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A high school teacher at a small private school assigns trigonometry practice problems to be worked via the net.

Students must use a password to access the problems and the time of log-in and log-off are automatically recorded for the teacher. At the end of the week, the teacher examines the amount of time each student spent working the assigned problems. The data is provided below in minutes. Data Array 15 28 25 48 22 43 49 34 22 33 27 25 22 20 39 49 48 43 39 34 33 28 27 25 25 22 22 22 20 15

Mean
Mean = X / N = 452 / 15 = 30.13

Median
15 20 22 22 22 25 25 27 28 33 34 39 43 48 49 The median is 27. Half of the scores fall above this number and half fall below.

Mode
Mode is equal to 22. It occurs 3 times; all other scores occur only 2 times or less

What does this information tell you about students' length of time on the computer solving trigonometry problems?
The mean number of minutes spent solving the problems on the computer was approximately 30 minutes. Half of the students spent more than 27 minutes solving the problems, and half spent less time solving the problems. More students spent 22 minutes solving the problems than any other amount of time.

Is this data skewed?


The data indicate a slight positive skew. This is most likely due to the students who spent over 40 minutes working on the trigonometry problems. Note, that it is a very slight skew - only approximately a 3 minute difference between the mean and median.

Bailey has been playing golf on the weekends for the past three years. Recently, she started keeping track of her recorded scores. Her scores for June and July at her favorite 9-hole (par 36) golf course are provided below. 45 49 42 56 41 36 34 38 41 40 42 41 39 38 40 39 36 41

Find the Mean, Median, and Mode for the above data. What does this information tell you about Bailey's golf game? Is this data skewed?

Bailey has been playing golf on the weekends for the past three years. Recently, she started keeping track of her recorded scores. Her scores for June and July at her favorite 9-hole (par 36) golf course are provided below. Data Array 45 49 42 56 41 36 34 38 41 40 42 41 39 38 40 39 36 41 56 49 45 42 42 41 41 41 41 40 40 39 39 38 38 36 36 34

Mean
Mean = X / N = 738 / 18 = 41.0

Median
34 36 36 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 41 42 42 45 49 56 The median is 40.5 . The two middle scores are 40 and 41. By adding these two numbers together and dividing by 2, I find the median = 40.5. Half of the scores fall above this number and half fall below.

Mode
Mode is equal to 41. It occurs 4 times; all other scores occur only 3 times or less

What does this information tell you about Bailey's golf game?
Bailey's mean score for the months of June and July is 41 (only 5 above par). Over half of Bailey's games had a score above 40.5 and half had a score below 40.5. Her most common golf score was a 41.

Is this data skewed?


No. The data is not skewed. The mean and median are almost identical, only a half-stroke difference.

Midterm exam scores for a small advanced neuroanatomy class are provided below. Scores represent percent of items marked correct on the exam. 87 99 75 87 94 75 35 88

87 93

Find the Mean, Median, and Mode for the above data. What does this information tell you about students' performance on the midterm (the traditional grading scale is used)? Is this data skewed?

Midterm exam scores for a small advanced neuroanatomy class are provided below. Scores represent percent of items marked correct on the exam. Data Array 87 99 75 87 94 75 35 88 87 93 99 94 93 88 87 87 87 75 75 35

Mean
Mean = X / N = 820 / 10 = 82.0

Median
35 75 75 87 87 87 88 93 94 99 The median is 87. Half of the scores fall above this number and half fall below.

Mode
Mode is equal to 87. It occurs 3 times; all other scores occur only 2 times or less

What does this information tell you about students' performance on the midterm (the traditional grading scale is used)?
The mean grade on the midterm was an 82 (a low B). Half of the students had a test score above 87 (a high B or an A). Half the students' scores were lower than an 87. The most common test score was an 87 (a high B).

Is this data skewed?


Yes, this data is skewed (a negative skew). The score of 35 is an extreme score (outlier), has caused the skew, and distorts the mean.

A group committed to quality television has been concerned about a new talk show. For two weeks, they decide to count the number of words that must be "bleeped" as too obscene for television and the number of physical altercations. They hope that after recording this data that they will be able to argue that the show is inappropriate for television particularly during the day. The data for number of words censored is provided below. 342 267 321 157 33 349 254 166 132 289

Find the Mean, Median, and Mode for the above data. What does this information tell you about the talk show? Is this data skewed?

A group committed to quality television has been concerned about a new talk show. For two weeks, they decide to count the number of words that must be "bleeped" as too obscene for television and the number of physical altercations. They hope that after recording this data that they will be able to argue that the show is inappropriate for television particularly during the day. The data for number of words censored is provided below. Data Array 342 267 321 157 33 254 166 132 289 349 349 342 321 289 267 254 166 157 132 33

Mean
Mean = X / N = 2310 / 10 = 231.0

Median
33 132 157 166 254 267 289 321 342 349 The median is 260.5. The two middle scores are 254 and 267. By adding these two numbers together and dividing by 2, I find the median = 260.5. Half of the scores fall above this number and half fall below.

Mode
This data set has no mode; no number occurs more than once.

What does this information tell you about the talk show?
All things considered, probably not the best show for your kids to watch (particularly if they can lip read). The mean number of "bleeped" words per show is 231 words. Half of the shows have to censor over approximately 260 words and half censor less. There is no mode - each show appears to be unique as to the number of words "bleeped".

Is this data skewed?


The show with only 33 words censored has caused a negative skew and distorted the mean downwards a bit. In what follows, S is the sample space of the experiment in question and E is the event of interest. n(S) is the number of elements in the sample space S and n(E) is the number of elements in the event E. Question 1: A die is rolled, find the probability that an even number is obtained. Solution to Question 1:

Let us first write the sample space S of the experiment. S = {1,2,3,4,5,6}

Let E be the event "an even number is obtained" and write it down. E = {2,4,6}

We now use the formula of the classical probability. P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 3 / 6 = 1 / 2

Question 2: Two coins are tossed, find the probability that two heads are obtained. Note: Each coin has two possible outcomes H (heads) and T (Tails). Solution to Question 2:

The sample space S is given by. S = {(H,T),(H,H),(T,H),(T,T)}

Let E be the event "two heads are obtained". E = {(H,H)}

We use the formula of the classical probability. P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 1 / 4

Question 3: Which of these numbers cannot be a probability? a) -0.00001 b) 0.5 c) 1.001 d) 0 e) 1 f) 20% Solution to Question 3:

A probability is always greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1, hence only a) and c) above cannot represent probabilities: -0.00010 is less than 0 and 1.001 is greater than 1.

Question 4: Two dice are rolled, find the probability that the sum is a) equal to 1 b) equal to 4 c) less than 13 Solution to Question 4:

a) The sample space S of two dice is shown below. S = { (1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(1,4),(1,5),(1,6) (2,1),(2,2),(2,3),(2,4),(2,5),(2,6) (3,1),(3,2),(3,3),(3,4),(3,5),(3,6) (4,1),(4,2),(4,3),(4,4),(4,5),(4,6) (5,1),(5,2),(5,3),(5,4),(5,5),(5,6) (6,1),(6,2),(6,3),(6,4),(6,5),(6,6) }

Let E be the event "sum equal to 1". There are no outcomes which correspond to a sum equal to 1, hence P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 0 / 36 = 0

b) Three possible ouctcomes give a sum equal to 4: E = {(1,3),(2,2),(3,1)}, hence. P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 3 / 36 = 1 / 12

c) All possible ouctcomes, E = S, give a sum less than 13, hence. P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 36 / 36 = 1

Question 5: A die is rolled and a coin is tossed, find the probability that the die shows an odd number and the coin shows a head. Solution to Question 5:

The sample space S of the experiment described in question 5 is as follows S = { (1,H),(2,H),(3,H),(4,H),(5,H),(6,H) (1,T),(2,T),(3,T),(4,T),(5,T),(6,T)}

Let E be the event "the die shows an odd number and the coin shows a head". Event E may be described as follows E={(1,H),(3,H),(5,H)}

The probability P(E) is given by P(E) = n(E) / n(S) = 3 / 12 = 1 / 4

Question 6: A card is drawn at random from a deck of cards. Find the probability of getting the 3 of diamond. Solution to Question 6:

The sample space S of the experiment in question 6 is shwon below

Let E be the event "getting the 3 of diamond". An examination of the sample space shows that there is one "3 of diamond" so that n(E) = 1 and n(S) = 52. Hence the probability of event E occuring is given by P(E) = 1 / 52

Question 7: A card is drawn at random from a deck of cards. Find the probability of getting a queen. Solution to Question 7:

The sample space S of the experiment in question 7 is shwon above (see question 6) Let E be the event "getting a Queen". An examination of the sample space shows that there are 4 "Queens" so that n(E) = 4 and n(S) = 52. Hence the probability of event E occuring is given by P(E) = 4 / 52 = 1 / 13

Question 8: A jar contains 3 red marbles, 7 green marbles and 10 white marbles. If a marble is drawn from the jar at random, what is the probability that this marble is white? Solution to Question 8:

We first construct a table of frequencies that gives the marbles color distributions as follows color red green white frequency 3 7 10

We now use the empirical formula of the probability Frequency for white color P(E)=
________________________________________________

Total frequencies in the above table

= 10 / 20 = 1 / 2 Question 9: The blood groups of 200 people is distributed as follows: 50 have type A blood, 65 have B blood type, 70 have O blood type and 15 have type AB blood. If a person from this group is selected at random, what is the probability that this person has O blood type? Solution to Question 9:

We construct a table of frequencies for the the blood groups as follows group a B O AB frequency 50 65 70 15

We use the empirical formula of the probability Frequency for O blood P(E)=
________________________________________________

Total frequencies

= 70 / 200 = 0.35 Exercises: a) A die is rolled, find the probability that the number obtained is greater than 4. b) Two coins are tossed, find the probability that one head only is obtained. c) Two dice are rolled, find the probability that the sum is equal to 5. d) A card is drawn at random from a deck of cards. Find the probability of getting the King of heart. Answers to above exercises: a) 2 / 6 = 1 / 3 b) 2 / 4 = 1 / 2 c) 4 / 36 = 1 / 9 d) 1 / 52