMAGNECTIC SUSPENTION In magnets, opposite poles attracts each other and like poles repel each other .This is the basic principle behind electromagnetic propulsion.

Electromagnet is the artificial magnets. These are similar to natural magnets but the magnetic pull of electromagnets is temporary. Difference between simple conventional train and maglev train maglev train dont have an engine which pull typical train along steel wheel. The engine for maglev train is rather inconspicuous. These trains use magnetic fields to move rather than fuel.

CHARRACTERESTICS OF MAGLEV TRAIN


This concept uses magnets to move the train at speeds of up to 430 km/h(270 mph). Required no fossil fuels for working. Its works only on basic principle of magnets. There remain in uncertainty in project costs look less than a high speed rail . This offer better flexibility of operation, compatibility with other lines and an end to end timing of only around ten minutes more than the maglev service. It can carry up to 575 passengers in one time.

THREE COMPONENTS
There are three components to this system. A large electrical power source. Metal coils lining a guide way or track ..

Large guidance magnets attached to the underside of the train

The magnetized coil running along the track, called a guide way , repels the large magnets on the trains undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate between 0.39 and3.93 inches (1 to 10 cm) above the guide way. Once the train is levitated, power is supplied to the coils within guide way walls to create a unique system of magnetic field that pull and push along he guide way. The current supplied to the guide way is constantly alternating to change the polarity of the magnetized coils. This change in polarity causes the magnetic field in front of the train to pull the train forward, while the magnetic field behind the train adds more forward thrust.

CONCLUSION Railways using MagLev technology are on the horizon. They have proven to be faster than traditional railway systems that use metal wheels and rails and are slowed by friction. The low maintenance of the MagLev is an advantage that should not be taken lightly. When you dont have to deal with the wear and tear of contact friction you gain greater longevity of the vehicle. Energy saved by not using motors running on fossil fuels allow more energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Maglev will have a positive impact on sustainability. Using superconducting magnets instead of fossil fuels, it will not emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Energy created by magnetic fields can be easily replenished. The track of a Maglev train is small compared to those of a conventional train and are elevated above the ground so the track itself will not have a large effect on the topography of a region. Since a Maglev train levitates above the track, it will experience no mechanical wear and thus will require very little maintenance. Overall, the sustainability of Maglev is very positive. Although the relative costs of constructing Maglev trains are still expensive, there are many other positive factors that overshadow this. Maglev will contribute more to our society and our planet than it takes away. Considering everything Maglev has to offer, the transportation of our future and our childrens future is on very capable tracks.
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SUPERCONDUCTORS
INTRODUCTION
Solid state materials can be classified into three groups; i.e. insulator, semiconductor, conductors. Insulators are materials having an

electrical conductivity less than 10^-8 S/cm .Semiconductors have electrical conductivity 10^8 to 10^3 S/cm .Conductors are having electrical conductivity more than 10^3 S/cm .The classification can be understood in atomic terms. Electrons in an atom can have only certain energies and depending on their energies, the electron are said to occupy particular energy levels . The energy region with levels is called as energy band and regions that have no levels are referred to as band gap. The highest energy band occupied by electrons is the valance band. In next section we will discuss about balance band in conductors, insulator and semiconductor.

SUPERCONDUCTORS
o A superconductor is a material that can conduct electricity or transport electrons from one atom to another with no resistance. This means no heat, sound or any other form of energy would be released from the material when it has reached critical temperature (the temperature at which the material become superconductive).Unfortunately most material must be in an extremely low energy state (very cold).In order to become super conductive. Research is underway to develop compounds that become superconductive at higher temperatures. Superconductors come in two different favors:-type 1 & type 2 TYPE 1 SEMICONDUCTORS consist of basic conductive elements that are used for everything from electrical wiring to computer microchips. Some of this type require incredible amount of pressure in order to reach the superconductive state.( E XAPLE OF SUCH A MATERIAL IS SULPHUR WHICH REQUIRE A PRESSURE OF 9.3 MILLION ATMOSPHERS AND A TEMPERATURE OF 17K TO REACH SUPPERCONDUCTIVITY ). TYPE 2 SEMICONDUCTORS is composed of metallic compounds such as copper or lead. They reach a superconductive state at much higher temperatures when compared to type 1 superconductors .the highest thermal conductivity reached at a standard pressure, to date ,is 135 k or -138 degree cellcious .Type 2 superconductors can also be penetrated by a magnetic field where as atype1 can not.
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