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International Tonnage Convention, 1969

International Tonnage Convention


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Aimed at achieving a unified system of tonnage measurement. Provides more meaningful tonnage figures than those derived from earlier systems. Does not involve any special tonnage units (such as tons, gross tons or net tons), with the consequence that the values obtained are simply a gross tonnage and a net tonnage (without units). Requires that ships of Convention countries are issued with an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) certifying their gross and net tonnages as measured under the 1969 system.

International Tonnage Convention


Gross tonnage : is expressed as a whole number, without any unit, e.g. Gross tonnage: 8756. is a realistic indication of the ships size based on the moulded volume of the entire ship (hull plus erections and all enclosed spaces) without deductions, exemptions or special allowances. is used mainly in the compilation of statistics. Net tonnage: is expressed as a whole number, without any unit, e.g. Net tonnage: 3367. is a general indication of the ships earning capacity, derived from a formula based on the moulded volume of the cargo spaces, the number of passengers carried, the moulded depth of the ship and the summer draught. is used by many authorities as the basis for charging dues, e.g. light dues, port charges and canal dues.

International Tonnage Convention


"international voyage" means a sea voyage from a country to which the present Convention applies to a port outside such country, or conversely. "gross tonnage" means the measure of the overall size of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. "net tonnage" means the measure of the useful capacity of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention. "new ship" means a ship the keel of which is laid, or which is at a similar stage of construction, on or after the date of coming into force of the present Convention; "existing ship" means a ship which is not a new ship;

International Tonnage Convention


Application
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The present Convention shall apply to the following ships engaged on international voyages;
(a) ships registered in countries the Governments of which are Contracting Governments; (b) ships registered in territories to which the present Convention is extended under Article 20; and (c) unregistered ships flying the flag of a State, the Government of which is a Contracting Government.

International Tonnage Convention


Tonnage measurement:
1. 2. 3.

A ship must be measured by a surveyor appointed by a Certifying Authority. Gross and net tonnages must be determined. All measurements used in the calculations of volumes must be taken and expressed in metres to the nearest one hundredth of a metre. Gross and net tonnages must be expressed as whole numbers, decimals being rounded off downwards. Allvolumes included in the calculation of gross and net tonnages will be measured, irrespective of the fitting of insulation or the like, to the inner side of the shell or structural boundary plating in ships constructed of metal, and to the outer surface of the shell or to the inner side of the structural boundary surfaces in ships constructed of any other material. Volumes of appendages must be included in the total volume , Volumes of spaces open to the sea must be excluded from the total volume.

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International Tonnage Convention


International Tonnage Certificate (1969):
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The Certifying Authority will issue to the owner an International Tonnage Certificate (1969) in the form set out in the Convention. The official number of the ship must be included as a distinctive number. is valid until any alteration is made in the form or capacity of the ship or it is discovered that the tonnage of the ship has been erroneously computed. Cannot be issued before a tonnage measurement survey is held. Gross tonnage and net tonnage are printed on the front of the certificate, in whole numbers. On the back is a list of all spaces included in the tonnage (gross and net). Details shown on the back are: Main dimensions; Gross Tonnage; Net Tonnage; name, location & length of spaces included in gross tonnage and net tonnage; date & place of original measurement and of last previous remeasurement.

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International Tonnage Convention


Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate:
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Suez Canal tolls are charged by the Suez Canal Authority and are based on the ships Suez net tonnage, as measured under the Authoritys Rules (which are called the Rules adopted by the International Tonnage Commission at Constantinople) and shown on a Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate. A Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate may be issued by an authorised classification society following a measurement survey conducted in accordance with the Canal Authoritys rule. Must be produced for inspection by the Canal Authority on every arrival at a Suez Canal entrance. Is valid until any change in dimensions used in the tonnage measurements.

International Tonnage Convention


Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate:
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Suez Canal tolls are charged by the Suez Canal Authority and are based on the ships Suez net tonnage, as measured under the Authoritys Rules (which are called the Rules adopted by the International Tonnage Commission at Constantinople) and shown on a Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate. A Suez Canal Special Tonnage Certificate may be issued by an authorised classification society following a measurement survey conducted in accordance with the Canal Authoritys rule. Must be produced for inspection by the Canal Authority on every arrival at a Suez Canal entrance. Is valid until any change in dimensions used in the tonnage measurements.

International Tonnage Convention


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Cancellation of certificate
An International Tonnage Certificate (1969) shall cease to be valid and shall be cancelled by the Administration if alterations have taken place in the arrangement, construction, capacity, use of spaces, total number of passengers the ship is permitted to carry as indicated in the ship's passenger certificate, assigned load line or permitted draught of the ship, such as would necessitate an increase in gross tonnage or net tonnage. A certificate issued to a ship by an Administration shall cease to be valid upon transfer of such a ship to the flag of another State, except as provided in paragraph (3) of this Article.

International Tonnage Convention


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Inspection
A ship flying the flag of a State the Government of which is a Contracting Government shall be subject, when in the ports of other Contracting Governments, to inspection by officers duly authorized by such Governments. Such inspection shall be limited to the purpose of verifying: (a) that the ship is provided with a valid International Tonnage Certificate (1969); and (b) that the main characteristics of the ship correspond to the data given in the certificate. (2) In no case shall the exercise of such inspection cause any delay to the ship.

SPECIAL TRADE PASSENGER SHIPS AGREEMENT STP 1971

STP 1971
SPECIAL TRADE PASSENGER SHIPS AGREEMENT, 1971 (STP 71)
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It deals with safety requirements for large numbers of unberthed passenger on ships dedicated to special trades such as the pilgrim trade, especially in the sea area around the Indian Ocean. This trade was regulated by the Simla Rules of 1931, which became outdated after SOLAS 48 and SOLAS 60.

STP 1971
PROTOCOL ON SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL TRADE PASSENGER SHIPS, 1973
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Following a resolution of the STP Conference, IMO and WHO drew technical rules for safety aspects for passenger in such ships, that was the base for the Protocol. The space requirements in these ships have a direct bearing on the safe carriage of this kind of passengers.

Athens Convention Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea PAL 1974

PAL 1974
Application This Convention shall apply to any international carriage if: (a) the ship is flying the flag of or is registered in a State Party to
this Convention, or (b) the contract of carriage has been made in a State Party to this Convention, or (c) the place of departure or destination, according to the contract of carriage, is in a State Party to this Convention.

PAL 1974
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Convention relating to the Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea, 1974
Establishes liability regime for damage suffered by passengers carried on a seagoing vessel. Makes carrier liable for damage or loss suffered by a passenger if the incident causing the damage occurred in the course of the carriage and was due to the fault or neglect of the carrier. Unless carrier acted with intent to cause such damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result, he can limit his liability. Sets limits of carriers liability.

PAL 1974
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The carrier shall be liable for the damage suffered as a result of the death of or personal injury to a passenger and the loss of or damage to luggage if the incident which caused the damage so suffered occurred in the course of the carriage and was due to the fault or neglect of the carrier or of his servants or agents acting within the scope of their employment.

Collision 1910
International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910

International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910
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If the collision is accidental, if it is caused by force majeure, or if the cause of the collision is left in doubt, the damages are borne by those who have suffered them. If the collision is caused by the fault of one of the vessels, liability to make good the damages attaches to the one which has committed the fault. If two or more vessels are in fault the liability of each vessel is in proportion to the degree of the faults respectively committed. Provided that if, having regard to the circumstances, it is not possible to establish the degree of the respective faults, or if it appears that the faults are equal, the liability is apportioned equally.

International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910
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In respect of damages caused by death or personal injuries, the vessels in fault are jointly as well as severally liable to third parties, without prejudice however to the right of the vessel which has paid a larger part than that which, in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of this Article, she ought ultimately to bear, to obtain a contribution from the other vessel or vessels in fault. The liability imposed by the preceding Articles attaches in cases where the collision is caused by the fault of a pilot, even when the pilot is carried by compulsion of law.

International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910
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After a collision, the master of each of the vessels in collision is bound, so far as he can do so without serious danger to his vessel, her crew and her passengers, to render assistance to the other vessel, her crew and her passengers. He is likewise bound so far as possible to make known to the other vessel the name of his vessel and the port to which she belongs, and also the names of the ports from which she comes and to which she is bound. A breach of the above provisions does not of itself impose any liability on the owner of a vessel.

International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910
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Statutory duties following collision


In every case of collision between two ship, it will be the duty of the master of each ship, if and so far as he can do so without danger to his own ship, crew and passengers, if any: 1- To render to the other ship, its master, crew and passengers (if any) such assistance as may be practicable, and may be necessary to save them from any danger caused by the collision (section 92(1)(a)); 2- To stay by the other ship until he has ascertained that it has no need of further assistance (section 92(1)(a)); and 3- To give to the master of the other ship the name of his own ship and also the names of the ports from which it comes and to which it is bound.

International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Related to Collision between Vessels, 1910
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Non-statutory duties following a collision or other casualty


The master should always act in the best interests of the shipowner and the owners of any cargo on board. The master should always obtain the assistance and advice of the P&I clubs local correspondent. P&I clubs are expert in loss prevention procedures and will always suggest appropriate ways to safeguard the owners interests and limit his liability. Following a collision, and after rendering assistance, etc. the master should:
inform the owner or manager, as appropriate; and inform the P&I clubs local correspondent, who will advise on the best action to take in the owners interest in the circumstances. * Generally, liability should never be admitted to any other party.

LLMC 1976
Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (LLMC 1976)

(LLMC), 1976
Adoption: 19 November 1976, Entry into force: 1 December 1986 The Convention covers liability of ships for two types of claims - claims for loss of life or personal injury, and property claims (such as damage to other ships, property or harbor works) .
IRISL MARITIME TRAINING INSTITUTE

LLMC 1976
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Specifies limits of liability for claims for loss of life or personal injury, and property claims (such as damage to other ships, property or harbour works). Limitation amounts are expressed in terms of units of account, each unit being equivalent in value to the Special Drawing Right (SDR) as defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). For personal claims, liability for ships not exceeding 500 tons is limited to 330,000 SDR (equivalent to around US$422,000).

LLMC 1976
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For larger ships, additional amounts are based on a tonnage scale. Provides for a virtually unbreakable system of limiting liability. Declares that a person will not be able to limit liability only if "it is proved that the loss resulted from his personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such a loss, or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result".

LLMC 1976
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Persons entitled to limit liability


Shipowners and salvors, as hereinafter defined, may limit their liability in accordance with the rules of this Convention for claims set out in Article 2.

LLMC 1976
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Claims subject to limitation


(a) claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury or loss of or damage to
property (including damage to harbour works, basins and waterways and aids to navigation), occurring on board or in direct connexion with the operation of the ship or with salvage operations, and consequential loss resulting therefrom;

(b) claims in respect of loss resulting from delay in the carriage by sea of cargo, passengers or their luggage; (c) claims in respect of other loss resulting from infringement of rights other than contractual rights, occurring in direct connexion with the operation of the ship or salvage operations;

LLMC 1976
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Claims excepted from limitation


(a) claims for salvage, including, if applicable, any claim for special compensation under Article 14 of the International Convention on Salvage 1989, as amended, or contribution in general average; (b) claims for oil pollution damage within the meaning of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, dated 29 November 1969 or of any amendment or Protocol thereto which is in force; c) claims subject to any international convention or national legislation governing or prohibiting limitation of liability for nuclear damage;