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HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

TASK 1 a) Verbs Verb is mostly a word which expresses an action, event, conditions, emotions, belongings and relationship. Verb has tenses which show the time when the verb is occurred. Verb can also be used as a noun ( gerund ). b) Adjectives An adjective is a word use to describe the state of a noun. Adjectives have three degrees of comparison that is positive degree, comparison degree and superlative degree. c) Adverbs Adverb tells more on a verb, an adjective, a preposition, a conjunction, a phrase, a sentence and an adverb itself. Adverbs can be identify by answering the question How? after the verbs. d) Preposition A word which indicates the position of a noun is a preposition. There are preposition which consist of a word. It is called Simple Preposition. There is also Compound Preposition which consists of more than a word. e) Conjunction Conjunctions are words which conjoins two sentences together to become one sentence. Conjunctions also combine phrases, clauses and words together. It is important to remember that conjunctions have to be consistent with the rule of Subject-Verb Agreement.

HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

TASK 2 The terrified boy ran quickly into the room and shut the door behind him. S

NP The terrified boy V ran VP Adverb quickly Preposition into CC and V shut Det. the PP NP the room

VP

S VP NP N PP Prep N him.

door behind

S refers to a Sentence. The sentence The terrified boy ran quickly into the room and shut the door behind him. consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. The terrified boy ran quickly into the room is an independent clause which it can stand by itself. shut the door behind him. is a dependent clause as it cannot stand by itself. The Sentence is divided into a NP which is a Noun Phrase and a VP which is a Verb Phrase. The NP is the The terrified boy whereas the VP is further divided into VP and PP. PP is a Prepositional Phrase. The VP is broken down into a V which is a Verb and an Adverb. The V is run and the Adverb is the word quickly. The PP is broken down into Prepositional and NP. The word into is a Preposition. The NP is the room. Another S popping out under the NP part which is the dependent clause combined by the Conjunction and [ in the tree diagram Coordinating Conjunction (CC) ]. The second S is divided into SubConj as mention earlier and a VP. VP is broken down into parts that are V, NP and PP. V is represent by the word shut. NP is broken down into Det. which is

HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

Determiner and an N which is a Noun. The word the is the Det. and the N is represent by the word door. PP is divided into Preposition and Noun which is behind and him.

HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

TASK 3 English is a language which is not easy to learn. There are four major classes of English words. They are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Noun is a member of a large, open lexical category. It can play the role as the subject of the clause, the object of the verb or the object of the preposition. Milon Nandy writes that there are four major types of Nouns. They are Proper Nouns, Common Nouns, Abstract Nouns and Collective Nouns. Besides the four major types of nouns, there are also subclasses of nouns. Because there are too many classes of nouns and there are exceptions in most of them, the learners of English language will encounter some problem when using noun. The first problem is that there are too many complex noun groups. As mention earlier, nouns have many categories and subcategories. Learners of English would be confused if he or she does not read the complete sentence correctly. For example, I could not see clearly when I was a child. The child here means a Common Noun. I could not see clearly during my childhood. The childhood here means an Abstract Noun. How do we differentiate it? A child is something common and concrete. Therefore it is a Common Noun as Common Noun refers to something which is common such as people, places and things. Abstract Noun is a noun that cannot be seen but can be feeling. The word childhood is something that we cannot see but we have been through it. Therefore it fulfilled the criteria of an Abstract Noun. Why this problem does occur? English nouns can be divided into 2 which are Singular and Plural. Singular stands for only one whereas Plural represents objects which are more than one. We do not add s for words that are Singular. We do add s for words that are Plural. For instance, Singular boy Plural - boys

However, there are also words that should add es to the Plural word.

HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

Singular tomato Plural - tomatoes

There are also words that do not add s to the Plural word. Singular furniture Plural - furniture

There are a lot of other exceptions when using Singular and Plural Numbers. These are the rules to remember when using English language. The second problem is gerund. Gerunds are verbs which act like a noun. Learners tend to think over and over on the same sentences because of gerunds. They may think that the words which suppose to be verbs but it do not function as one. Instead, it works as a noun. For example, I like to eat. The word eat is a verb. Eating is fun. The word eating is a verb acting as a noun, a gerund. Why does it happen? The word eat is a verb. The word eating is a gerund. Unlike verb, gerund is not easy to identify. When we read a sentence, we can find the verb easily by asking the question What is he/she doing?. A gerund end with -ing. Present participles also end with -ing. As said earlier, gerund functions as noun. Present participle, however, function as modifiers. In order to be able to identify noun, using noun, etc, one must always read. Besides reading, one should also continue to study grammar. This is to integrate oneself and not to forget the rules to abide when using English language.

HBET 2103 CHRISTINA TEH 880326015084001

BIBLIOGRAPHY Nandy, M. (1997). The Correct Sentence for Everyday English. Ampang : EURASIA PACIFIC BOOKS.