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Reducing urban heat islands and

transportation problems in tropical


cities

ETH ADB Manila, August 28, 2013

Prof Gerhard Schmitt, ETH Zrich
Director, Singapore-ETH Centre
Senior Vice President, ETH Global

! Tropical cities suffer increasingly from the urban
heat and pollution island effect as well as from
transportation and mobility problems. The ETH
Future Cities Laboratory at the Singapore-ETH
Centre places these situations into a broader urban
metabolism context and proposes integrated
solutions. Urban planning and economics emerge
as key factors, as demonstrated with case studies
from Singapore, Indonesia and Ethiopia.

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ETH Zrich
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Location: Where Einstein started his career
Ranking: #1 in Continental Europe
Globalization: #1 in International Outlook
Performance: 21 Nobel Prizes
Science-to-industry: 2 Spin-Offs per month
Switzerland: #1 in Competitiveness and Innovation
Swiss Cities: Top in Quality of Life and Safety
Resilience: Part of the Swiss Business Model
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Understanding the City

! Cultural Context
! Urban Metabolism
! Stocks and Flows

Urban Metabolism

Understand the city as a dynamic
and complex system

Read and model this system in
terms of Stocks and Flows

Recognise Urban Stocks as basic
elements of the urban metabolism
and as locally available resources

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! People and Health
! Water and Capital
! Energy and Materials
! Space and Density
! Transportation and Information
Stocks and Flows: People and Health
$
Stocks and Flows: Water and Capital$
Stocks and Flows: Energy and Materials$
From: Entwicklung einer Ressourcenstrategie fr mineralische Baustoffe fr die Stadt Zrich, Martin Schneider, Stefan Rubli,
Heinrich Gugerli, 16. Status-Seminar Forschen und Bauen im Kontext von Energie und Umwelt, 2010, http://www.stadt-
zuerich.ch/nachhaltiges-bauen
Gallery 4.2 Flows and stocks of concrete material in Zrich in 2005
Stocks and Flows: Space and Density$
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! People and Health
! Water and Capital
! Energy and Materials
! Space and Density
! Information
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Singapore-ETH Centre for Global Environmental Sustainability

FUTURE CITIES
LABORATORY

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Which methods can increase
the sustainable performance
of cities?

How can we develop a new
curriculum of urban science?
Scales,

Stocks and

Flows
SMALL
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY
MEDIUM
URBAN DESIGN
LARGE
TERRITORIAL PLANNING
LOW EXERGY
DIGITAL FABRICATION
A/P ARCHITECTURE & CONSTRUCTION
TRANSFORMING & MINING URBAN STOCKS
URBAN DESIGN STRATEGIES & RESOURCES
A/P ARCHITECTURE & URBAN PLANNING
TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION
LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
MOBILITY & TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
A/P ARCHITECTURE & TERRITORIAL PLANNING
SIMULATION PLATFORM
SPACE
ENERGY
MATERIALS
PEOPLE
CAPITAL
WATER
INFORMATION
URBAN SOCIOLOGY
HOUSING
Developing systems to cut the
electricity used for the standard
air-conditioner and to reduce
CO2 emissions caused by air
conditioners.
Low Exergy

Prof. Dr Hansjrg Leibundgut
Image source: Module I

Research

Modules
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8
IM FOKUS 64 1 | 2011
An der Bolleystrasse in Zrich entsteht ein Haus, das ganz ohne
CO2-Emissionen auskommen soll. Das Konzept stammt von der
ETH Zrich und soll eine neue Generation der nachhaltigen
Architektur einluten. Dabei soll nicht mehr das Energiesparen
umjeden Preis imZentrumstehen, sondern nur noch die
Emissionsfreiheit. Ob alle Ziele der Towards Zero Emission
Architecture eingehalten werden knnen, muss sich in der
Praxis weisen. DANIEL RTTELE (INFOGRAFIK) UND STEFAN BACHMANN
Das Haus der Zukunft
NULL-EMISSIONEN-ARCHITEKTUR
8 Hybridkollektor: Hybridkollektor: Der neu
entwickelte Hybridkollektor
besteht aus zwei Schichten: Die
obere Schicht aus Solarzellen
generiert Strom. Durch die untere
Schicht iesst Wasser, das sich
durch die Sonneneinstrahlung
erwrmt. Interessantes Detail: Die
wasserfhrende Unterschicht
dient auch der Khlung der
Solarzellen in der Oberschicht.
Dadurch arbeiten die Solarzellen
viel efzienter.
6 Zuluft: Die Zuluft fr die
Klimaanlage durchluft einen
Wrmetauscher (Airbox),
bevor sie in die Wohnungen
gelangt. Whrend die Luft im
Sommer so gekhlt wird, kann die
Wrme abgefhrt und genutzt
werden.
7 Abluftgert: Auch der Abluft
wird mittels einem
Wrmetauscher nochmals Wrme
entzogen, die eingespeichert
werden kann.
5 Bodenkhlung/-heizung:
ImSommer dienen die Wasser-
rohre imFussboden der Khlung.
Dabei wird die Wrme abgefhrt
und in den Untergrund geleitet,
die Rume werden so gekhlt. Im
Winter wird das Haus mit der
Bodenheizung beheizt.
4 Hochefziente Wrmepumpe:
Die Wrmepumpe ist das eigentliche
Anstriebssystem, das mit Hilfe der
Erdsonden das Wasser erwrmt.
Betrieben wird sie mit Solar- und
Windstromaus demNetz. Sie ist viel
efzienter als eine herkmmliche
Wrmepumpe, weil sie mehr Wrme
aus demUntergrund holen kann.
Heizen und Isolieren imWandel der Zeit
Bis 1940 heizt man mit
Holz/Kohle. Wrme-
dmmung ist kein Thema.
Weil Heizen teuer ist,
bleiben viele Rume kalt.
Dank der Entwicklung der
Zentralheizung und dank
billigeml knnen jetzt
alle Rume beheizt
werden.
Die Oelkrise 1973 fhrt zu
ersten Wrmedmmvor-
schriften. Man beginnt,
die Gebudehlle zu
isolieren.
Im Passivhaus wird die
lheizung obsolet - dank
guter Isolation und dem
Einsatz neuer Energie-
quellen (Sonne, Boden).
So funktioniert das Haus
imSommer
Ziel der Null-Emissionen-Architektur ist es, im
Sommer mglichst viel Wrme einzusammeln
und fr den Winter imErdboden zwischenzu-
speichern. Aufgefangen wird die Wrme haupt-
schlich von einemneuartigen Hybridkollektor
auf demDach. Mittels eines Wrmetauschers
gelangt die Wrme dann in den Boden, wo sie in
bis zu 300 Metern Tiefe fr das Winterhalbjahr
eingespeichert wird. Anders wird das Dusch- und
Gebrauchswasser aufgeheizt: Hier stammt die
Wrme vor allemaus der Wrmerckgewinnung
von Fussboden und Klimaanlage. ber Wrme-
tauscher und eine Wrmepumpe wird so das
Wasser imBoiler aufgeheizt. Die berschssige
Wrme wird ebenfalls imErdboden zwischen-
gespeichert. Das Null-Emissionen-Haus hat
laut den ETH-Architekten gegenber demnor-
malen Minergie-Standard zwei Vorteile: Erstens
bentigt es besonders wenig Netzstrom. Das
erffnet die Mglichkeit, nur noch Stromaus
erneuerbaren Quellen zu beziehen - das Haus
wird beinahe emissionsfrei. Zweitens wird eine
dicke Isolation zweitrangig, was den Architekten
mehr Freiheiten lsst.
N
2 Fenster: Die nach Sden
exponierten Fenster sind mit
einer UV-absorbierenden Folie
beschichtet, die eine zu starke
Sonneneinstrahlung verhindern.
Das mindert den Wrmeverlust
imWinter.
1 Wnde: Das Systemkommt
mit normaler Wrmedmmung
aus, die Isolation ist weniger dick
als bei einemMinergie-Haus.
Noch tiefer ist der Ener-
giebedarf des Speicher-
hauses. Hier wird die
Sonnenenergie zentral
gespeichert.
Die ETH postuliert die
Zero Emissions-Archi-
tecture. Die Speiche-
rung der Sonnenenergie
erfolgt neu imBoden.
So gewinnt man die
Energie imWinter
zurck
ImWinter sorgt die Wrmepumpe imKeller
sowohl fr die Heizung. Beheizt wird
sowohl der Fussboden aus auch die Zuluft.
Die Wrme stammt dabei aus dem
Untergrund. An besonders schnen
Wintertagen kann die Wrmepumpe
zudemetwas durch die Hybridkollektoren
entlastet werden.
Auch das Gebrauchswasser wird von der
Wrmepumpe geliefert. Kleine
Durchlauferhitzer erwrmen das Wasser
dann noch von 42 auf 60 Grad.
bis 1940 ab 1973 ab 1990 ab 2010 ab 1940
65 Natur
3 Erdsonden/Erdspeicher: Die
Erdsonden bestehen aus Rohren, in
denen Wasser zirkuliert. In der langen
Sonde iesst imSommer warmes
Wasser nach unten, was das Gestein
umeinige Grad erwrmt. ImWinter
kann die Wrme dann wieder genutzt
werden. Die kurze Sonde speichert die
berschssige Wrme aus der Klima-
anlage. ImWinter ist sie stillgelegt.
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QUELLEN: ETH ZRICH/ AGPS ARCHITECTURE ZRICH
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Woher die bentigte
Elektrizitt stammt
Ziel ist es, zu hundert Prozent mit
erneuerbaren Energien auszukommen:

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W|r1or|oe
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So|oror|oe
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6
7
M odul e I: Low

Exergy
Usi ng t he concept of exergy t o
devel op bet t er bui l di ng syst ems,
reduci ng energy consumpt i on and
el i mi nat i ng CO2 emi ssi ons.

Impl ement ed i n Sw i t zer l and
M ont e Rosa, Sci ence Ci t y, B35 et c.
Transpor t ed t o Si ngapore
Bubbl eZERO
Using robotic technology to
design models of high-rise
buildings.

Digital Fabrication

Prof. Fabio Gramazio
Prof. Matthias Kohler
Image source: Bas Princen

Research

Modules
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Desi gn of robot i c f abr i cat ed hi gh r i ses
ACHIEVEM ENTS
Invest i gat i ons i nt o t he pot ent i al s and i mpl i cat i ons of robot i c f abr i cat i on on
hi gh r i se t ypol ogi es
An Int erdi sci pl i nar y Case St udy on
t he Devel opment of Si ngapore
Publ i c Housi ng Typol ogi es (1960 -
Present ).
Housi ng

Prof . Sacha M enz
Image source: M odul e X

Exploring the preservation and
conservation of heritage
buildings.
Transforming & Mining Urban
Stocks

Prof. Dr Uta Hassler
Image source: Module III

Research

Modules
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III Transf or mi ng

& M i ni ng Ur ban

St ocks

Prof . Dr. Ut a Hassl er



Robi nson Road, Si ngapore
Expl or i ng t he hi st or i c
st r uct ure and dynami cs of t he
bui l di ng st ock f or a
preser vat i on of cul t ural ,
soci al , physi cal , economi c, and nat ural
resources.
ca 1960
ca 1975 ca 2010 ca 1980
ca 1950 ca 1930
Robinson Road, Singapore: How many new buildings were added?
How many old buildings were replaced?
ca 1960
ca 1975 ca 2010 ca 1980
ca 1950 ca 1930
Robinson Road, Singapore: How many new buildings were added?
How many old buildings were replaced?
ca 1960
ca 1975 ca 2010 ca 1980
ca 1950 ca 1930
Robinson Road, Singapore: How many new buildings were added?
How many old buildings were replaced?
Investigating the notion of
centralities in the city, and the role
of the airport with respect to
mobility, migration and
infrastructure.
Urban Design Strategies &
Resources

Prof. Kees Christiaanse
Image source: Max Hirsh

Research

Modules
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M odul e IV

Ur ban Desi gn St rat egi es &

Resources

Achi evement s t o dat e:

4 PhD proposal s successf ul l y approved by ETH and NUS
5 ar t i cl es publ i shed i n peer-revi ew ed j our nal s
Conduct ed prel i mi nar y f i el d research i n Bangkok, Hong Kong, Shenzhen,
Shanghai , and Si ngapore
Devel oped posi t i ve w or ki ng rel at i onshi p w i t h par t ner i nst i t ut i ons i n
Si ngapore (e.g. URA, CLC, SUTD, CAAS, SAA)
Comparative studies of cities. Urban Sociology

Prof. Dr Christian Schmid
Image source: Module V

Research

Modules
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Mitigating poverty through building
sustainable towns.
Territorial Organisation

Prof. Dr Marc Anglil
Image source: Module VI

Research

Modules
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Achi evement s
4
Doct oral
Theses

The Book

The Tow n

Bal t i more Dharavi Addi s Ababa
$$
NESTow n
Egypt
M i r ror i ng Ef f ect s:
On t he Pol i t i cal Economy of Ter r i t or y
M arc Angl i l and Car y Si ress
Understanding and improving the
future of urban rivers.
Landscape Ecology

Prof. Christophe Girot
Image source: Derek Vollmer

Research

Modules
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43 undergraduat e and graduat e st udent s
! 20 0 househol d sur veys
! Groundw at er t abl e and r i ver st age dat a f or 3 mont hs
! Desi gn scenar i os f or f ut ure r i ver i mprovement s
Semest er-l ong research proj ect w i t h Uni ver si t y of Indonesi a and t he
Nat i onal Uni ver si t y of Si ngapore
M odul e VII: Landscape Ecol ogy

Si n g ap o r e I n t er n at i o n al Wat er
Week (SIWW) co-host ed w i t h t he
Wor l d Ci t i es Summi t , 2-4 Jul y 20 12
M a r i n a S a n d s Ex p o a n d
Convent i on Cent re.

Di spl ay of w or k t o dat e and f or um
f or di scussi on
For mal Out put s
2 Jour nal publ i cat i ons
2 Int er nat i onal Conf erences
2 Invi t ed t al ks
M eet i ngs on dat a acqui si t i on and possi bl e col l aborat i on
Col l aborat i ons
1M OU and 2 LOAs w i t h Inst i t ut e of
Technol ogy, Bandung (ITB), Bogor
Agr i cul t ural Uni ver si t y (IPB) and
Uni ver si t y of Indonesi a (UI)
BaseMap_Cropped.jpg
Ciliwung River Project in Jakarta

50 undergraduate and graduate students
! 200 household surveys
! Groundwater table and river stage data for 3
months
! Design scenarios for future river improvements

Semester-long research project with
University of Indonesia and 2 NUS
Design Research Studios
UAV mission
Ciliwung River
and 3 sites of interest
Collaborations
1 MOU and 2 LOAs
with Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB),
Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) and
University of Indonesia (UI)
Studying urban transport systems to
maximize efficiency.
Mobility & Transportation
Planning

Prof. Dr Kay Axhausen
Image source: Module VIII

Research

Modules
G*()$&' $$
>&' ()%$l $I 3' . %$


VIII M obi l i t y and Transpor t at i on

Pl anni ng

Pl anned Achi evement s f or t he Comi ng Tw o Year s

1. M ATSi m Si ngapore
! Val i dat i on agai nst obser vat i ons, e.g. t raf f i c count s, EZ Li nk dat a
! Cal i brat i on t o Si ngapore t ravel behavi our
! Car par k model and vehi cl e emi ssi on model

2. PhD proj ect : M edi um and Long Ter m M odel
! Expandi ng t he scope of M ATSi m: househol d coordi nat i on, w eekl y model ,
soci al net w or ks
! Int egrat i on w i t h l and use model , demographi cs and year t o year updat e

3. Col l aborat i ons
! Var i ous proj ect s w i t h LTA, e.g. opt i mi sat i on of publ i c t ranspor t and ERP
! Vehi cl e emi ssi on model w i t h NEA
! Ot her col l aborat i on w i t h Si ngapore aut hor i t i es such as URA, SLA and SM ART
M IT, TUM CREATE
Weekday
Sat urday
Hedoni c regressi on of resi dent i al proper t y pr i ces
Suppor t i ng desi gn- and deci si on-
maki ng processes w i t h new dat a
acqui si t i on, i nf or mat i on vi sual i sat i on
and si mul at i on t echni ques.

Si mul at i on Pl at f or m

Prof. Dr. Ger hard Schmitt
Image source: Naomi Hanakat a

Research

M odul es


THE FCL SIM ULATION

PLATFORM


Overarchi ng Goal : Fi nd new met hods f or bet t er under st andi ng ever grow i ng
amount s of ur ban dat a. M ake t hi s know l edge avai l abl e t o deci si on maker s,
ur ban pl anner s and st akehol der s.


Research Achi evement s
! Compl et i on of Val ue Lab Asi a i n M arch 20 12.
! Si ngapores f i r st UAV f l i ght s f or dat a acqui si t i on (NUS campus).
! Novel use of sel f -organi zi ng maps f or ur ban dat a.
! Combi nat i on of CFD w i nd f l ow anal ysi s and generat i ve model l i ng.
! Numerous sci ent i f i c publ i cat i ons, i ncl udi ng one book.
Ser vi ce Cont r i but i ons
! Est abl i shed IT ser vi ce i nf rast r uct ure.
! Cont r i but ed t o NRF CREATE IT i nf rast r uct ure pl anni ng.
ALTERNATIVE AND
ADDITIONAL DIRECTIONS
FOR CITY AND
TERRITORY LIFE CYCLE
SIMULATION




Self Organizing Maps,
SOM. Prof. Dr. Ludger
Hovestadt in the lecture on
Quantum Cities on August
29, 2012 in the Value Lab
Asia, Singapore

ALTERNATIVE AND
ADDITIONAL DIRECTIONS
FOR CITY AND
TERRITORY LIFE CYCLE
SIMULATION








Quantum of Cityness. FCL
Lecture by Dr. Vera
Bhlmann on August 28,
2012 in the Value Lab Asia,
Singapore.

Building Model Little India
Punggol 3D
53
AscTec Falcon 8
500 g load
max 20 min flight time
max 10 m/s wind speed
redundancy through 8 rotors
GPS, height sensor, compass, IMU
max. Total weight 1,8 kg

Falcon-8 flight
UAV photogrammetry
T[$
SEC-FCL project UAV over NUS campus

Singapore ETH Centre for Global Environmental Sustainability
Future Cities Laboratory (Simulation Platform)
NUS Campus

Assi st ant

Prof essor shi ps




Det ai l of st raw panel
const r uct i on
Grand ur ban r ul es
St rai t s of Si ngapore, 20 11
Investigating various scenarios
pertaining to the question of waste in
the making of the globalising city.
Assistant Professorship of
Architecture and Construction

Asst. Prof. Dirk Hebel
Image source: Dirk Hebel

Assistant

Professorships
G*()$&' $$
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Earth - SUDU Soil - SRDU
Straw - SECU Waste ICE ADDIS
Empirical
Bamboo Laboratory Singapore
Test Specimens Tensile Strength Tests
Research in the field of steering the
city by means of regulatory
frameworks.
Assistant Professorship of
Architecture and Urban Design

Asst. Prof. Alex Lehnerer
Image source: Alex Lehnerer

Assistant

Professorships
G*()$&' $$
>&' ()%$l $I 3' . %$
Researching on Singapores
hinterlands in the region Singapore-
Johor-Riau and their functional links
with the city.
Assistant Professorship of
Architecture and Territorial
Planning

Asst. Prof. Milica Topalovic Image source: Milica Topalovic

Assistant

Professorships
G*()$&' $$
>&' ()%$l $I 3' . %$
Academic achievements after 3 years

! Establishment of the first ETH research Institute outside
Switzerland, starting with two people in September 2010 and
growing to 190 active members in June 2013
! Attracting 13 ETH faculty as Principle Investigators, 3 Assistant
Professors, more than 20 postdocs, 46 Ph.D. students and 87
master students, massively exceeding key performance
indicators set for the first three years
! Producing 139 academic articles and journal publications, 142
international conference publications, 153 interim publications, 26
design studio workshops, 4 invention disclosures, 8 software
disclosures, 2 Patent filings, 15 awards and honours, 1.284 million
Singapore dollars in additional external industry funding,
organising 8 international conferences, 154 public relations
activities, 76 working meetings with highest level people.

Organisational achievements

! Establishing the worlds largest sustainable Future Cities oriented
research centre and independent think tank both in physical
presence and presence on the Internet (status June 2013)
! Establishing the first research proposal between research
institutes of the CREATE campus in Singapore: the emerging
Cooler Calmer Singapore initiative
! Establishing the human resources, financial services, and
infrastructure logistics for the first ETH research centre outside
Switzerland in a Company Limited by Guarantee, respecting both
Swiss and Singaporean laws
! Establishing the Asian hub for the implementation of the new
strategy of the State Secretariat for Education, Research and
Innovation, SERI, covering China, Korea, Japan, Australia, and all
of the ASEAN countries


Future Cities Laboratory Future Plans

! Cooler Calmer Singapore. Simulation of design scenarios to lower
temperature, reduce noise and decrease the probability for
intense flooding for the entire island of Singapore by a
combination of technical and planning actions.
! Rochor+. Transdisciplinary research and implementation effort to
strengthen the historical heart of Singapore, increasing its
attractiveness and performance, with high export capacity.
! Kampung+. A transdisciplinary research and development project
for improving living conditions of thousands of inhabitants on the
islands of Java and Batang with advanced building technology
and planning, with high export capacity to similar cities.
! Bamboo+. A ground-breaking material transformation and
combination process to potentially replace steel with processed
bamboo in concrete.
ETH Singapore Outcomes
! H#%&' . +$2+$E&"2' ; 2*$
! m71*3L718*+$%5%&#0$7+, #1$(' +%&17(<' +$
! j 3*++2+4$2+62&*<' +$2+$O*)*1&*=$A+, ' +#%2*$
! F1("2&#(&71#=$718*+$, #%24+=$&1*+%; ' 1&*<' +$
! Q18*+$%5%&#0$' /$XW$n 2' 9$2+$*$(' 7+&15$' /$X[\ $n 2' 9$
! j 3*++2+4$2+62&*<' +$2+$o*+4' ' +=$n 5*+0*1$
! N1' . 2+4$/1' 0$[$&' $^W$n 2' 9$2+"*82&*+&%$2+$&"#$+#:&$^T$5#*1%$
! J 2&5$; 3*++2+4=$&1*+%; ' 1&*<' +$; 3*++2+4$
! j 3*++2+4$#:; 3' 1*<' +$2+$J 712<8*$G1*D23$
! n ' , #3$J 2&5$2+$G1*D23$
66
Global Holcim Innovation
1st Prize 2012
High-efficiency concrete
formwork technology

Awards
NUS and World Future Foundation
(WFF) awarded the Top Prize of the
Vertical Cities Asia International
Design Competition 2011 to the team
of FCL Programme Leader Kees
Christiaanse

G*()$&' $n *; $
Awarded to FCL Researcher Felix Heisel
and Johan Klock for their outstanding
architecture project Solar Forest

G*()$&' $!20#32+#$
2
nd
prize for FCLs Tropical Town/
Rubah project at the Jakarta Triennale
2012, Visions for Jakarta 2045

Mobility: Lessons learnt from Jakarta, Singapore and Zurich

Plan: Ground-breaking for new subway
system (Apr 2013), BRT with 700 new
buses.
Fuel subsidies.
I work on my Blackberry in the traffic
jam. I want my own car plus driver.
Jakarta Singapore Zurich
Plan: MRT planning (since 1982),
Extension of MRT network to 5 10 min
walk from every home, Efficient use of
streets and cars (ERP 2), real-time
analysis.
I use MRT and Taxi. I dont want a new
car and prefer to go on holiday instead.
It is too hot for cycling and it is
dangerous.
Plan: Car-sharing and multi-modal
transportation. Increase connectivity
(today, 50% of streets have dedicated
bicycle paths).
I cycle and use public transport. It is
fast, cheap and healthy.
ETH Zrich Global Strategy
ETH Zrich Global Strategy
ETH Singapore Perspective


From CH to ASEAN + BRICS:
! Faculty, PostDocs, Students
! MOOCS, courses, simulations
! Hardware, specialists

From ASEAN + BRICS to CH :
! A CREATE in Switzerland
! Faculty, PostDocs, Students
! Future ambassadors for CH

ETH Zrich Global Strategy
ETH Singapore Perspective


ETH CREATE Jobs in Switzerland
! 50 million heat pumps, 30 Million radiant
panels, 10 Million sensors. M-Glass,
elevators,people movers, 10,000 robots,
10000 educated personnel, 1 million high-
tech, sustainable material and high-
performance homes for export

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