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## Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal

Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution
Transformers Under Various Internal Short-Circuit Faults
Salman Hajiaghasi Hossein Paidarnia Karim Abbaszadeh
Khaje Nasir Toosi University of Technology Tehran
Keywords: Distribution transformer, electromagnetic axial and radial force,
three phase short circuit

ABSTRACT
Internal short circuit faults are the leading
cause of power transformer failures. If not
quickly detected, faults usually develop into
more serious faults that would result in
irreversible damage to the transformer,
unexpected outages and the consequential
costs. Internal short circuit faults can lead to
intensive current in shorted phases and
shorted coils. Current increase causes
increasing electromagnetic force in
transformer windings. Transient
electromagnetic forces in radial and axial
directions induce critical mechanical stress
on windings and transformers. In this paper
we calculate axial and radial electromagnetic
force in a three phase core type transformer
under various internal short circuit faults. We
also investigate effect of location and
severity of internal short fault on axial and
radial force. For calculation of forces in
faulty transformer, time stepping finite
element method (TSFE) is used.

INTRODUCTION
Power transformers are critical and expensive
components of the energy transmission and
distribution process for electric utilities. The
Percent of various faults in distribution
transformers are shown in Fig1[1]. It may
be noted that about 33% of failures are due to
the windings faults.

Fig1: Typical failure distribution for transformers

When a transformer is under internal short
circuit faults, it can lead to intensive current
in shorted coil. By changing the type of
internal short circuit faults, such as the high
voltage (HV) turn to turn, low voltage (LV)
turn to turn, layer to layer, between HV and
LV, and etc. intensity of internal short circuit
current can be changed [2] when a
transformer is submitted to an internal short-
circuit condition, the electromagnetic forces
that arise in the transformer are exerted onto
the windings. These transient forces cause
serious mechanical damages that may bend
or destroy even cause the transformer itself to
explode. Therefore, designing distribution
transformers as a major and key apparatus of
electric power systems, is very important
because of their breakdown results in costly
repair or replacement. This may lead to
temporary loss of electrical power at very
high cost[3] .

CIRED Regional Iran, Tehran, 13-14 Jan 2013 - : 24 25 1391
Paper No:12-E-100-0112

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Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
Before installing a transformer at electric
power system, the electromagnetic force due
to internal short-circuit current should be
predicted for safe operation.
Some papers investigate the electromagnetic
force in transformer under short circuit fault.
Hyun-mo Ahn presented experimental
verification and finite element analysis of
short-circuit electromagnetic force for Dry-
type single-phase transformer [4]. In [5]
short-circuit analysis for a split-winding
transformer using coupled field-circuit
approach is presented. And then [6] dealt
with three- and two-dimensional finite
element analysis of short-circuit force for
core-type power transformer. In [6], the
short-circuit conditions in a large power
transformer have been analysed and it has
been concluded that the local axial force in
both terminals of the winding (with a larger
radial components) is much larger than that
of the middle parts of the winding. In [2]
behaviour of transformer in various internal
short circuit is investigated.
In this paper, the finite-element method is
used to calculate the transient
electromagnetic forces that act on the
windings of a distribution transformer under
various internal short circuit. We chose a
three phase 200KVA transformer and
modelled various internal faults in winding.
For exact calculation of electromagnetic
force under various internal short circuit, HV
winding is divided into 110 sections and LV
winding is divided into 20 sections.

FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF
FAULTLY TRANAFORMER
A three-phase three-leg core-type transformer
is modeled by the vector 2-D FE package. In
this paper Maxwell software for modeling the
transformer is used.
Specifications of the proposed transformer
are presented in Table1. Fig2 represents the
scheme of the model transformer. In this
model, the core is modelled with real
dimensions exactly similar to the actual core
of laboratory transformer. HV and LV
windings are modelled with actual
dimensions too. For exact description of the
transformer behaviour, tank model with real
dimension is also taken into account. All
dimension of transformer is obtained from a
laboratory transformer. The magnetization
characteristic of the core material provided
by the manufacturer is used.

Table1:transformer specifications
Quantity Value Unit
Primary voltage 20 KV
Secondary voltage 0.4 KV
Rated power 200 KVA
No.of primary winding turns 2252 turn
primary winding resistance
/phase
13.508 ohm
No.of secondary winding
turns
50 turn
secondary winding resistance
/phase
0.0058462 ohm
Width of window 417 mm
Height of HV winding 355 mm
Height of LV winding 378 mm
LV radius 35 mm
HV radius 55 mm
Primary and secondary
connection
Y/Z(zigzag )
Cooling rate ONAN
Voltage regulation 4%

Because of different magnitude of flux
density in each part of the core, in order to
calculate the exact electromagnetic force
under various internal short circuit, HV
windings is divided into 110 sections and
LV windings is divided into 20 sections; and
then axial and radial electromagnetic force in
each section of windings is calculated.

Fig 2: transformer modelling

In the two-dimensional (2D) problem
considered here for the transient analysis of
the transformer, the electromagnetic field and
circuit-coupled approach based on the A-V-A
Formulation is given. From the Maxwells
equations, the computation of the magnetic
field in the cross-section of the transformer,
based on the 2D A-V-A formulation with the

Page 3 of 9
Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
Coulomb gauge, leads to the following
equation [7]
1
s
A
A V J
t
o

| | c
| |
V V + + V =
| |
c
\ .
\ .

. 0 A V =

Where A is the magnetic vector potential, J
s

is the source current density,

is the
magnetic permeability,
o
is the electric
conductivity and .A = 0 is the Coulomb
gauge. In general, the transient analysis of the
transformer has two main parts: the
electromagnetic FE formulation and the
external circuit connections. Each part
(magnetic and electric circuit) yields its own
matrix equations that are coupled and solved
simultaneously at each time step and allows
us to model the transient dynamic behaviour
of the transformer. As will be clarified in the
following sections, when an internal fault
occurs on the transformer windings,
the distribution of the electromagnetic field
inside the transformer is fundamentally
altered as well as the terminal values in the
circuit domain. However, since the Maxwell
equations describe the physical behaviour of
any electromagnetic system regardless of the
type and condition of the system, the faulty
transformer behaviour still satisfies the
Maxwell equations and solving the
electromagnetic field in a faulty transformer
is reduced to solving these coupled field-
circuit governing equations. The principle
used for modelling internal winding fault is
to divide the winding across which the
internal fault occurs in two parts: the short-
circuited part and the remaining coils in the
circuit. Fig3 shows the corresponding circuit
and FE domain representation of the
transformer coil, assuming that an internal
fault exists on phase B of the transformer

Fig 3 : transformer winding model

high voltage (HV) windings. In order to
apply the internal fault, it is necessary to
modify the geometry domain as well as
circuit domain in the FEM. As illustrated in
Fig 3, limiting fault resistance (Rf) is utilised
to initiate the fault on the winding. The
severity of the fault, involving a fixed
number of turns on the winding, can be
controlled by different values of the fault
resistance, Rf, in the short circuit loop.
Indeed, the fault resistance represents the
resistive component of the dielectric material
in the dielectric equivalent parallel circuit
model of the shorted turns [8]. Definitely, the
severity of the fault depends not only on the
value of the faulty current, which is limited
by the fault impedance, but also on the
number of shorted turns. Thus, with the
developed FEM of the transformer, internal
faults can be simulated with different levels
of severity and at different locations along
the windings.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
Time(second)
H
V

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)

ia
ib
ic
2.9 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95
-5
0
5
s
t
e
a
d
y

s
t
a
t
e

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
-50
0
50
100
150
i
n
r
u
s
h

c
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)

ia
ib
ic

Fig4:HV current in steady state

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Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
2.9 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.99 3
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
t(sec)
L
V

c
u
r
r
e
n
t

ib
ia
ic

Fig5:LV current in steady state

Fig6:experiment measuarement

Table2: compare simulation with experimental result
quantity experimental simulation
HV voltage 20000V (rms) 20000V (rms)
HV current 5.77A(rms) 5.762A(rms)
LV voltage 400V(rms) 400V(rms)
LV current 289A(rms) 285.67A(rms)
Maximum flux density 1.764 T 1.777 T

MODEL VERIFICATION
Fig 4 and 5 represent LV current and HV
current of transformer in steady state. For
validate simulation result with experimental
result current ,voltage and flux density are
measure in laboratory . Fig 6 represent
transformer in laboratory. Experiment and
simulation result are compare with simulation
in table 2.

VARIOUS INTERNAL SHORT
CIRCUIT ELECTROMAGNETIC
FORCE ANALYSIS
leakage flux estimation
When power transformer is working in stable
operation, the flux density of iron heart and
current in the windings are close to the rating.
But when an internal short circuit happens,
the circuit current will be many times larger
than the rated current.
The transient magnetic flux, that is the
linkage and leakage flux, depends on the
magnetization characteristic of core [4].
Especially, when internal short-circuit
occurs, the leakage flux density due to short-
circuit current is increased enormously
several times than steady state operation. The
leakage flux consists of radial and axial
directions.
For calculation of electromagnetic forces,
magnetic flux density should be yielded first.
This purpose will be obtained by solving
electromagnetic potential vector equations
[7]:
{
0
( ) 2
0 ( )
J inw indings
otherw ise
A

V =

After calculation of electromagnetic
potential, the components of leakage flux are
expressed using vector potential as below
x y
B A iB jB = V = +

Where ,B
X
,B
y
,are directional components
of leakage flux density [T], respectively. J is
the current density,
0
is the air permeability.
A is magnetic vector potential.

Page 5 of 9
Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
Flux density inside the studied transformer
generated by the FEM, under normal
operating condition and after a short circuit
fault arises along one of the LV windings
discs on phase A, is given in Fig7. Fig7.a
clearly reveals that the flux distribution in a
healthy transformer has a horizontal
symmetry axis that passes through the middle
of the transformer core limbs.
It was found through a large number of
simulations that the symmetry in the flux
distribution exists at all times during the
transformers operation and at different load
and supply conditions, even for the case of
unbalanced load or distorted supply, while,
when there is an internal fault, this symmetry
is lost (Fig7.b).

(a)

(b)
Fig7: flux density and flux line.
(a) healthy condition (b) fault condition

electromagnetic flux inside the faulty
transformer Modification of the
electromagnetic field in the vicinity of the
shorted turns can be justified by strong
leakage flux, despite the normal leakage flux,
around the shorted turns through air paths
and reduced flux lines inside the turns. As
stated earlier, the opposite MMF produced in
the shorted turns by the fault current, forces
the flux to surround the damaged turns. It
should be pointed out that although the
leakage flux and its radial component
enlarges in the fault region, but the
fundamental linkage flux of the transformer,
corresponding to the constant supplying
voltage, remains unaltered. In fact, the
linkage flux again passes as leakage flux
between the shorted turns and the rest of the
winding, but mainly in a radial direction
rather than axial.
electromagnetic force calculation
The electromagnetic force acting on the
transformer winding is caused due to short-
circuit current, and because leakage flux
density and magnetic flux density are
decomposed into their radial and axial
components, the electromagnetic forces may
also be composed into their radial and axial
components as
( )
y x x y
F I i B j B i F j F = + = +

where I is the winding section current .F
X
is
radial component of force and F
y
is axial
component of force. According to the
(formula), radial force depends on the axial
component of the magnetic flux density,
whereas the axial forces depend on the radial
component of the magnetic flux density [2].

The results of radial forces under condition of
various internal faults are shown in table3.
The sing of Radial forces is positive if thats
directed to tank and its sign is negative if
thats directed to core. With respect to
results, its concluded that the faults between
HV and LV winding are very dangerous .The
axial and radial forces in this type of internal
short circuit (for a fault between HV and LV
in top of the winding) are shown in Fig8 .The
magnitude of forces under of this type of
short circuit are very intensive that can be
lead to destruction of winding, completely.
Radial forces under condition of various
internal faults are shown in table4. It can be
seen that magnitude of forces around fault
location are very high.

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Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
Table 3: Radial force in LV and HV winding for various Internal fault types
Internal fault
types
Height of
winding
Top

1

2

3

4
MID

5
MID

6

7

8

9
Bottom

10
5% the
top of the
LV
winding
force in
LV (N)
714 40 -56 -14.5 16 -6 -6.4 -4.8 -6 7.2
force in
HV(N)
-56 -16 -110 -19 -71 -26 -46 -2 -7 -9.4
5% the
top of the
HV
winding
force in
LV(N)
37 6 8.5 -1.6 7 -1.25 -1.75 -1.25 1 2
force in
HV(N)
270 -210 -20 -15 -7 -5.2 -8.3 -4.23 -2.4 -1.6
HV to
LV
internal
fault
force in
LV(KN)
151 306.2 89.2 6.05 21.2 -0.5 -2.2 -1.8 -27.2 -11
force in
HV(KN)
-957 -294 15 18 1.78 5.3 6.69 4.47 4.87 -10

Table 4: Axial force in LV and HV winding for various Internal fault types
Internal fault
types
Height of
winding
Top

1

2

3

4
MID

5
MID

6

7

8

9
Bottom

10
5% the
top of the
LV
winding
force in
LV (N)
103.2 242 -52.8 -36.76 100 -20.66 -21.6 -8.7 -5.46 -0.5
force in
HV(N)
-250 170 -10 -40 -55 -30 10 -7 -6 0
5% the
top of the
HV
winding
force in
LV(N)
140 -10 -15 -20 -55 -65 -90 -100 -100
force in
HV(N)
275 -20 -25 -5 -53 -30 -15 -10 -4 0
HV to
LV
internal
fault
force in
LV(KN)
84.24 106.4 -262.8 -276.3 -395.8 -398.8 -402.3 -403.3 -398.3 -360
force in
HV(KN)
437.77 -209.1 -60.52 -26 -17 -9.8 -2 -1.79 -0.16 -4

Fig 8: Axial and Radial forces in HV to LV internal short circuit

EFFECT LOCATION OF THE FAULT
ON ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
In this section the location influence of
internal short circuit fault on electromagnetic
force is investigated. For a constant fault
severity on LV winding, the axial and radial
electromagnetic forces for 3 different fault
location are calculated. Radial forces in LV
winding for the 3 fault location are shown in
Fig 9.
Fig 9.a represents that for any of the 3 cases,
the radial force will increase just in the fault
location. This force may cause deformation
of winding in location of the fault. The
direction of radial force is to the core side.
Radial force in HV winding is also
represented in Fig 9.b. When fault occurs in
up or down part of the winding, the direction
of radial force in HV winding is to the tank
side. And when fault occurs in the middle of
winding, the direction of force is to the core
side. Axial forces in HV an LV winding for
the 3 different location of fault, are shown in
Fig 10. These figures represent that when an
internal short circuit occurs in a location, a
high axial force compresses the fault
location. For example when fault occurs in
the top of winding, the upper coils of winding
(that is shorted) are compressed.

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Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal
EFFECT OR INFLUENCE SEVERITY
OF FAULT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC
FORCE
In this section effect of fault severity to
electromagnetic force is investigate. Fault
severity changes due to the insulation
properties. For example as age of the
insulation increases, its resistance decreases.
For a constant location of fault (top of the
winding) the electromagnetic force in radial
and axial direction calculate for 3 various
severity fault .For modeling fault severity
are used various resistance.
The radial forces in LV winding are represent
in Fig11.a.This figure show that the axial
force is decrease with the fault resistance.
Radial and radial forces in HV are
represented in Fig 11.b.In HV side the axial
and radial forces are decrease with decrease
severity of fault.
Fig 12represent axial force in LV winding for
various severity faults. With increasing fault
resistance the current is decrease in shorted
winding and then current density is decrease
too and force is decreased.

(a) (b)
Fig 9:Radial force in LV and HV winding for various fault location

Fig 10:Axial force in LV and HV winding for various fault location

(a) (b)
Fig11 :Radial force in LV and HV winding for various fault location

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Analysis of Electromagnetic Forces in Distribution Transformers Under Various Internal

Fig12:Axial force in LV and HV winding for various fault location
CONCLUSIONS
In this paper investigated electromagnetic
force in axial and radial direction for various
internal faults in distribution transformer. by
attention the result conclude that axial and
radial forces in internal short circuit that may
deformation or destroy winding of
transformer in the fault location. This
conclude also that the faults between HV and
LV winding are very dangerous these type of
faults are more dangerous than three fault
short circuit .For short circuit of internal
winding, the radial force will increase just in
the fault location. The axial and radial forces
in this type of internal short circuit maybe
destroy the winding completely. It conclude
that internal winding fault in distribution
transformer should early detect before
extension in winding and unexpected
outages.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are highly grateful to the
HORMOZGAN Electric Power Distribution
Company for the provision of test facilities
and great support for experimental tests.

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