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250W HVHBT Doherty with 57% WCDMA Efficiency Linearized to -55dBc for 2c11 6.

5dB PAR
Craig Steinbeiser, Thomas Landon, Charles Suckling TriQuint Semiconductor, 500 W. Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 USA
Abstract A 2-way symmetrical Doherty amplifier exhibiting 250W saturated power has been developed using High-Voltage HBT (HVHBT) GaAs technology biased at 28V on the Collector. Greater than 57% collector efficiency at 50W (47dBm) average output power has been demonstrated while achieving 55dBc linearized ACPR at 5MHz offset using a 2-carrier-side-by-side WCDMA input signal with 6.5dB peak to average ratio measured at .01% probability on the CCDF. At this condition, the measured overall power-added efficiency is 53%. The HVHBT Doherty exhibits 200W (53dBm) P1dB at 70% efficiency with 57% efficiency at 6dB output back-off (OBO) from P1dB showing a 25 percentage point improvement over class AB operation. Index Terms GaAs HVHBT, Doherty, efficiency, WCDMA, digital pre-distortion, power amplifier.

In this paper we describe a relatively simple design method that performed remarkably well, producing a HVHBT Doherty that exhibits 200W (53dBm) P1dB at 70% efficiency with 57% efficiency at 6dB output-back-off (OBO) from P1dB. The HVHBT Doherty amplifier is shown to improve efficiency by 25 points over class AB at 6dB OBO from P1dB. In addition the HVHBT Doherty amplifier is shown to be compatible with industry standard pre-distortion technology improving adjacent channel ACPR by more than 20dB. II. PACKAGED DEVICE Transistor devices in this work are fabricated using TriQuints proprietary InGaP GaAs High-Voltage Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HVHBT) process. Figure 1 shows a top view of a single-ended HVHBT module that exhibits 100W (50dBm) at P1dB.

I. INTRODUCTION Recent developments in High Voltage Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HVHBT) GaAs technology have enabled significant advancement in WCDMA basestation RF power amplifier efficiency. The highest priority and main concern of base-station designers is focused on RF power amplifier efficiencyenhancement solutions due to the high efficiency RF lineup requirement for multi-carrier WCDMA high power basestations. Class AB amplifiers are no longer attractive for use in the final power stage, even with the best crest reduction algorithms. To improve WCDMA RF power amplifier efficiency, the Doherty amplifier has been investigated and is well documented in the literature [1,2]. As an advantage, the Doherty amplifier enhances efficiency without need of any additional complex circuitry. However, the load modulation of the carrier amplifier may create a challenge for some simple types of digital pre-distortion linearization. In this work we present a 250W HVHBT Doherty amplifier that exhibits WCDMA efficiency rivaling results reported for more complex envelope tracking solutions utilizing LDMOS[3] and GaN[4] technology. We observed greater than 57% collector efficiency at 50W (47dBm) average output power while achieving 55dBc linearized ACPR at 5MHz offset using a 2-carrier-side-by-side WCDMA input signal with 6.5dB peak to average ratio measured at .01% probability on the CCDF.

Fig. 1. Photograph of HVHBT Module that exhibits 100W (50dBm) at P1dB. Base (bottom lead) Collector (top chamfered lead) and Emitter (flange).

The module consists of two HVHBT transistor die each capable of delivering 50W (47dBm) at P1dB. Internal prematching circuits are fabricated using TriQuints standard GaAs passive process. The output impedance is near 2-j2 at 2140MHz enabling an easily realizable output matching network. The module is routinely measured on a 50 single-ended test fixture biased Class AB with a quiescent collector current of 400mA and an operating voltage of 28V. CW P1dB compression is typically 100W (50dBm) with collector efficiency of 65%. CW P4dB is typically 140W (51.4dBm)

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with collector efficiency of 72%. Single carrier WCDMA efficiency is typically 36% at 25W (44dBm) average output power linearized to 60dBc using an input signal with PAR=7.5dB. At 44dBm gain is typically 14.5dB. III. DOHERTY PALLET A symmetric 2-way Doherty amplifier was designed to boost efficiency at 6dB Output-Back-Off from P1dB (OBO) shown in figure 2.

For this design, the general approach was to model the load presented to the carrier amplifier at and below 6dB OBO. A model of the Doherty combiner including both device output matching sections (Zc & Zp) was developed in AWR, see figure 3. Due to physical PCB layout constraints, additional wavelength 50 transmission lines were added to the model. Last, 50 transmission lines of electrical length = c and p were added to the model. c & p represented our phase offset adjustments. The optimum values for c & p were determined in the three following steps.
Zc c Doherty network Rt 50

Zp

Fig. 3.

Block Diagram of Doherty Combiner AWR Model.

Fig. 2.

Photograph of Doherty Amplifier.

The Doherty amplifier is composed of a main amplifier and a peaking amplifier employing a pair of 100W (50dBm) HVHBT GaAs modules. The carrier amplifier is biased Class AB at 550mA collector current. The peaking amplifier is biased well below turn-on at 550mV. A. Design Method Theory of Doherty operation is well covered in the literature[5]. In Doherty operation the efficiency boost achieved is a result of modulating the carrier amplifier load between Ropt at peak output power and 2Ropt at 6dB OBO. For our Doherty amp we choose a simple 50 Doherty output combining network. This allowed re-use of matching elements previously developed for the 50 single-ended class AB test fixture. To achieve the desired load modulation at the carrier amplifier module output reference plane it is important to have the correct phase offset (c) between the output match of the carrier amplifier and the Doherty combiner. Equally vital for good Doherty performance is to ensure the peaking amplifier does not load the carrier amplifier when the output power level is at or below 6dB OBO. This too can be achieved with an optimized phase offset (p).

First, recall the class AB target measured at the module output reference plane, Ropt, was 2-j2. In a Doherty amplifier operating at 6 dB OBO the carrier amplifier load target should be 2Ropt, or 4-j2. In the AWR model, the peaking arm was disconnected at the TEE junction and replaced with an open circuit stub. Next c was adjusted until the load presented to the carrier amplifier rotated to 4-j2. Without this phase adjustment the impedance would have been 1.1-j1.4, approximately 90 degrees off target.
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 2 0

4 j2
-0 . 2

2 j2

-0

.4

-0 .

-0.8

Fig. 4. Output impedance presented at peak power (2-j2) and 6dB OBO (4-j2) plotted on a 4.2 ohm smith chart.

The next step was to account for the effect of the peaking amplifiers off-state output impedance. The peaking arm was reconnected to the TEE junction and p was set to equal c. The peaking amplifier module port was then loaded with the off-state s-parameters of the 100W (50dBm) HVHBT module. After simulation it was noted that the load presented to the carrier amplifier shifted by a small but appreciable amount.

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-1.0

Both p & c were optimized until the load presented to the carrier amplifier returned to near 4-j2 and band edge impedance was grouped tight with minimal slope. Finally the input Wilkinson phase offset was adjusted to provide signal alignment for proper power summing. B. Prototype Phase Adjustments A prototype was built. First performance in non-Doherty configuration was measured (that is, both amplifiers biased Class AB). CW Pin/Pout versus frequency showed nonDoherty performance to be as expected, confirming the matching elements, Wilkinson splitter, and output combiner were properly aligned. In addition single ended performance of each channel was verified providing further confirmation of device matching. In Doherty operation, CW Pin/Pout showed efficiency peaked near 2110MHz indicating the carrier phase offset was too long. An empirical adjustment method, similar to the modeled approach was employed. First the peaking arm was disconnected from the TEE junction and the input to the carrier amplifier disconnected from the Wilkinson, re-routed to a 50 port connector. Next, the phase offset at the output of the carrier amplifier was adjusted to center Pin/Pout performance at 2140MHz. The peaking amplifier was then reconnected to the output combiner. To maintain phase balance, the phase length of the peaking amplifier input Wilkinson arm was increased by the amount that the carrier amplifier output phase was decreased. Efficiency measured to be centered at 2140MHz, however, AM/PM remained centered at 2110MHz getting worse at 2170MHz. Transferring the phase offset from the Wilkinson arm at the input of the peaking amplifier to the output side centered AM/PM characteristic. IV. DOHERTY PERFORMANCE The Doherty amplifier was measured under both single-tone CW and WCDMA single and multi-carrier signals with and without linearization. The Doherty bias condition sets the carrier amplifier to Class AB at 550mA collector current and the peaking amplifier to well below turn-on at 550mV. The Non-Doherty bias condition sets both amplifiers Class AB at 400mA collector current. All measurements were performed with collector bias at 28V and base-plate temperature near 2530C. A. CW Performance CW gain and efficiency versus output power curves for Doherty and non-Doherty bias conditions at 2140MHz are shown in figure 5. CW saturated output power is 54dBm (250W) and P1dB-Compression at 53dBm (200W). Notice at 6dB OBO, output power is 47dBm (50W) and corresponding

Doherty efficiency is greater than 57%, a 25-point improvement compared to non-Doherty efficiency of 32% at 2140MHz. At 10dB OBO, output power is 43dBm (20W) and corresponding Doherty efficiency is near 35%, a 15-point improvement over non-Doherty efficiency of 20%.
15 14 13 12 11 10 75 70 65 60 55 Gain_2140MHz_AB Gain_2140MHz Ceff_2140MHz_AB Ceff_2140MHz 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54

Collector Efficiency (%)

Gain (dB)

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Output Power (dBm)

Fig. 5. Gain and Collector Efficiency versus Output Power for Doherty and non-Doherty (class AB) bias conditions.

As shown, HVHBT Doherty gain is between 11dB and 12dB at 6dB OBO. At 50W (47dBm) the overall poweradded-efficiency is above 53% at 2140MHz. Doherty collector efficiency versus frequency at 6dB OBO, 7dB OBO, and 8dB OBO is shown in Figure 6. Notice the efficiency curve is well centered within the band from 2110MHz through 2170MHz and changes by less than 3points across band.
60

6dB-OBO 7dB-OBO

Efficiency (%)

55

8dB-OBO

50

45

40

2100 2110 2120 2130 2140 2150 2160 2170 2180 2190 2200

Frequency (MHz)
Fig. 6. Collector Efficiency versus Frequency at 6dB, 7dB, and 8dB Output Back-Off from P1dB (OBO).

Amplitude and Phase versus Output Power is an important indication of Digital Pre-Distortion compatibility shown in Fig 7. Notice phase and amplitude remain relatively unchanged until peaking amplifier begins to turn on (near 46dBm). Minimizing the amount of change in phase over a

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20dB output power dynamic range is important. Notice the change in phase is highest at 2170MHz but shows less than 10 degrees of relative change over a 20dB range. This characteristic is a first indication that digital linearization should function well.
14 Gain (dB) & Phase (Deg) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
Gain-2110 Phase-2110 Gain-2140 Phase-2140 Gain-2170 Phase-2170

WCDMA Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements both with and without digital pre-distortion at 2140MHz are shown in Figure 9.

Fig. 9. PSD with and without Digital Predistortion at 2140MHz.

Output Power (dBm)

Fig. 7. Amplitude and Phase versus Output Power.

V. CONCLUSIONS We have shown a 2-way symmetrical Doherty amplifier built using HVHBT GaAs transistor devices. A simplistic design approach combining modeling and empirical adjustments was used and found to be successful. The HVHBT Doherty amplifier produces 250W of CW saturated power at 72% collector efficiency. We reported observing 57% WCDMA efficiency at 50W average power while linearized to 55dBc using an input signal with two-carriers side by side with PAR=6.5dB. This solution provides an interesting alternative to basestation designers seeking a simple efficiency-enhancement solution. VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Andrzej Haczewski, Sandro Lanfranco, and Jukka Holster of Nokia Siemens Networks Oulu Finland for their insightful technical discussions and independent verification of measured results. REFERENCES
ACPR (dBc)

B. WCDMA Performance WCDMA linearity was characterized both with and without Digital Pre-Distortion. The WCDMA input signal comprised of 2 carriers side-by-side with peak to average ratio of 6.5dB measured 0.01% on the CCDF. This waveform takes full advantage of the Doherty efficiency boost at 6dB OBO. Linearization was accomplished using a PALADIN-15 adaptive digital pre-distortion test system provided by PMC Sierra. Figure 8 shows Doherty Collector Efficiency and ACPR versus Output Power both with and without linearization. Notice greater than 57% collector efficiency at 47dBm (50W) average output power has been demonstrated while achieving 55dBc linearized ACPR at 5MHz offset.
65 60 55 Peak Output Power 0.01% on CCDF Collector Efficiency -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 47dBm (50W) -40 -45 ACP5 Linearized ACP10 Linearized -50 -55 -60 -65 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Efficiency (%) & Peak Power (dBm)

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 ACP10 (not Linearized)

ACP5 (not Linearized)

Average Pout (dBm)

Fig. 8. ACPR-5MHz, ACPR-10MHz, efficiency, and peak output power at 0.01 on CCDF vs. average output power with and without linearization for WCDMA 2-carrier side-by-side with PAR=6.5dB.

[1] S. C. Cripps, RF Power Amplifier for Wireless Communications, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1999. [2] F.H.Raab, Efficiency of Doherty RF power-amplifier systems, IEEE Trans. Broadcast., vol.BC-33, no. 3, pp. 77-83, Sep.1987. [3] P. Draxler, S. Lanfranco, D.Kimball, C.Hsia, J.Jeong, J. Van de Sluis, and P.M.Asbeck, High Efficiency Envelope Tracking LDMOS Power amplifier for W-CDMA, IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., Jun. 2006, pp. 1534-1537. [4] D.F. Kimball, J. Jeong, C. Hsia, P. Draxler, S. Lanfranco, W. Nagy, K. Linthicum, and L.E. Larson, High-Efficiency Envelope-Tracking W-CDMA Base-Station Amplifier Using GaN HFETs IEEE MTT, Vol. 54, No. 11, Nov. 2006, pp. 38483856. [5] B. Kim, Microwave Doherty Amplifier for High Linearity and Efficiency, IEEE Int. Microw. Symp. Workshop, 2004.

2007 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE