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Harrison W.

Juliano Senior Thesis Sacred Time - The Liturgical Calendars Origins and Development: A Study on the Liturgical Calendar of the Last Century and some Ambiguities since Vatican II Date Submitted: Monday December 10th, 2012

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This final draft is dedicated to St. Joseph, who always inspires me to be a true lover of Jesus

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The Roman calendar is the system that the Roman Catholic Church uses as its guide for the offering of Holy Mass. It tells the priest which mass is to be offered on a given day. Over the last century the calendar has seen a number of revision it its contents and class system. This essay seeks to examine the historical development of the Roman calendar up to and including the reforms called for by the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council. After studying the reforms that occurred following the Council, this essay will briefly discuss possible ambiguities in the calendars structure. Lastly, this essay will present how the calendar is important to Catholic worship and how it orients the prayer of the faithful. Otherworldly time To understand the development of the calendar one first must examine how the Liturgical Year of the Church began. The Liturgical Year, is the manifestation of Christ and His mysteries in the Church and in the souls of the faithful.1 The Liturgical Year was always seen as renewing the mysteries of Christ.2 How to orient the cycle of prayer became a question of how to present Christ to the people. The Liturgical Year began to develop from the time of the early Church. Its formation was slow and organic. Usually a certain church would begin to celebrate a certain feast of Our Lord, and that custom would spread to other churches. From looking at the Year one can see the development of the liturgical cycles.3 This essay will examine the four main liturgical cycles of Easter, Lent, Christmas, and Advent. These seasons compose the Temporal cycle of the calendar. The second part is the Sanctoral cycle, which is composed of the cult of the saints who
William J. O'Shea, The Worship of the Church - A Companion to Liturgical Studies (Westminster, Maryland: Newman Press, 1957), 230. 2 Ibid., 229. 3 Josef A. Jungmann S.J., Public Worship A Survey, trans. Clifford Howell (Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1957), 178.
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make intercession to God on behalf of mankind.4 Their honoring will be briefly discussed, and then a properly study of the origins of the calendar will be presented. Moreover, the center of the Year is the Easter season. From it all other seasons began to blossom. Sunday became the day of worship because it was associated early on with the Resurrection.5 To begin with the Resurrection The origins of Christian worship on Sunday can be traced back to the first worshipers during the time of the Apostles. The early converts to Christianity kept the Jewish Sabbath of Saturday. The Saturday Sabbath was a day of rest for them, while Sunday was the day of the Eucharist which celebrated Christs work of redemption.6 When the Romans leveled the Temple in Jerusalem, around A.D. 70, the practice of Jewish observances ceased and Christians kept Sunday as the day to commemorate the Resurrection and the sending of the Spirit.7 Since Sunday was chosen as the day of worship, some have suggested that it was a way to integrate already existing pagan worship into Christianity. It seems more likely however was that the motive was one of evangelization. With keeping of the pagan sun-day as Jungman points out, was only possible because the Christians immediately thought of the symbolism Christ, our Sun.8 One can see that by having Sunday as the day of worship it was a way to bring the pagans out of false worship, and to worship the true God. It is important to understand that the early Church saw Sunday as the Day of the Lord. The idea pagan influence is reduced to

Dom Virgil George Michel, OSB , The Liturgy of the Church According to the Roman Rite (New York: Macmillan Company, 1937), 97. 5 O'Shea, Studies, 232. 6 Jungmann, Public Worship, 231. 7 O'Shea, Studies, 231. 8 Jungmann, Public Worship, 231.

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nonsense when one understands that Sunday was seen as the Eighth Day in connection with the Resurrection.9 The Sabbath of the Jewish observance was seen as a day of rest, while Sunday became a day of worship of the Risen Lord. The thought behind the expression was twofold: on previous days one was occupied with thinking about the Passion, and from this one just had to go forward to the day of the Resurrection as the conclusion.10 Sunday as the day of worship orients a Christians life to the Resurrection. Sunday was not seen as a day of rest until Constantine made it so around 321.11 The Pasch effect Christian worship recalls the passion, death and resurrection of the Savior of the world. Sunday is so essential because it is a weekly remembrance of Easter. A time to remember our Lords rising from the dead can be traced back as early as the time of Tertullian (160-220) and Origen (182-254).12 During the second century there was a controversy about the date of Easter. Many of the converts from Judaism had a fixed date for Easter in their calendars. It was always the fourteenth day of Nisan.13 These people became known as the Quartodecimans, or the fourteenth dayers. They were following the Jewish lunar calendar and the fourteenth day of Nisan could be anywhere in March or April.14 There was a claim from the Quartodecimans that in Syria and Asia Minor the Apostles John and Philip set the date of Easter to be the fourteenth

Ibid., 233. Ibid. 11 Theodor Klauser, A Short History of the Western Liturgy: An Account and some Reflections , trans. John Halliburton (London & New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 85. 12 Archdale A. King, Liturgy of the Roman Church (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Bruce Pub. Co., 1957), 196. 13 John H Miller, CSC, Fundamentals of the Liturgy (Notre Dame, Indiana: Fides Publishers Inc., 1960), 372. 14 Ibid., 371.
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day of Nisan.15 In A.D. 190, Pope Saint Victor (189-90) set the date as the first Sunday after the vernal equinox.16 But it was not until 325 when the matter was settled at the council of Nicea.17 Easter is the foundation of the liturgical cycles. It was celebrated as a Christian feast well before Christmas was established. Easter became the new Passover for Christians. Ideologically the connection is very real, for what happened to the world through Christs death and Resurrection found its type and figure in the Jewish feast.18 The Passover for the Jews was a remembrance of their freedom from Pharaohs hands and the protection of Israel by shedding of the lambs blood. Christ became the new lamb of sacrifice by His dying on the Cross. Thus, one can see why the term Pasch is used in connection with Easter: [] but the phase of the Passion and Death has never been separated from it, and the original complete meaning of the day survives in the word Pascha, which means Passover.19 A Wholly Different Week From the celebration of the Resurrection, Christians began to attribute special significance to the week leading up to Easter. St. Athanasius (296-373) in his letter to the African Christians used the term, holy week.20 It is possible that even while the Apostles were still living this week was marked with great fasts.21 The original Triduum of the Church was composed of the days from Good Friday to Easter Sunday and began to develop during the fourth century.22 It was later on that Holy (Maundy) Thursday night was added to the days of

Ibid., 372. Jungmann, Public Worship, 180. 17 King, Roman, 196. 18 Miller, Fundamentals, 370. 19 O'Shea, Studies, 247. 20 Miller, Fundamentals, 372. 21 Ibid., 373. 22 Josef A. Jungmann S.J., The Early Liturgy To the Time of Gregory the Great, trans. Francis A. Brunner, C.SS.R. (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959), 254
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Triduum. Jungman points out that the old Triduum, of Friday to Sunday, had an effect on the development of Lent.23 The Great Fast The Christian spirit has never been opposed to penance and fasting. Before going out to preach the Kingdom, our Lord fasted for forty days and forty nights (Matthew 4:2). By the fourth century a forty day preparation began in honor of not only our Lords fast, but also in remembrance of Moses on the mountain and the journey of Elias.24 The start of Lent has always been on a Sunday. St. Leo the Great (440-61) emphasized this season as a time for spiritual exercises.25 Fasting during the fifth century was at first was only on Wednesdays, Friday and Saturdays.26 Rome had sticker fast of three weeks. 27 After that, fasting was practiced every day of the week with the exception of Sundays.28 That is why to this day Sundays are not technically considered part of Lent and the fasts are not held on those days. Fasting developed out of the will of the faithful. It was not imposed by the Church in the early development of Lent. 29 Though the days of fasting were set, individual churches did not always have the same exact calculations.30 Rome saw that by leaving out the Sundays the six week period it had was

23 24

Ibid. Jungmann, Public Worship, 181. 25 Jungmann, Early, 254. 26 Ibid. 27 Ibid., 255. 28 Ibid. 29 Jungmann, Public Worship, 184. 30 Miller, Fundamentals, 395.

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missing four days. Thus, the beginning of Lent was moved to the Wednesday before the first Sunday of their six week period.31 This change led to the development of Quinquagesima.32 The Tuesday before the beginning of Lent became known as Shrove Tuesday, or Confession Tuesday.33 The practice of imposing ashes on Wednesday before the First Sunday traces its roots to the Prophet Jonas and his announcement of the destruction of Ninive. Public penances were practiced by the people, who would sprinkle themselves in ashes. Public penance would fall out of disuse by the tenth century, but the faithful still continued to receive ashes on their as a sign of penance.34 The Most Wonderful Time of the Year As with the date of the Resurrection, so the date of the Incarnation of the Lord has a significant place in the Liturgical Year. It is clear that modern society values Christmas much more than it does Easter. However, the opposite should be true for Christians. The exact date of the Saviors birth is unknown. Many liturgists and scholars have tried for years to pinpoint an exact date. King states that around the time between Sts. Optatus (c. 387) and Fulgentius (ob. 533) Christmas began to be observed in Africa and reached Rome through Spain.35 However, Christmas as it is observed now is clearly a Roman feast that is listed on the Philocalian calendar of 354.36

Ibid. Ibid. (This and the other pre-Lent Sundays and their removal from the Novus Ordo Missale will be discussed in the second section of this essay) 33 Ibid., 397. 34 Ibid. 35 King, Roman, 187. 36 Miller, Fundamentals, 406.
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The picking of December 25th as Christmas comes from very early evidence. Jungman presents the idea of H. Frank, O.S.B. that is might have been chosen due to the dies natalis Solis Invicti, a festival of Mithraism.37 This is only an idea of a possible connection. As with the controversy of Sunday, this claim will not be dealt with here. OShea presents another idea on the choice of this date: It is possible that the birthday of Christ was determined by working from the traditional date of the Incarnation, March 25th; nine months after that is Christmas. All we can say for certain is that the feast has been celebrated on December 25th at Rome since the fourth century.38 One of the unique features of early worship during Christmastide was the three masses celebrated. These are divided into the Midnight Mass, Mass at Dawn, and Mass during the Day. In Jerusalem around A.D. 400 they held nocturnal services where a pilgrimage to Bethlehem took place and the Mass was offered over the Grotto of the Nativity.39 This became the archetype for the Midnight Mass. It however was not the first Mass in honor of the Incarnation, as the Mass during the Day is the oldest in origin and was the principal service.40 Mass at Dawn came into being some time before Gregory the Great (590-604). In Rome only the Pope could celebrate all three masses.41 By the tenth century permission was granted for three different priests to offer the masses.42 It was not until the twelfth century that permission was given for an individual priest to offer all three Masses.43 Temporus Adventus

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Jungmann, Public Worship, 206. O'Shea, Studies, 241. 39 Jungmann, Early, 268. 40 O'Shea, Studies, 241. 41 King, Roman, 187. 42 Ibid. 43 O'Shea, Studies, 241.

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Much in the way that Easter has Lent so Christmas has its preparation season of Advent. This season is marked by more joy than Lent. However, there is also the consciousness of the sinful condition of humanity.44 Advent is a penitential season that reminds us that the Logos had to come as a man and die for our sins. Advent thus gives solid food for our faith in the knowledge of the consequences of sin and the coming of the Redeemer.45 Advent was first seen in Spain around the fourth century.46 By the sixth century Gaul developed its own Advent.47 Rome seemed to develop its own Advent after it reached Gaul. The fasting (according to the old practice) was not a part of Advent until the thirteenth century. 48 Miller further states that the Advent Liturgy in Rome in the beginning was very different from the current practices. He says that the custom of violet vestments, the removal of the Gloria and Te Deum come from the Gallican Liturgy.49 Jungman supports this and says that because of the influence of the Gallican Liturgy Advent took on a more penitential character even before fasting was introduced.50 The Sanctoral Cycle The second part of the calendar is called the Sanctoral cycle. It is compose of the feast days of saints. There are several different classes of saints. From the earliest times of the Church, the saints were seen as models to guide the faithful into living holy lives.51

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Dom Virgil, The Liturgy, 101. Ibid. 46 King, Roman, 186. 47 O'Shea, Studies, 238. 48 Miller, Fundamentals, 413. 49 Ibid. 50 Jungmann, Public Worship, 209. 51 Miller, Fundamentals, 414.

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The liturgical feasts reveal something crucial about the individual saint. Whether they are a confessor, bishop, or virgin, there was a specific mass that honors them. Their liturgical festivals will, accordingly reveal the marked characteristics which relate them either to Christs Passion and Resurrection, or to His Incarnation.52 Miller makes a great point here. The saints are honored because they shared a great likeness to Christ. The custom of honoring particular saints was part of the life of individual Christian communities.53 They would remember from their local parishes and communities those men and women who lived lives of tremendous virtue. The festivities were always on the day that they died; or rather it has always been seen as their birthday into heaven, the dies natalis.54 In his work Miller points out that the martyrs shared a great connection with the Easter season.55 They are meant as shining examples of how the grace of the paschal mysteries became operative for our forebears in the Mystical Body.56 It is the paschal mystery of Christ that gave the early Christians the grace necessary to bare persecutions. A particular saint worth mentioning is St. Ignatius of Antioch (d.ca. 108). He is a good example to show that the cult of martyrs was very much a local affair. He wrote an epistle to the Christians in Rome telling them not to try to free him from being martyred in the Coliseum. Miller states that he is distinctly absent from the Gelasian or Gregorian Sacramentaries, which were some of the earliest liturgical books of Rome.57 This example is meant to show how the early liturgical calendars were determined by local ordinaries. Usually the saints who were part

52 53

Ibid. Jungmann, Public Worship, 223. 54 Miller, Fundamentals, 416. 55 Ibid., 414 56 Ibid., 415. 57 Ibid., 416.

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of the calendar were very important to local communities. They might have been a martyr who grew up in the community, and for them the memorial would try to be celebrated at their grave.58 Feasts of Our Lord would become very popular. These feasts and those of Our Lady tended to be shared between communities.59 As previously stated of, in reference to St. Ignatius of Antioch, some of the earliest Sacramentaries contained feast days to the saints. Two examples used very early on in Rome were the Leonine and Gelasian Sacramentaries. In the Leonine Sacramentary there were fourteen Masses for the feast of St. Lawrence and twenty eight for Sts. Peter and Paul.60 In the Gelasian one finds in the second section of the Sacramentary the saints feast from January to December.61 These Sacramentaries date back to the seventh and eighth century respectively.62 One can see clearly that there is not a general calendar followed by all the Churches. With so many different feasts and commemorations one could think that Sunday and Easter would have lost their prestige, as Klauser suggests.63 What is clear is that a uniform calendar, much like a unified Roman Rite, would not be present until the reforms of Pius V (1566-1572).64 The Tridentine Missal Until the time of the Council of Trent (154563) there was not a single Missal that was designated as the official text for use in the Latin Church. Moreover, the calendar continued to grow without much Magisterial intervention. By the time the Council of Trent was called the
Jungmann, Public Worship, 223. Ibid. 60 Josef A. Jungmann S.J., The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia), trans. Francis A. Brunner, C.SS.R. (New York: Benziger Bros., 1959), 46. 61 Ibid. 62 Ibid. 63 Theodor Klauser, A Short History of the Western Liturgy: An Account and some Reflections , trans. John Halliburton (London & New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 91. 64 Jungmann, Public Worship, 223.
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feasts had increased significantly and according to Jungman this overburden the missal.65 It was clear that a reform was necessary. At Trent during the twenty-second session66, between 1546 and 1547 the Holy Mass was just being touched upon as the consideration was focused on the Sacred Scriptures.67 The commission in charge of the investigation was taking a very close look at many aspects of the Missal. Detailed reports of what exactly the commission did for the Council are not available for further study.68 The only document that came from Trent on the Mass was the Bull of Pius V that codified the Missal and imposed it as the only one to be used in the Western Church.69 It is unfortunate that in this essay cannot fully explore fully the reforms of the Council of Trent or their benefits. The Missal that was produced was, according to the commission, very much a return to the Liturgy of the city of Rome.70 This Roman Missal was essential for unifying the Church in its worship. It was a solid foundation that stood in opposition to the various attacks from Protestant theologians. Nevertheless, it would be a bit of a stretch to call this a reactionary missal. Some have even called it a rigid legalistic time.71 However, the reforms of Trent must be seen in light of what was going on both inside and outside of the Church. This was a call to guard what Catholics hold as the most sacred gift from God. Guardianship of liturgical law was

Jungmann, Origins, 103. Alcuin Reid, OSB, The Organic Development of the Liturgy: The Principles of Liturgical Reform and Their Relation to the Twentieth-Century Liturgical Movement Prior to the Second Vatican Council (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2005), 40. 67 Jungmann, Origins, 100. 68 Ibid., 102. 69 Ibid. 70 Ibid., 103. 71 Reid, Development, 45.
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given to the Sacred Congregation of Rites (S.R.C.), which was established in 1588 by Sixtus V (1585-1590).72 Following the Council of Trent, there were no major no major reforms to the Liturgy. In 1747, Pope Benedict XIV (1740-58) had a project that would have reformed the Roman breviary and the calendar, but it was never developed.73 It was not until the time of Pope Pius X that a real reform of the Liturgy would begin. Before examining the contributions of Pius X, one must first understand that he was influence heavily by a certain movement in the Church. This became known as the Liturgical Movement which took place in the 19th century. The Beginning Movement and the first Pius reformer Renewed interesting in the liturgical life of the Church reached a high point in the 19th century. Many new scholars were exploring the richness of the Holy Mass. A pivotal character is Dom Prosper Guranger (1805-1875). Dom Guranger was a French secular priest who sought to revive the Benedictine Monastic life of his country. Hes initial contribution to the Liturgical Movement was displacing the attempted reforms of Gallicanism in France.74 Gallicanism was an attempted reform by some Enlightenment liturgists in France that was controlled mostly by the Jansenist heretics.75 The monks of Solesmes under Guranger became a quasi-school for the liturgical movement: the opus Dei as performed in the new centers of monasticism, dignified, replete with the spirit of adoration, became a drama in the best sense of the word, drawing to itself the

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Ibid. Ibid., 62. 74 Ibid., 56. 75 Ibid., 50.

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eyes of all.76 Gregorian Chant was beginning to be rediscovered in the life of the Churchs worship. The focus of these scholars was on liturgical piety as noted by Reid: the activity of the twentieth-century Liturgical Movement, many of the leaders of which imbibed liturgical piety either personally at Solesmes or in monasteries whose founders had.77 The focus of the Liturgical Movement was not so much on reform of ritual, but on authenticity in worship. The Benedictine movement in Gregorian Chant would have a huge impact on early life of Pope Saint Pius X (1903-1914).78 This would lead him as Pope to bring the Liturgical Movement into the world in a main-stream way. In 1903 Pope Pius X issued motu proprio his document to restore sacred music called Tra le sollecitudini. In 1911 he promulgated Divino afflatus, which reformed the Roman breviary and the calendar.79 Divino afflatus put more of an emphasis on the temporal cycle over the sanctoral cycle in the recitation of the breviary.80 The reform of the breviary and integration of a revised calendar into the missal was far as the Pio reform would go as Pius X died in 1914.81 Reform of the Liturgy Proper up to 1962 The general rubrics of the Missal were still left untouched. The idea of reforming the rubrics was not seen until the 1940s and was a project of the Liturgical Commission. This commission came into existence under Venerable Pope Pius XII (1939-1958). In 1947 he issued

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Jungmann, Origins, 120. Reid, Development, 66. 78 Jungmann, Origins, 120. 79 Reid, Development, 75. 80 Ibid. 81 Ibid., 78.

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his encyclical on the sacred Liturgy entitled Mediator Dei. The encyclical did not directly cause any changes, but it served as a spiritual guide for the Commission.82 Around this time as well Father Joseph Lw, who was vice-relator general of the S.R.C., drafted a document entitled Memoria sulla riforma liturgica. This document had two developed points on the Liturgical year and the Divine Office.83 In 1948 the Commission was appointed for the purpose of liturgical reform.84 The first official work of the Commission was the revision of the Easter Vigil in 1951. On a one year experimental basis, the Easter Vigil was reformed and placed on the Saturday night before Easter Sunday85 Before this reform the Vigil was Sunday morning. There are many differences between the two Masses, but apart from the change of which day Mass was offered, the Calendar was left untouched. By 1954 the Commission had presented Pius XII a document with the entirety of Holy Week to be reformed. It was sent to the S.R.C., approved by them, and was promulgated in November of 1955.86 With the changes to Holy Week completed, Pope Pius XII also approved a work of the S.R.C. that would promulgate a new Roman calendar. In the general decree, Cum nostra hac aetate which contained the document De rubricis ad simpliciorem formam redigendis, a new calendar was published with several changes. The main effects on the calendar were that the ranking of a feast day as a semi-double was suppressed and reclassified as simple days.87

Annibale Bugnini, The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975, trans. Matthew J. OConnell (Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1990), 7. 83 Ibid. 84 Ibid., 8 85 Reid, Development, 172. 86 Ibid., 226. 87 Sacred Congregation of Rites, By General Decree Cum nostra hac aetate; De Rubricis Ad Simpliciorem Formam Promulgated by Pope Pius XII, Found in Acta Apostolicae Sedis Vol. 47, 1955, http://www.vatican.va/archive/aas/documents/AAS%2047%20[1955]%20-%20ocr.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012), 219.

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This rule applied to all Sunday Masses, feasts of saints, and commemorations at the collect, secret, and post-communion prayers. This was a significant revision of the calendar for its time. In July of 1960, Pope John XXIII published motu proprio Rubricarum instructum. This established that in January of 1961 all Latin rite priests were to observe the new code of rubrics of the Roman breviary and missal.88 With the new rubrics came a new Roman calendar. This one does vary in several ways from that of Pius XII. It removed the classifications of feasts as Doubles, Semi-doubles, and Simple with the numbering the feasts from I-IV.89 This classification and the arrangement of feasts on the calendar is what would remain in effect until the revision of the Missal which took place after the decree by the Second Vatican Council (19621965). Vatican II Beginnings and Callings In the winter of 1959 Pope John XXIII announced that the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council would take place. This would be the first major Ecumenical council of the Church since the First Vatican Council was interrupted by warfare. The main document that all the revisions for the Liturgy stemmed from is Sacrosanctum Concilium (SC). The revision intended by the Council for the calendar are found in chapter five, The Liturgical Year. Articles 102-111 are a window into what the Council Fathers wished to see in the revisions of the calendar. There is an important distinction to make. There is a popular misconception in modern thought that the Second Vatican Council is directly responsible for how the Mass is offered
John XXIII, Apostolic Letter Rubricarum instructum issued Motu Proprio, 25 July 1960, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jxxiii_apl_19600725_rubricarum_lt.html (accessed November 11, 2012). 89 Missale Romanum 1962 Promulgated by Pope John XXIII, http://www.sanctamissa.org/en/resources/books-1962/missale-romanum-1962.pdf (accessed November 11, 2012), XII.
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today. The Councils document is a guide for a Commission that would actually be in charge with the revision. The preparatory commission was formed in 1960 by Pope John XXIII with Cardinal Cicognani as the president and Father Annibale Bugnini as the secretary.90 The workings of the commission must be examined in light of what SC says on the Liturgical Year. Article 105 of SC states: In the various season of the year and according to its traditional discipline, the Church completes the formation of the faithful by means of devout practices for soul and body, by instruction, prayer, and works of penance and of mercy.91 The purpose of the liturgical year is reemphasized as formative to the lives of the faithful. Article 107 called for the liturgical year to be revised: That the traditional customs and usages of the sacred seasons are preserved or restored to suit the conditions of modern times.92 The Council was not calling for a break with tradition at all. To the contrary they wanted the customs that were part of Catholic piety to remain. Further they wanted the Proper of Season, Easter and Christmas etc., to be given precedence over the feasts of saints.93 This was done to avoid overloading the calendar with excess commemorations of saints that would have distracted from the importance of the mysteries of salvation in the temporal cycle. Devotion to the saints was not to be disregarded, however. Article 111 makes that very clear: The saints have been traditionally honored in the Church and their authentic relics and images held in veneration. For the feast of saints proclaimed the wonderful works of Christ in his servants and display to the faithful fitting

Bugnini, Reform, 14. Vatican Council, Sacrosanctum Concilium; Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Proclaimed by Pope Paul VI, http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vatii_const_19631204_sacrosanctum-concilium_en.html (accessed November 10th, 2012), art105 92 Ibid., art 107. 93 Ibid., art 108.
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examples for their imitation.94 The Council was clearly not calling for a radical change in this regard. The revision was not intended to break from the traditional way the calendar was arranged or how the saints were honored. Roots of the changes As stated before there were commissions that the Holy Fathers, both Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI formed to revise the liturgy. The Consilium is name of the Commission that was directly responsible after the council for bringing forth its wishes. This next section will examine how the modern calendar was developed. The first meeting of the Consilium for the revisions of the calendar was in Janurary of 1965. By April of that year they approved a schema which would be presented under certain guidelines. Bugnini outlines the nine points of their first report. The nine points are as follows: the Liturgical Year begins with the first Sunday of Advent; Janurary 1st has three objects to it; the time of Septuagesima (pre-lent) loses its penitential nature; Lent begins on the first Sunday with Ashes allowed to be imposed up to that Saturday before hand; The Triduum begins on Holy Thursday night; the octave of Pentecost is to be suppressed; Ascension Thursday can be transferred to Sunday; the Feast of the Most Holy Trinity does not change; and lastly, that the reform of the saints would be a further work guided by these principles established.95 This first draft contains some radical changes. Before this document, the concept of suppressing an entire season was never considered. To remove a penitential nature of an already established season would be an innovation. The classification of saints was changed as well. It

94 95

Ibid., art 111. Bugnini, Reform, 306-307.

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was suggested that the terms solemnity, feast, commemoration, and memorial be used.96 These new terms would be different than the existing numbering system established under Pope John XXIII. In 1967 these documents were presented to the Holy Father, Pope Paul VI (1963-78), and were later sent to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (C.D.F.) and the S.C.R. The C.D.F. then issued a four part document based upon what they read, which according to Bugnini, was contrary to their usual practice.97 They suggested that if these reforms were to be carried out then a joint commission should be formed with representatives from their own Congregation and members of the Consilium.98 In addition to this the Holy Father sent word to the Consilium of his own concerns. He was concerned that the reduction of the rank of celebrating the saints was dangerous to religious practice.99 As well he wished Ash Wednesday to remain the beginning of Lent as it had been according to tradition.100 It is worth noting as well that the Consilium was told that, the calendar should remain open to further saints feasts.101 Clearly, the intention of the Holy Father was to ensure that the Consilium not close off the calendar from authentic growth. In Feburary of 1969 Pope Paul VI promulgated the new calendar motu propio Mysterii paschalis. This motu proprio would take effect on Janurary 1st of 1970. This new calendar was published with the new Missal created by the Consilium and promulgated by Paul VI. This is the so called Novus Ordo Missale, or Mass of Paul VI (or as it is more commonly called today the

96 97

Ibid., 309. Ibid., 310. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid. 100 Ibid. 101 Ibid., 311.

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Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite).102 In Mysterii pashcalis Paul VI pointed out that the purpose of reordering the calendar was, that through faith, hope and love, the faithful may share more deeply in the whole mystery of Christ as it unfold throughout the year.103 This calendar, which was completed by 1975, will be the guide for continued study. It is the current calendar that is in use for most of the Roman Church. Some considered it to be the only calendar that was to be used in the celebration of Holy Mass and the Divine Office (Liturgy of the Hours). However, in 2007 our current Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI, issued a document that would change that understanding. This is his document issued motu proprio, Summorum Pontificum. Reintegration with Tradition In July of 2007 the Holy Father gave permission for any priest of the Roman Rite to offer Mass according to the Missal of Blessed John XXIII. In Article one he distinguishes that the Missal of Paul VI as the ordinary expression and the Missal of Bl. John XXIII the extraordinary expression of the same Lex orandi (law of prayer) and Lex credendi (law of belief).104 He further goes onto say that the Missal of Bl. John XXII was never abrogated.105 Therefore, it is permissible to use the Liturgical books which were in promulgation in 1962. 106 This means that when a priest is offering Mass according to the Missal of Blessed John XXII (Usus Antiquor, ancient use, hereafter called Usus) they would follow the older calendar that was

Pope Benedict XVI, Apostolic Letter "Summorum Pontificum" issued Motu Proprio, 7 July 2007, http://www.ewtn.com/library/papaldoc/b16summorumpontificum.htm (accessed November 10 th, 2012). 103 Paul VI, Apostolic Exhortation Mysterii Paschalis issued Motu Proprio, 14 February 1969, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/motu_proprio/documents/hf_p-vi_motu proprio_19690214_mysteriipaschalis_en.html (accessed November 10, 2012). 104 Pope Benedict XVI, "Summorum Pontificum" art1. 105 Ibid. 106 Ibid., art 2.

102

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promulgated in 1962.107 Thus, as it stands today there are two general calendars that exist in the same Roman Rite. Therefore, one can see where the two calendars differ both in the temporal cycle and the sanctoral cycle. Time travels The two calendars vary in a number of ways. In a way the Ordinary Forms (OF) calendar is a simplification of the 1962 calendar. The simplifications, created by the Concilium, are similar to the reforms carried out under both Pope Pius XII and Blessed John XXIII. However, unlike the previous reforms to the calendar entire seasons were not removed. In addition major feast days were not moved from one date to another. This section will show the major differences between the OF and Usus calendars. In the Usus calendar Lent is prefigured by three Sundays called, Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima. These three Sundays are a numerical countdown to Easter from 70, to 60, to 50. The history of these preceding days can be traced back to the Gregorian sacramentary of the early Church.108 These Sundays were marked with a penitential nature. The Alleluia, Gloria, and Te Deum were not said, and the vestments were violet.109 Fasting was not mandatory and began when Lent started. 110 It confusing why exactly these Sundays were removed from the new Calendar. Bugnini remarks in footnote six on page 307 of his work, The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975, that there was a disagreement about the suppression of the Septuagesima season.111 He even notes that Paul VI spoke of this season like bells calling the people to Sunday Mass.112 The ringing of them an

107 108

Ibid. King, Roman, 189. 109 Jungmann, Public Worship, 183. 110 Ibid. 111 Bugnini, Reform, 307 footnote 6. 112 Ibid.

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hour, a half-hour, fifteen, and five minutes before the time of Mass has a psychological effect and prepares the faithful materially and spiritual for the celebration of the Liturgy.113 Despite this the season was suppressed in order for simplification. In addition to the absence of the season of Septuagesima is the omission of Ember days from the calendar in the OF. Ember days were traditional days of fasting and penance with purple vestments for the liturgy. From the earliest Roman liturgies there were at least three times a year when Ember says occurred.114 These days were seen as a retreat for the Church.115 They were three months apart in summer, fall, and winter.116 Later on the fourth time was added during spring. They were also seen as a time of thanksgiving and were connected with the harvest time in Italy.117 It is worth noting that St. Leo the Great (440-61) attributes the institution of these days back to the time of the Apostles.118 Ember days were a significant part of the life of Catholics for centuries. Ember Saturday became a day connected with the priesthood and the lessons (readings) at Holy Mass were seven to reflect the traditional progression to the holy priesthood. This practice began with Pope Gelasius I (492-96), who prescribed that the Holy Orders be conferred on Ember Saturdays.119 Their absence from the OF missal is also directly against what the S.C.R. states in its document General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, issued in 1969. Article 45 states, On rogation and ember days the practices of the Church is to offer prayers to the Lord for the needs of all people, especially for the productivity of the earth and for human labor, and to give him

Ibid. Jungmann, Early, 271. 115 Ibid. 116 Ibid., 272. 117 Ibid. 118 Miller, Fundamentals, 366. 119 Franz Xaver Weiser, Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs: The Year of the Lord in Liturgy and Folklore (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1958), 32.
114

113

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public thanks.120 Further, it states in art. 46, In order to adapt the rogation and ember days to various regions and the different needs of the people, the conference of bishops should arrange the time and plan of their celebration.121 The main reason that ember days are excluded is because the power was left up to the Bishops Conferences to set their dates. If the calendar stated exactly when the ember days were they would still be practiced by the entire universal Church. It seems that in this age the only Conference to have set ember days is the Conference of Australia. The Australian Catholic Bishops Conference (ACBC) decided, in accordance with paragraph 394 of the General Instruction of the Roman Missal (2002), that the first Fridays of Autumn and Spring should be reserved as special days of prayer and penance.122 Rogation days were a day of penance when processions took place and the Litany of Saints was recited. The term Rogation days became a popular term during the High Middle Ages, according to Weiser.123 They can be traced back to the year 400 in southern Gaul when a great famine occurred.124 There are two litanies that would be chanted depending on what day in the calendar it was. The first is the litania major, major litany, was chanted with a solemn procession and soon came to share the same feast day of St. Mark, April 25th.125 The origin of the second litany, the minor litany is closely connected with origin the major litanies. The difference between the major and minor is when the minor litany was used fasting was not mandatory, but a

Sacred Congregation of Rites, General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar Promulgated by Pope Paul VI, 14 February 1969, http://www.ewtn.com/library/CURIA/CDWLITYR.HTM (accessed November 11, 2012), art 45. 121 Ibid., art 46. 122 Liturgy Office of the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, Australia, Ember Days, Catholic Archdi ocese of Sydney, http://www.liturgy.sydneycatholic.org/documents-aresources/catholicism-101/ember-days (accessed November 11, 2012). 123 Weiser, Handbook, 42. 124 Jungmann, Public Worship, 202. 125 Weiser, Handbook, 41.

120

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penitential procession was still held.126 These processions were important in Rome especially as they were a way to counteract the pagan culture, and Gregory the Great (590-604) used them to evangelize.127 The Saint March off The examination above demonstrates how the temporal cycle has changed from the reforms of the Consilium. In addition to this the sanctoral cycle has also changed. It can be estimated that about three-fourths of the saints feasts days on the calendar have changed. The total number of feast days as it stands is 191.128 This is composed of various feasts of Our Lord, Our Blessed Mother, St. Joseph and many other saints ranked in as memorials or optional memorials. The goals of the Consilium seemed to have been, to assign to each saint as the day of his or her celebration the dies natalis or day of death, unless something prevents this.129 This is certainly a noble goal. However, this does not explain some of the radical changes that happened to the calendar. To start two feasts days of our Lord were removed. Those were the feast of the Holy Name of Jesus and the Most Precious Blood. This seems to be particularly contrary to the Christocentric nature of the calendar. Article 102 of SC states, Within the cycle of a year, moreover, the Church unfolds the whole mystery of Christ.130 The whole mystery cannot be

Ibid., 42. King, Roman, 197. 128 Laszlo Dobszay, The Restoration and Organic Development of the Roman Rite , ed. Laurence Paul Hemming (London & New York: T & T Clark, 2010), 135. 129 Bugnini, Reform, 321. 130 SC, art 102.
127

126

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present without honoring the Holy Name and remembering our Lord sheading His Precious Blood. The loss of a specific day to remember the shedding of the Precious Blood was particularly troubling for many. After the publication of the first edition of the OF missal and calendar, 367 petitions were sent to the Consilium to restore the feast to July 1st.131 This once mandatory feast was reduced to a votive mass. A Votive Mass is a mass that can be offered on a feria day (a weekday Mass with no feast). Certainly it is praise worthy for the Consilium to want more masses to honor Christs shedding of His blood. However, in the Missal of 1962 a votive mass already existed that commemorated the Passion of the Lord.132 This removal of the Most Precious Blood from the calendar also has an effect on the Solemnity of Corpus Christi. Corpus Christi was traditionally the Thursday that followed Most Holy Trinity Sunday. However, much like Ascension Thursday could be moved if the Episcopal Conferenced desired, so Corpus Christi could be moved to Sunday. This, however, severs the connection that Corpus Christi has with Holy Thursday. The name of Corpus Christi also has changed in the OF missal and calendar. It is now called the Solemnity of the Body and Blood of Christ. This name came from an article in LOsservatore Romano written by Msgr. R. Masi on June 5th, 1969.133 The Consilium actually accepted his proposal and in 1970 and subsequently in 1975 changed the title in the document, Variationes in Calendarium Romanum inductee.134 Another peculiar development that arose from the Consiliums work was the allowance of white vestments for requiem masses. Permission was granted for white vestments to be used if

131

Bugnini, Reform, 315. Missale Romanum,Votive Mass [62]. 133 Ibid., 316 see footnote 31. 134 Ibid., see footnote 32.
132

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All Souls day was to be observed on a Sunday.135 In the Usus missal the only option for funerals was black. Black represents the mourning over the loss of a loved one. White vestments are used on days of saints. This could cause confusion pastorally, and some might think The Church is canonizing the person after death. No document has been issued say white vestments are now the only vestments for funerals. Despite this, white vestments seemingly have become the common vestment for funeral masses. A final example will demonstrate some of the difficulties behind the ranking system of the calendar. The feast of the Archangels in the OF calendar is on September 29th. It is ranked as a Feast, which is the second highest rank under Solemnity which the first. Observed on this day are Sts. Michael, Gabriel and Raphael. Previously, in the Usus calendar Gabriel was on March 24th (the day before the Annunciation), Raphael was on October 24th.136 St. Michaels feast was September 24th, but this was the dedication of the Church build in honor of his name. It was a first class feast. Now all the Archangels have been combined and a first class feast has been reduced to second ranking in the OF calendar.137 Practical View How the calendar is structured, as seen before, has an effect on how Catholics pray. A worshippers sense of time has to be sacred. The feasts of the calendar are very important. As Pope Benedict, then Cardinal Ratzinger put it, The great feasts that structure the year of faith are feasts of Christ and precisely as such are ordered toward the one God who revealed himself

135 136

Ibid. See Appendix I Comparative Calendar, A. 4. 137 Ibid.

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to Moses in the burning bush and chose Israel as the confessor of the faith in his uniqueness.138 The calendar orients one to a life of prayer to the Father through Jesus Christ. By remembering the feasts of the Lord in the temporal seasons one is brought more into the mystery of Gods infinite love for mankind. The saints are an important part of the Catholic identity. They are examples for believers to follow to Christ the light: we men are in constant need of a little light [Christ], whose hidden light helps us to know and love the light of the Creator, God one and triune. That is why the feasts of the saints from earliest times have formed part of the Christian year.139 Without a well formed calendar Catholics lose an important part of their identity. Human nature is oriented to consistency. The repeating of the cycles year after year forms Catholics to worship a certain way. If the calendar is not strong then the faithful will suffer. It [liturgical worship] teaches us how to pray with the Church through the Liturgy: primarily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.140 To pray with the Church is to follow her calendar. By being formed by a proper Liturgy given by the Church, worshipers are drawn more into the mystery of Christ. When the liturgy lacks beauty, as is a frequent complaint against the liturgical life right now 141, the people are disconnected from the fount of grace. When the calendar is formed properly, Catholics are able to experience more as sense of beauty in worship. Conclusion

138

Card. Joseph Ratzinger, The Spirit of the Liturgy, trans. John Saward (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, Ibid. Dietrich von Hildebrand, Liturgy and Personality (Manchester, New Hampshire: Sophia Institute Press,

2000), 110.
139 140

1943), x. M. Francis Mannion, Masterworks of God Essays in Liturgical Theory and Practice (Chicago & Mundelein, Illinois: Hillendrand Books, 2004), 108.
141

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The Liturgical Calendar has seen a great deal of development since the early Church. Slowly each season has grown organically in the life of the Church. The universal calendar was codified by Trent, and the Liturgical Movement around the time of Pius X wished to give proper dignity to reforming the calendar. From Pius XII to John XXIII calling Vatican II there were many changes occurring. The most significant ones would come with the work of the Consilium following Vatican II. Now, because Pope Benedict has made it clear that the Missal of John XXIII was never, abrogated there exist two calendars. Now is the time to look at both calendars and see what ambiguities exist. This is an important task because the calendar provides Catholics with a Sacred Time in which to worship.

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OF Date 01-01 01-02 01-03 OF Rank Solemnity Memorial Saint Mary, Mother of God (Octave of the Nativity of Our Lord / Circumcision of Our Lord) Basil the Great and Gregory Nazianzen, bishops and doctors Holy Name of Jesus EF Date 1-1 & 10-11 6-14 & 5-9 Sun between 1-1 and 1-6, or 1-2 01-06 01-23 01-14 01-17 01-20 (with Sebastian) 1-20 (with Fabian) 01-21 01-22 01-29 01-25 1-24 & 2-6 06-01 03-07 01-31 02-02 02-03 02-05 07-20 02-10 02-11 07-07 02-12 02-23 02-22 01-26 03-04 03-06 03-08 03-09 03-17 03-18 03-19 03-25 EF Rank II cl III cl II cl

01-06 01-07 01-13 01-17 01-20 01-20 01-21 01-22 01-24 01-25 01-26 01-27 01-28 01-31 02-02 02-03 02-03 02-05 02-06 02-08 02-08 02-10 02-11 02-14 02-17 02-21 02-22 02-23 03-04 03-07 03-08 03-09 03-17 03-18 03-19 03-23 03-25

Solemnity

Memorial

Epiphany of Our Lord Raymond of Penyafort, priest Hilary, bishop and doctor Anthony, abbot Fabian, pope and martyr Sebastian, martyr

I cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl Commem III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl I cl III cl

Memorial

Memorial Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial Feast

Memorial Memorial

Memorial

Memorial

Feast Memorial Memorial

Solemnity Solemnity

Agnes, virgin and martyr Vincent, deacon and martyr (Vincent and Anastasius, martyrs) Francis de Sales, bishop and doctor Conversion of Paul, apostle Timothy and Titus, bishops Angela Merici, virgin Thomas Aquinas, priest and doctor John Bosco, priest Presentation of the Lord (Purification of Mary) Blase, bishop and martyr Ansgar, bishop Agatha, virgin and martyr Paul Miki and companions, martyrs Jerome Emiliani, priest Josephine Bakhita, virgin Scholastica, virgin Our Lady of Lourdes (Apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary Immaculate) Cyril, monk, and Methodius, bishop Seven Founders of the Order of Servites Peter Damian, bishop and doctor Chair of Peter, apostle Polycarp, bishop and martyr Casimir Perpetua and Felicity, martyrs John of God, religious Frances of Rome, religious Patrick, bishop Cyril of Jerusalem, bishop and doctor Joseph, husband of Mary Turibius de Mongrovejo, bishop Annunciation

Juliano 29
04-02 04-04 04-05 04-07 04-11 04-13 04-21 04-23 04-23 04-24 04-25 04-28 04-28 04-29 04-30 05-01 05-02 05-03 05-12 Francis of Paola, hermit Isidore, bishop and doctor Vincent Ferrer, priest John Baptist de la Salle, priest Stanislaus, bishop and martyr Martin I, pope and martyr Anselm, bishop and doctor George, martyr Adalbert, bishop and martyr Fidelis of Sigmaringen, priest and martyr Mark, evangelist Peter Chanel, priest and martyr Louis Marie de Montfort, priest Catherine of Siena, virgin Pius V, pope Joseph the Worker Athanasius, bishop and doctor Philip and James, apostles Pancras, martyr 04-02 04-04 04-05 05-15 05-07 11-12 04-21 04-23 04-24 04-25 III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl Commem III cl II cl

Memorial

Feast

Memorial

Memorial Feast

04-30 05-05 05-01 05-02 05-11 5-12 (with Nereus and Achilleus) 5-12 (with Pancras) Matthias, apostle 05-27 05-20

III cl III cl I cl III cl II cl III cl

05-12 05-13 05-14 05-18 05-20 05-21 05-22 05-25 05-25 05-25 05-26 05-27 05-31 06-01 06-02 06-03 06-05 06-06 06-09 06-11 06-13 06-19 06-21 06-22

Nereus and Achilleus, martyrs Our Lady of Fatima Matthias, apostle John I, pope and martyr Bernardine of Siena, priest Christopher Magallanes, priest and martyr, and companions, martyrs Rita of Cascia, religious Gregory VII, pope Venerable Bede, priest and doctor Mary Magdalene de Pazzi, virgin Philip Neri, priest Augustine of Canterbury, bishop Visitation Justin, martyr Marcellinus and Peter, martyrs Charles Lwanga and companions, martyrs Boniface, bishop and martyr Norbert, bishop Ephrem, deacon and doctor Barnabas, apostle Anthony of Padua, priest and doctor Romuald, abbot Aloysius Gonzaga, religious Paulinus of Nola, bishop

III cl

Feast

II cl Commem III cl

Memorial Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial

05-25 05-27 05-29 05-26 05-28 07-02 04-14 06-02 06-05 06-06 06-18 06-11 06-13 02-07 06-21 06-22

III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl III cl Commem III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl

Memorial Memorial Memorial

Juliano 30
06-22 06-24 06-27 06-28 06-29 06-30 07-03 07-04 07-05 07-06 07-09 07-11 07-13 07-14 07-15 07-16 07-20 07-21 07-22 07-23 07-23 07-25 07-26 07-29 07-30 07-31 08-01 08-02 08-02 08-04 08-05 08-06 08-07 08-07 08-08 08-10 08-11 08-13 Solemnity Memorial Solemnity Feast John Fisher, bishop and martyr, and Thomas More, martyr Birth of John the Baptist Cyril of Alexandria, bishop and doctor Irenaeus, bishop and martyr Peter and Paul, apostles First Martyrs of the Church of Rome Thomas, apostle Elizabeth of Portugal Anthony Zaccaria, priest Maria Goretti, virgin and martyr Augustine Zhao Rong, priest and martyr, and companions, martyrs Benedict, abbot Henry Camillus de Lellis, priest Bonaventure, bishop and doctor Our Lady of Mount Carmel Apollinaris, bishop and martyr Lawrence of Brindisi, priest and doctor Mary Magdalene Bridget of Sweden, religious Sharbel Makhluf, priest James, apostle Joachim and Anne, parents of Mary Martha Peter Chrysologus, bishop and doctor Ignatius of Loyola, priest Alphonsus Liguori, bishop and doctor Eusebius of Vercelli, bishop Peter Julian Eymard, priest John Vianney, priest Dedication of St Mary Major Transfiguration Sixtus II, pope and martyr, and companions, martyrs Cajetan, priest Dominic, priest Lawrence, deacon and martyr Clare, virgin Pontian, pope and martyr, and Hippolytus, priest and martyr (Hippolytus and Cassian, priests and martyrs) Maximilian Maria Kolbe, priest and martyr Assumption Stephen of Hungary John Eudes, priest Bernard, abbot and doctor Pius X, pope

06-24 02-09 07-03 06-29 12-21 07-08 07-05

I cl III cl III cl I cl II cl III cl III cl

Memorial

Memorial

Memorial

03-21 07-15 07-18 07-14 07-16 07-23 07-21 07-22 10-08 07-25 8-16 & 7-26 07-29 12-04 07-31 08-02 12-16 08-08 08-05 08-06 08-06 08-07 08-04 08-10 08-12 11-19 & 8-13

III cl III cl III cl III cl Commem III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl Commem III cl III cl II cl III cl Commem

Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial Memorial

Memorial Feast

Memorial Feast Memorial

08-14 08-15 08-16 08-19 08-20 08-21

Solemnity

Memorial Memorial

08-15 09-02 08-19 08-20 09-03

I cl III cl III cl III cl III cl

Juliano 31
08-22 08-23 08-24 08-25 08-25 08-27 08-28 08-29 09-03 09-08 09-12 09-13 09-14 09-15 09-16 09-17 09-19 09-20 09-21 09-23 09-26 09-27 09-28 09-28 09-29 09-30 10-01 10-02 10-04 10-06 10-07 10-09 10-09 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-16 10-17 10-18 10-19 10-23 10-24 10-28 Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial Feast Queenship of Mary Rose of Lima, virgin Bartholomew, apostle Louis Joseph Calasanz, priest Monica Augustine, bishop and doctor Beheading of John the Baptist, martyr Gregory the Great, pope and doctor Birth of Mary Holy Name of Mary John Chrysostom, bishop and doctor Exaltation of the Holy Cross Our Lady of Sorrows (Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary) Cornelius, pope and martyr, and Cyprian, bishop and martyr Robert Bellarmine, bishop and doctor Januarius, bishop and martyr (and companions, martyrs) Andrew Kim Taegon, priest and martyr, Paul Chong Hasang, martyr, and companions, martyrs Matthew, apostle and evangelist Pio of Pietrelcina, priest Cosmas and Damian, martyrs Vincent de Paul, prest Wenceslaus, martyr Lawrence Ruiz, martyr, and companions, martyrs Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, archangels Jerome, priest and doctor Theresa of the Child Jesus, virgin Guardian Angels Francis of Assisi, religious Bruno, priest Our Lady of the Rosary Denis, bishop and martyr, and companions, martyrs John Leonardi, priest Callistus I, pope and martyr Teresa of Avila, virgin Hedwig, religious Margaret Mary Alacoque, virgin Ignatius of Antioch, bishop and martyr Luke, evangelist Paul of the Cross, priest John of Capistrano, priest Anthony Mary Claret, bishop Simon and Jude, apostles 05-31 08-30 08-24 08-25 08-27 05-04 08-28 08-29 03-12 09-08 09-12 01-27 09-14 09-15 09-16 05-13 09-19 II cl III cl II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl III cl III cl II cl II cl III cl III cl III cl

Memorial Memorial Memorial Memorial Feast Memorial Feast Memorial Memorial

09-21 09-27 07-19 09-28 9-29 & 3-24 & 10-24 09-30 10-03 10-02 10-04 10-06 10-07 10-09 10-09 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-17 02-01 10-18 04-28 03-28 10-23 10-28

II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl & I* cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl Commem III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl II cl III cl III cl III cl II cl

Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial Memorial Memorial Memorial

Memorial

Memorial Feast

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11-01 11-02 11-03 11-04 11-09 11-10 11-11 11-12 11-15 11-16 11-16 11-17 11-18 11-18 11-21 11-22 11-23 11-23 11-24 11-25 11-30 12-03 12-04 12-06 12-07 12-08 12-11 12-13 12-14 12-21 12-23 12-25 12-26 12-27 12-28 12-29 12-31 Sun within Octave of Christmas Sun after Jan 6 First Sun after Pentecost Solemnity All Saints All Souls Martin de Porres, religious Charles Borromeo, bishop Dedication of St John Lateran Leo the Great, pope and doctor Martin of Tours, bishop Josaphat, bishop and martyr Albert the Great, bishop and doctor Margaret of Scotland Gertrude, virgin Elizabeth of Hungary, religious Dedication of the churches of Peter and Paul, apostles Rose Philippine Duchesne, virgin Presentation of Mary Cecilia, virgin and martyr Clement I, pope and martyr Columban, abbot Andrew Dung-Lac, priest and martyr, and companions, martyrs Catherine of Alexandria, virgin and martyr Andrew, apostle Francis Xavier, priest John Damascene, priest and doctor Nicholas, bishop Ambrose, bishop and doctor Immaculate Conception Damasus, pope and confessor Lucy, virgin and martyr John of the Cross, priest and doctor Peter Canisius, priest and doctor John of Kanty, priest Christmas Stephen, first martyr John, apostle and evangelist Holy Innocents, martyrs Thomas Becket, bishop and martyr Sylvester I, pope Holy Family 11-01 11-02 11-04 11-09 04-11 11-11 11-14 11-15 06-10 11-16 11-19 11-18 I cl I cl III cl II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl

Memorial Feast Memorial Memorial Memorial

Memorial

Memorial Memorial

11-21 11-22 11-23

III cl III cl III cl

Feast Memorial

Memorial Solemnity Memorial Memorial

Solemnity Feast Feast Feast

Feast

11-25 11-30 12-03 03-27 12-06 12-07 12-08 12-11 12-13 11-24 04-27 10-20 12-25 12-26 12-27 12-28 12-29 12-31 1st Sun after Epiphany

III cl II cl III cl III cl III cl III cl I cl III cl III cl III cl III cl III cl I cl II cl II cl II cl Commem Commem II cl

Feast Solemnity

Baptism of the Lord Holy Trinity

01-13 Octave Day of Pentecost

II cl

Juliano 33
Thurs after Holy Trinity Fri after nd 2 Sun after Pentecost Sat after nd 2 Sun after Pentecost Last Sun of the year Solemnity The Solemnity of the Body and Blood of Our Lord (Corpus Christi) Sacred Heart Thurs after Holy Trinity Fri after 2 Sun after Pentecost 08-22
nd

I cl

Solemnity

I cl

Solemnity

Immaculate Heart of Mary

II cl

Solemnity

Christ the King

Last Sun in October

I cl

*This Comparison was provided by Miss Claire Gilligan on July 19, 2012. All work and findings are her own.

Juliano 34

Bibliography Benedict XVI. Apostolic Letter "Summorum Pontificum" issued Motu Proprio, 7 July 2007. http://www.ewtn.com/library/papaldoc/b16summorumpontificum.htm (accessed November 10, 2012). Bugnini, Annibale. The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975. Translated by Matthew J. OConnell. Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1990. Dobszay, Laszlo. The Restoration and Organic Development of the Roman Rite. Edited by Laurence Paul Hemming. London & New York: T & T Clark, 2010. John XXII, Apostolic Letter Rubricarum instructum issued Motu Proprio, 25 July 1960. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jxxiii_apl_19600725_rubricarum_lt.html (accessed November 11, 2012). Jungmann S.J., Josef A. Public Worship A Survey. Translated by Clifford Howell. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1957. Jungmann S.J., Josef A. The Early Liturgy To the Time of Gregory the Great. Translated by Francis A. Brunner, C.SS.R. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1959. Jungmann S.J., Josef A. The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia). Translated by Francis A. Brunner, C.SS.R.. New York: Benziger Bros., 1959. Klauser, Theodor. A Short History of the Western Liturgy: An Account and some Reflections. Translated by John Halliburton. London & New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. King, Archdale A. Liturgy of the Roman Church. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Bruce Pub. Co., 1957. Liturgy Office of the Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, Australia. Ember Days. Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney. http://www.liturgy.sydneycatholic.org/documents-aresources/catholicism-101/ember-days (accessed November 11, 2012). Mannion, M. Francis. Masterworks of God Essays in Liturgical Theory and Practice. Chicago & Mundelein, Illinois: Hillendrand Books, 2004. Michel, OSB, Dom Virgil George. The Liturgy of the Church According to the Roman Rite. New York: Macmillan Company, 1937. Miller, CSC, John H. Fundamentals of the Liturgy. Notre Dame, Indiana: Fides Publishers Inc., 1960.

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