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Main Topics
What is network optimisation? 2 Concept for optimisation 14
Why optimisation? 2 Analysis programs 15
Aim of network optimisation 3 Problem symptoms 15
Advantages for the customer 3 Coverage analysis 16
Planning vs. optimising 4 Test mobile measurements 16
Major problem areas 4 Possible problem areas 17
Radio optimisation related processes 5 Antenna configuration 18
Tuning 5 Antenna types - typical beam patterns 18
Test types 6 Antenna fine tuning 19
Measurement analysis 6 Omni vs. sectorised 20
Change request and action 7 Vertical antenna beam 20
Acceptance tests 7 Tilting 21
Ongoing optimising 8 Antennadiversity type 22
Pre-analysis: general network check 8 Verification of RF network design 23
Customer complaints analysis 9 Site check 23
Collect/analyse OMC statistics 9 Antenna isolation 24
Collect/analyse drive test measurements 10 Site physical configuration 25
Implement changes 11 Site-to-site distances and distribution 25
Test mobile 11 Special features for improving coverage 26
Repeated call setups 12 Cell splitting, sectorisation 26
Continuous call 13 DTM check 27
Statistics 14 Propagation model verification 27
Link budget analysis 28

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Main Topics (continued)


Dropped call analysis 29 Call setup/handover mechanisms 45
Call setup analysis 30 Location area codes 46
MAXRETR 30 Interference reduction 46
Handover performance analysis 31 Power control 47
Handover parameters 31 Frequency hopping 48
Consequence of missing neighbours 32 DTX 49
Consequence of many neighbour definitions 32 Channel configuration 50
Handover measurements 33 Capacity enhancements 50
Handover parameters 33 Adding TRX 51
Radio link measurements 34 Interference reduction features 51
Handover algorithm 36 Traffic load distribution 52
Handover criteria - quality 37 Call setup/handover mechanisms 52
Handover decision 37 Hierarchical cell structures 53
Intracell handover 38 Concentric cells 53
Level handovers 39 Overlaid micro-and picocells 54
Distance handover 40 Microcell frequency planning 54
Power budget handover 40 Speed sensitive handovers 55
Cell reselection 41 Half rate coding/dual rate operation 55
Speech quality analysis 43 Cell parameter optimisation 56
Downlink interference measurement 43 Performance measurements 56
Frequency changes 44
BSIC optimisation 45

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What is Network Optimisation?

Improving Capacity, Quality and General Performance of the


existing Network Infrastructure

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Why Optimisation?
Coverage holes
Performance degradation by interference
Different subscriber distribution compared to that assumed for
the network design
Unexpectedly high subscriber growth
Extensive network expansions ongoing
Frequency resources at the limit
Unexpected mobility profile of
subscribers

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Aim of Network Optimisation

Improved Network Quality


➨ Speech quality, Call success rate, Call setup time
Improved Network Availability
➨ Service area , Radio Coverage
Optimised utilisation of installed equipment
➨ Increase in subscriber potential

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Advantages for the Customer

Optimum utilization of the system Reduced subscriber complaints


resources Optimised subscriber satisfaction
Minimized costs

Increased Profit One step ahead of the


Competitors

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Planning vs. Optimising

Thorough network planning from start can reduce the optimisation effort
significantly!
➨ In a poorly planned network, achievable optimisation effects without

major re-design are rather marginal


A close link between the two activities is necessary

Be involved

Feedback result

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Major Problem Areas

no coverage
interference
blocking
handover not working
HW/SW failures

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Radio Optimisation Related Processes

Acceptance Ongoing
Tuning Tests Optimisation

The following processes involve optimisation related activities


➨ Tuning Process
✲ drive tests
✲ adjustment of network parameters
➨ Acceptance tests
➨ Ongoing Optimisation
✲ Repeated quality control and improvement as network grows / matures

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Tuning

Test Measurement Change Request


Measurement Analyzing Action

Repeat Process
until
Agreed Quality

Objectives :
➨ Verify network configuration against current planning status
➨ Identify and eliminate equipment faults (HW/SW) and installation
errors
➨ Ensure that the network is ready for acceptance testing

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Test Types
Continuous drive test
➨ setup a test call and drive over an area for detecting lack of coverage,
missing handovers, interferences etc.
Spot test
➨ detail measurement to be taken at dedicated problem spots for detail
analyzing of specific problem

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Measurement Analysis
Antenna Installation check
➨ height, orientation and tilt
Basic cell parameters and functions
➨ OMC
✲ BCCH, BSIC, CI, LAC
✲ Neighbour List, consistency
✲ HO and power parameters
✲ Call Setup on all timeslots and speech quality check
✲ HO to other sectors or other neighbours
Test measurement (TEMS etc. together with a GPS)
➨ Signal Strength
➨ Co-channel and adjacent interference
➨ Handover relations
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Change Request and Action

SBS System Database


➨ Change BCCH to avoid interference
➨ Change HO-Margin
➨ Add neighbour relations (Mutual)
Site Hardware
➨ Antenna tilt etc.
System error
➨ Software bugs
➨ Transmission sync. (ADPCM)

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Acceptance Tests

Setup Test Performing


Test Result
Scenario Test

Setup Test Scenario ✲ Test Routes


➨ Test Purpose ✲ Test Procedure
✲ Test Duration
➨ Test Definitions
✲ Coverage Criteria ➨ Test Analysis
✲ Coverage Area ✲ Acceptance Criteria
✲ Successful Call ➨ Test Results
➨ Test Condition ✲ Signal Level
✲ Signal Quality
➨ Test Equipment
✲ Handover
➨ Test Methodology
✲ Call Success Rate

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Ongoing Optimising

For improvement of the network after it is launched and filled


up by subscribers

Pre-analysis:
Pre-analysis: Collect
Collect/ / Collect
Collect/ /
Collect
Collect/ / Propose
Propose/ /
General
General analyse
analyse analyse
analyse
analyse
analyse implement
implement
network
network OMC
OMC drive
drivetest
test
complaints
complaints changes
changes
check
check statistics
statistics measuremts
measuremts

Repeat
Repeat
process
processuntil
until
agreed quality
agreed quality

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Pre-analysis: General Network Check


Steps to be carried out:
➨ Kick-off meeting
➨ Determine original network planning objectives
➨ Collect information about network status
➨ Determine functional network structure, e.g.
– - BTS / BSC locations., antenna direction etc.
– - services and features used
– - network structure (macrocell, microcell etc.)
➨ Determine the network element configuration, e.g.
– - number of TRX per cell
– - sector / omni config.
➨ Visit selected sites (if necessary)
➨ Database analysis
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Customer Complaints Analysis

Additional source of information, but difficult to handle


Customer service desk must collect all relevant information
➨ Caller and Called No. (PSTN->MS, etc.)
➨ What is the problem? (Voice Quality, Can’t make a call, etc.)
➨ MS is moving or fixed while make call
➨ Where did the problem occur?
➨ When?

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Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics


OMC Measurement
➨ Handled traffic (congestion on TCH, SDCCH)
➨ dropped calls
➨ Interference
➨ Handover reason (due to UL_QUAL, Powerbudget, distance…)
Advantages over test drives:
➨ Less labor intensive and time consuming
➨ More comprehensive, based on large number of users
➨ not limited to time of test drive
➨ Uplink and Downlink analysis possible
➨ Subscriber behavior mix of outdoor, indoor, incar use

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Collect / Analyse OMC Statistics

Disadvantages, limitations:
➨ Limited geographical resolution (Where does the problem occur?)
➨ Cannot separate problems due to coverage from other
✲ Call attempts in uncovered areas are not counted
✲ Call drop due to lack of coverage
➨ Network must have minimum load for reliable statistics

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Collect / Analyse Drive Test Measurements

Test types
➨ Continuos drive test (Trace mode)
➨ Spot test
➨ Network performance test (Statistical mode)

Test Measurement
➨ Collect MS measurement report data (Downlink only!!)

✲ Serving signal level ✲ Timing Advance


✲ BER (Rxqual) ✲ Layer 3 messages
✲ Channel Number ✲ BSICs
✲ CI and LAI ✲ Signal and power levels of neighbouring cells

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Implement Changes

Changes related to database parameters


Actions related to site hardware
Problems to be solved by Normal Roll-out activities
Problems to be solved by other system experts

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Test Mobile

Various modes, e.g.


➨ Repeated call setups
➨ Continuous call
➨ Scanning mode
✲ check for spectrum
occupancy
✲ check for BCCH
with no neighbour
relations

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Repeated Call Setups


Um- Abis- A-Interface

PSTN-
Base Base Mobile Interface
Transceiver Station Switching
Station Controller Center

Serial Measuremt
Method Software

➨ call setup
➨ hold for predefined time period and then release
✲ predefined time = mean holding time
✲ call may be dropped earlier
➨ repeat call setup after predefined waiting time (typical 15 s)
Purpose
➨ simulate subscriber behavior
➨ wide area quality assessment and trend identification
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Repeated Call Setups

Typical parameters
➨ call setup success rate, setup time, dropped call rate
➨ statistics can be generated in Tornado / Planet, e.g.
Call Diagnostics

RxQual Full Threshold: 4


RxQual Full Threshold (%): 90
RxLev Full Threshold: 14
RxLev Full Threshold (%): 90
Maximum Setup Time (s): 10

Call Time Setup Clear Down RxQual (%) RxLev (%) Category
1 21:38.8 6.5 OK 100 100 GOOD
2 23:53.1 FAIL FAIL FAIL FAIL NO SETUP
3 26:08.7 5.7 OK 98 85.3 LOW SIGNAL
4 28:23.9 6.4 OK 79.5 100 NOISY
5 30:38.8 5.8 FAIL FAIL FAIL DROPPED
6 32:54.4 12 OK 100 100 DELAYED

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Continuous Call

Method
➨ call setup
➨ hold continuously until drive test route complete
✲ in case of call drops re-establish
Purpose
➨ Wide area quality trace
➨ Locating individual problem areas
➨ Detailed analysis in problem areas
➨ Quality assessment on rural highways etc.
➨ BS Testing and Functional Testing

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Continuous Call

Typical parameters
➨ RxLev, RxQual, BCCH, BSIC,
handover, Layer 3 messages etc.
Import into planning tool
➨ Terrain or clutter background
➨ Comparison of measured
network performance vs.
prediction
Statistics:
➨ RxLev, RxQual, handover
success rate

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Statistics

Combine from both modes

Measurement Test sample unit No. of samples Measured value


RxLev > -85 dBm Measurement bin (Tornado) 8,432 99.90%
RxQual < 4 Measurement bin (Tornado) 8,432 99.20%
Handover success rate Handover attempt 61 93.50%
Call setup success rate Call attempt 115 90.30%
Mean setup time Call successfully setup 106 5.3 s
Dropped call rate Call successfully setup 106 1.00%

Typical measurements also used for acceptance tests

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Performance Measurements
Provide an overview of network performance (statistics)
➨ uplink analysis also possible
➨ validity depends on sufficient samples
Examples:
➨ blocking rate
BTS ID LAC CI BSIC f1 f2 f3 f4 Busy hour TCH Blocking Rate
6 4 4052 2 4 83 69 16:00:00 66.53%
2 4 4083 2 2 76 67 16:00:00 30.16%
5 4 4051 2 6 79 66 16:00:00 7.91%
22 4 4183 2 0 77 12:00:00 3.96%
1 4 4082 2 1 84 80 13:00:00 3.81%

BTS ID LAC CI BSIC f1 f2 f3 f4 Busy hour SDCCH Blocking Rate


25 4 4052 2 4 83 69 15:00:00 32.99%
6 4 4052 2 4 83 69 16:00:00 5.99%
26 4 4171 2 6 63 13:00:00 2.83%
3 4 4041 2 7 87 13:00:00 2.06%

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Performance Measurements
➨ Call setup success rate
BTS ID LAC CI Busy Hour Call Set-up Success Rate
25 4 4152 15:00:00 28.4%
29 4 4131 15:00:00 68.0%
15 4 4032 18:00:00 81.3%
5 4 4051 16:00:00 92.1%
26 4 4171 13:00:00 94.1%
11 4 4071 12:00:00 94.7%

➨ Dropped call rate


BTS ID LAC CI TCH RF Loss Inter Cell HO Intra Cell Call Drop
Connections Loss HO Loss Rate
37 4 4192 19730 1526 23 153 9%
15 4 4032 12740 723 6 58 6%
22 4 4183 10993 485 18 13 5%
25 4 4152 24748 755 12 29 3%
7 4 4011 8849 240 16 23 3%
26 4 4171 15922 219 28 12 2%
29 4 4131 5712 77 8 6 2%
27 4 4172 10421 156 4 4 2%
19 4 4212 9192 130 9 5 2%
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Concept for Optimisation


Analyzing
Programs
Alternatives
• Status of the
Network
Coverage
• Decide further
Ho two
ne

Analysis Program
w rk?
to

Dropped Calls
im
pr

Network
ov
e

Snapshot Call Setup Success


the

Handover Perf.

Speech Quality

Quick
Check General Check

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Analysis Programs
Coverage: Analysis for Fulfilment of Coverage
Requirements (Urban, rural ...
areas, outdoor, in-car, indoor)
Dropped Call: Analysis for Dropped Calls due to
Interference, SW/HW failures,
Transmission Network Failures
Call Setup: Analysis for Blocking and Capacity
Limitations, Analysis for Resource
Allocation Procedures
Handover: Analysis for Efficient Handover
Performance
Speech Quality: Analysis for Interference

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Problem Symptoms
No service High call drop rate
No coverage RF Network
No System Availability No coverage
Network Element Failures Interference
Transmission Network Failures Handover failure
Fixed Network BSS, SSS
Low call setup success rate Network Element Failure
RF Network Transmission Failures
No coverage Other networks
Interference Mobile terminal
Blocking
Fixed Network BSS, SSS Poor speech quality
RF Network
Blocking
No coverage
Overload
Interference
Other Poor handover performance
Fixed Network BSS, SSS
Network element failure
Transmission network failure
Other networks
Mobile Phone

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Coverage Analysis
Test mobile measurements
Antenna configuration check
Verification of RF network design
DTM check
Propagation model verification
Link budget analysis

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Test Mobile Measurements


Collect RxLev measurements together with GPS co-ordinates
Analyse on planning tool
Reasons for poor coverage:
➨ serving cell not best server
✲ handover problems
➨ best server signal low
✲ check site / network design
Analyse in terms of relevant
thresholds:
➨ indoor level
➨ in-car level
➨ outdoor level
ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999
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Test Mobile Measurements

Consequences of
poor RxLev:
➨ low RxQual

➨ vulnerable
to interference
Limitation with
drive tests:
➨ downlink only
Another method:
➨ statistical

analysis
➨ OMC or drive

tests

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Possible Problem Areas


Downlink Uplink
➨ Output power low ➨ Receive sensitivity degraded due
➨ Obstruction of Tx antenna to hardware problems
➨ Antennae not aligned properly ➨ Obstruction of Rx antennae
➨ Broken / wrongly connected ➨ Antennae not aligned properly
cables ➨ Broken / wrongly connected
➨ Database parameters controlling cables
output power ➨ Lack of diversity gain

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Antenna Configuration
General points to check
➨ antenna type, e.g.
✲ omni
✲ directional 60, 90 or 120 degrees
✲ electrical downtilt
✲ cross-polarised
➨ antenna azimuth angle (for directional antennae)
✲ coverage targets
➨ antenna tilt angle
✲ electrical + mechanical
➨ diversity & isolation
✲ e.g. space diversity,
✲ polarisation diversity
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Antenna Types - Typical Beam Patterns

Directional antenna

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Antenna Types - Typical Beam Patterns

Omni antenna with electrical downtilt

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Antenna Fine Tuning

Horizontal Plane:
➨ Possible coverage weakness between sectors
➨ Interference reduction
➨ Traffic load distribution
Vertical Plane:
➨ Interference reduction
➨ Possible coverage weakness in the short to medium distance range
➨ Traffic load distribution

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Omni vs. Sectorised

OMNI cells - more difficult to optimise


➨ Electrical downtilt possible, however
✲ same for entire cell
➨ Parameters same for entire cell
Directional antennae
➨ narrower beam → easier to control interference
➨ tilting less efficient with wider beams

Sectorised cell site with different


downtilt angles

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Vertical Antenna Beam


High gain antennae with sharp vertical lobe In practice:
➨ shadow under antenna For cluttered
Ant. Effective
environments
height reflections often
0° compensate
2° electrical d
owntilt
arctan 3 dB-po
(60/4 int: 5.25
°
00) =
8. 5°
60 m

City

400 m
Solution: Add mechanical downtilt

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Tilting
Antenna downtilt often used to minimise interference
➨ Minimum: Vertical mail lobe pointing at cell edge

h
BS

➨ Maximum: First null angle pointing at cell edge

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Tilting

Electrical vs. Mechanical downtilt


0° 0°

Electrical Mechanical
➨ Advantages:
✲ Better back lobe characteristics
✲ Better lower side lobe characteristics A combination of
mechanical / electrical
➨ Disadvantages: downtilt may be used
✲ Antennas are more expensive

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Tilting

No Tilt Down Tilted 4 degrees

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Antenna Diversity Type


Space diversity Dual polarisation
Rx ant. 1

Rx ant. 2

Rx ant.
Typical > 10
Horisontal / Cross
vertical polarised

➨ mobile antenna normally not held


➨ vertical polarisation vertically
➨ in general good performance ➨ when signals are reflected
➨ requires extra antenna for polarisation change (vertical
diversity normally dominates)
➨ cross polarised preferred
✲ good performance in urban areas
➨ save one antenna
✲ easier installation
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Verification of RF Network Design


Site check
Site physical configuration evaluation
Site-to-site distances and distribution
Special features for improving coverage
Site database configuration evaluation
➨ Tx power BTS
➨ power control settings
➨ etc.

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Site Check
Verify that site is implemented according to plan
Check installation e.g.
➨ antenna spacing (diversity, isolation) Omni
Tx
➨ antennae in one sector are installed in the same plane k1
k2 k2

➨ antennae alignment Rx Rxd

➨ omni antenna installation


➨ cable installation
Vertical spacing Horisontal spacing
Alignment of antennas
Rx Tx
Antennas mounted in different planes
Rx

k d

Tx
a= max 15 ° Rx Tx Rxd
a
a
d d d

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Antenna Isolation
Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation
between two antennas K73316..

60
A
Isolation /dB

50
40 Horizontal Horizontal
30
20 Vertical
10
0
A
500

750

1000

1250

1500

1750

2000

2250

Spacing A/ mm

Source: Kathrein
Vertical
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Antenna Isolation
Isolation by vertical or horizontal separation
between two antennas K73416..

60
A
Is olation /dB

40 Horizontal Horizontal
20 Vertical

0
A
400
500
650
750
900
1000
1150
1250

Spacing A/mm

Source: Kathrein
Vertical
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Site Physical Configuration


Antenna height
➨ ideally sites within a given area classification should have similar
heights if traffic distribution is uniform
➨ evaluate site height in terms of objective
✲ macrocell / minicell / microcell
✲ limitation of interference
✲ clear obstructions
Antenna tilt / directions
➨ avoid coverage gaps
➨ target priority areas
➨ limit interference
Appropriate antenna types
➨ sectorise omni cells?
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Site-to-Site Distances and Distribution


For an area of uniform structure / terrain / traffic
➨ site-to-site distance should be uniform (assuming uniform site design)
Site distribution should reflect
➨ coverage characteristics / requirements
➨ capacity requirements
Typical case
➨ Downtown: High site density
➨ Suburban area: less dense
➨ Roads: Sites located along a line

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Special Features for Improving Coverage


Microcell Other indoor coverage solutions
➨ for indoor coverage ➨ distributed anteanne
➨ outdoor coverage in high ➨ fibre optic repeater
capacity areas ➨ leaky cable
Repeaters HCS, e.g.
➨ alternative to microcell where the ➨ large cells for car-coverage
traffic needs are low ➨ small cells for pedestrians
➨ indoor
➨ outdoor Micro - Cell Site -Location

Macro - Cell Site -Location

➨ road coverage Pla


ce
Building
Outlines

➨ “coverage hole fill solution”


Building

eet

et
Ma

Str
Outlines

e
tr
ing

S
ild s
cro

Ce
ll B Bu tline
ord u
er O

Scale = 0.5 Km

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Cell splitting, Sectorisation

Change from large cells to small cells


Difficult , Expensive
Mainly driven by capacity requirements
Result: Improved indoor coverage

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DTM Check
DTM resolution
➨ horisontal
✲ macrocell (typical 50-100 m for roads, 50 m for small cities, 20 - 40 m for
large cities)
✲ microcell (very high resolution, down to building level)
➨ vertical - should be high

Source data
➨ heights and clutter derived from paper maps
➨ clutter and / or vector updates by satellite photographs / aerial photos
for metropolitan areas

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Propagation Model Verification


Wrong model wrong coverage prediction
In general, standard models have high performance
Highly specialised model may only be valid for a small area
Model performance depends on accuracy of DTM
To tune the model
➨ field strength measurements
➨ check existing model against measurements
➨ modify model parameters

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Link Budget Analysis


Check for link budget imbalance
downlink uplink

Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget = 0! BTS

Link Power Budget is balanced!

downlink PA output pow er

com biner loss

cable loss dow nlink et


dg Rx Sensitivity BS
Bu
Rx Sensitivity M S w er
Po cable loss uplink
ed
l a nc
B a
antenna diversity gain

uplink
M S Peak Pow er

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Link Budget Analysis

Uplink Power Budget - Downlink Power Budget 0!


Link Power Budget is unbalanced!
RxLev/dBm
-55,00
Caused by wrong assumption for
35% Coverage Loss @ 3dB!
Receiver Sensitivity
Diversity Gain
-65,00
Propagation Environment
RxLev for Indoor
Coverage(90%) Link Balancing via
Links balanced Optimization of Diversity
-75,00
3dB unbalanced Tower mounted amplifier
55% Coverage Loss @ 6 dB! High power amplifier
6dB unbalanced

-85,00
0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80
Distance from BTS in km

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Link Budget Analysis


Increasing BS Output?
➨ Unbalanced link budget
Better BS Rx sensitivity or pre-amplifier
➨ Must be matched by higher BS TX power for balanced link budget

-110 dBm

Uplink -107 dBm

Downlink
40 dBm

37 dBm
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Dropped Call Analysis


How to measure
➨ drive tests
✲ repeated call setups (preferred)
✲ continuous calls
➨ OMC measurements
Reasons for dropped calls
➨ lack of coverage
➨ interference problems
➨ handover problems
➨ lack of synchronisation in network
➨ problems with other parts of the network

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Call Setup Analysis


How to measure
➨ drive tests
✲ repeated call setups
➨ OMC measurements
Reasons for failed call setups
➨ lack of coverage
➨ database problems
✲ database inconsistencies
✲ parameter settings, e.g.
– RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN, RACHBT, RACH_MAX_RETRANS
– cell reselection related parameters
➨ network congestion

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MAXRETR
Slotted ALOHA mechanism: Several users may attempt to
access channel simultaneously
➨ in case of collision new attempts are made
➨ MAXRETR: Maximum no. of retries allowed

H(1) RA CH
RAC
C H (2 )
RA
H
AGC BTS

MS
✲ E.g: MAXRETR = 2
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Handover Performance Analysis


When moving from one cell to another (neighbour cells) handovers are
necessary
Too many neighbours SIEMENS AG
MON MAR15 15:18:41

SCALE 1:2500
Inaccurate handover
decision EqualPowerBoundary
Mutual Neighbour
Non-Mutual Neighbour
Handover Failure & Missing Neighbour
Too many Neighbours
Dropped Call

Missing Neighbour
definition

Handover Failure

Dropped Call

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Handover Parameters
Objectives:
➨ mobile should be connected to the
“best”cell
➨ avoid unnecessary handovers
Consequence
➨ good speech quality
➨ less dropped calls

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Consequence of Missing Neighbours


Defined neighbours
Server
Missing neighbour
f1 Interferer

f1 Missing neighbour cells Congestion

Cell dragging
Cell dragging

Poor RxQual Poor RxLev Interference Exceeded distance Poor PBGT

Dropped Calls

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Consequence of Many Neighbour Definitions


Only about 100 measurement samples are possible during one
measurement period for all defined neighbour cells
Number of BCCH carriers Number of samples per
In BCCH Allocation Carrier in SACCH multiframe
32 3-4
16 6-7
10 10-11
8 12-13
: :
(Rec. GSM 0508)

Too many neighbour cells


Problem:
Inaccurate signal level measurement Sites with too
large coverage
False handover decisions area

Dropped Calls

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Handover Measurements
Handover due to a better
cell
(RxLev_1 >
RxLev_Full)

Handover due to bad


quality

Can also be analysed


by statistics

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Handover Parameters
Fine-tuning of handover parameters
➨ Moving cell boundaries in order to
✲ Enhance success rate for critical handovers
✲ Minimise local interference at the cell edge
✲ Traffic load sharing between cells
➨ Compared to other opimisation measures improvement potential is
limited
➨ Affected by
✲ Measurement averaging
PS! Neighbours
✲ Power control parameters
should in general
be mutual

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Radio Link Measurements


BTS measurements (Uplink):
➨ Signal level BSC
➨ Quality
➨ BS-MS distance
➨ (Interference levels in idle time slots)

UL

DL

Neighbour MS BTS

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Radio Link Measurements


MS measurements (Downlink)
➨ Signal Level
BSC
➨ Quality
➨ Signal levels of neighbouring cells (BCCH)
✲ Strongest 6 are reported to the Network

UL

DL

Neighbour MS BTS

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Radio Link Measurements


BSC (In general)
➨ Collects all data
✲ BTS and MS send measurement reports every 480 ms BSC
✲ Makes handover decisions
Siemens Network, BTS makes HO decisions

UL

DL

Neighbour MS BTS

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Radio Link Measurements


Radio link measurements averaging
➨ BTS (BSC) receives measurement samples from BTS + MS
✲ every SACCH-Multiframe (480ms,104 TDMA frames)
➨ “Gliding Window”
✲ averaging Window size (max.31)
✲ Window is cleared after call setup or handover

32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21

Average value = 24

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Radio Link Measurements

F F S S F F F S S F
Measurement Values each
32 27 23 29 29 21 19 22 23 21 SACCH Multiframe (0.48s)

32 32 27 27 23 29 29 29 21 21

Average value = 27
– W_Lev_Full = 2
– W_Lev_SUB = 1
– Gliding Window = 5

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Handover Algorithm

Handover
Handover
Decision
Decision

yes yes Inter-cell HO


Inter-cell HO
IRQUAL due to Quality
PBGT Power Budget
no no
yes Inter-cell HO
yes
Intra-cell HO
LEV due to Level IAQUAL due to Quality

no no
yes Inter-cell HO No handover
DIST due to Distance action

no

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Handover Criteria
Handover Region (due to quality and level)

Rx_Qual
L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH
7
Intercell HO Intracell HO
due to quality due to Quality

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H

Intercell HO No handover
due to level action due to
quality or level

Rx_Lev
0 L_Rx_Lev_XX_H 63
ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999
s

Handover Decision

Handover Types Decision Criteria


Intercell HO 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H
due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX < L_RXLEV_XX_IH
3. XX_TXPWR = Min (XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
HO due to Level 1. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_H
2. XX_TXPWR = Min(XX_TXPWR_Max,P)
HO due to Distance 1. MS_BS_DIST > MS_Range_Max
HO due to 1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n)
Power Budget + Max (0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)
2. PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(n)
Intracell HO 1. RXQUAL_XX > L_RXQUAL_XX_H
due to Quality 2. RXLEV_XX > L_RXLEV_XX_IH

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Intracell Handover
Stay within cell, change frequency / time slot situation
➨ in general interference different on different timeslots
➨ change to a different cell may be unnecessary

Interferer: f1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Sever: f1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

➨ higher traffic load higher likelihood on other timeslots


➨ not effective with frequency hopping
✲ parameter settings for intracell handover should be set to reduce such
handovers

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Intracell Handover
Check for simultaneous occurrence of:
➨ Poor quality (high Rx_Qual)
➨ Sufficient signal level
✲ L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH

Rx_Qual
L_Rx_Lev_XX_IH

Intracell HO
due to Quality

L_Rx_Qual_XX_H

L_Rx_Lev_XX_H Rx_Lev

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Level Handovers
Adjacent cell not stronger than current cell + HO margin
Serving cell has insufficient coverage
➨ “emergency handover” to cell with better coverage
Rx_Lev

Server HOMARGIN

HO_Threshold_Lev

neighbour
MinHOReqInt
Driven route

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Level Handovers
Receiver limit sensitivity
L_RXLEV_XX_H (outgoing level HO)

L_RXLEV_XX_IH (inter HO
/ intracell quality HO)
RXLEV_MIN (incoming HO)

BTS
RXLEV_MIN
threshold for cell to accept incoming handover
L_RXLEV_XX_H
threshold for initiating outgoing handover due to signal
level
relation with RXLEV_MIN will determine hysteresis
L_RXLEV_XX_IH
ICN PLM CA NP
threshold for initiating inter / intracell quality HO
© SIEMENS Limited 1999
s

Distance Handover
Maximum allowable BS-MS distance
➨ Default: MS_Range_Max=61 (bits Timing Advance,TA)
✲ Maximum value: 63, corresponding to 35 km

G S M : ma
x 35 km Enhanced by
“Extended Cell”

➨ Normally used in combination with other criteria, e.g.


✲ cross-water propagation,
✲ elevated bridges etc.

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Power Budget Handover


Select cell with better signal level at given location
HO margin
➨ Large enough to avoid “ping-pong HO”
➨ small enough to allow fast HO BTS1

BTS2
Ping-Pong HO

1. RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_MIN(n) + Max(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)

2. PBGT(n) = RXLEV_NCELL(n)-(RXLEV_DL+PWR_C_D)
+Min(MS_TWPWR_MAX(n),P)-Min(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n),P)
> HO_MARGIN(n)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Cell Reselection

C1-criterion for cell access:

C1
C1==AV_RXLEV
AV_RXLEV- -RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN- -MAX(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH-P)
MAX(0,MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH-P)>>00

✲ MS takes 5 samples of the received level on each RF carrier which


are averaged

AV_RXLEV = 1/5 * (RXLEV1+RXLEV2+…+RXLEV5)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Cell Reselection

DL
For example:

BTS

MS
MS class 5 (GSM900)
AV_RXLEV=-97 dBm

➨ RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm


➨ MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 29 dBm (0.8W)

C1 = -97 - (-100) - Max(0,33-29)


= -1

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Cell Reselection

For example: DL
MS class 5 (GSM900)
Operator B
DL BTS

Operator A ✲ RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -100 dBm


BTS MS ✲ MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W)

✲ RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = -110 dBm


✲ MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH = 33 dBm (2W)

•MS receives signal from Operator A and B = -90 dBm


Operator A Operator B
C1 = -90 - (-110) - Max(0,33-29) C1 = -90 - (-100) - Max(0,33-29)
= +16 ✓ = +6 ✗

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Cell Reselection
C1 criteria
➨ Same Location Area
✲ C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell)
➨ Different Location Area
✲ C1 (neighbour cell) > C1 (serving cell) + Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis

C1 High power class MS


Low power class MS
Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis

BTS1 BTS2

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Speech Quality Analysis


Parameters Causes of interference
➨ RxQual ➨ co-channel interference
➨ Frame Erasure Rate (FER) ➨ adjacent channel interference
➨ Speech Quality Index (SQI) ➨ intermodulation
Measurements ✲ mainly on one link only
➨ Drive test ➨ multipath interference
✲ preferably continuous call
➨ OMC statistics
Cause for poor quality Interfering cell of
base station
within GSM -
➨ low signal strength (coverage network
related
➨ interference
Base station
➨ low signal strength and within GSM –
Network
interference
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Downlink Interference Measurement


Typical requirement
➨ speech: RxQual 4
➨ data: RxQual 3

BER % RxQual
0.0 - 0.2 0
0.2 - 0.4 1
0.4 - 0.8 2
0.8 - 1.6 3
1.6 - 3.2 4
3.2 - 6.4 5
6.4 - 12.8 6
> 12.8 7
With frequency hopping:
RxQual not a valid parameter

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Frequency Changes
Sometimes necessary to minimise interference
As network reaches capacity limit this becomes difficult
➨ Other frequencies may be affected by the change
Can be done at either interfering cell or victim cell
➨ Choice: Whichever happens to be easier to change
Existing plan may be entered into planning tool as
“constraints”
➨ search for “optimum” frequency allocation for a given cell
At a certain point the whole network e.g. in a city may have to
be re-planned

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Frequency Changes
BCCH/TCH swapping
➨ Method sometimes used: Alternate between clusters

BCCH: 794 BCCH: 794 BCCH: 794 BCCH: 797


TCH:797 TCH:794
before after

➨ Effectiveness depends on TCH traffic load


➨ BCCH / TCH sub-bands are mixed
➨ Could be used as a temporary measure
✲ while traffic load is low

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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BSIC Optimisation

Base Station Identity Codes


➨ Used by the MS to distinguish between cells
using the same frequency
✲ Co-Channel cells must have different
f9
BSICs
f9

f9

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Call Setup/Handover Mechanisms

20-25 dB street corner loss: Fast handovers required


✲ Micro-micro
✲ Micro-macro

➨ Fast measurement averaging


➨ Carefully tuned handover thresholds
➨ Small handover margins
➨ Short penalty timers

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Location Area Codes


Purpose
➨ identify location area
➨ in incoming call is paged to all BTS’s within LA
Large location area
➨ advantage: less location updates (reduced SDCCH load)
➨ disadvantage: more paging traffic
Boundaries should not cross high traffic areas
Cell reselection across LA boundaries
➨ Parameter Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis (typ. 4 dB) used to avoid
unnecessary signalling due to ping-pong cell reselections

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Interference Reduction

Power Control
Frequency Hopping
Discontinuous Transmission DTX

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Power Control

Quality-triggered PC
➨ e.g. L_RXQUAL_XX_P = 4
✲ Triggers a power increase at poor quality
➨ e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 1
✲ Triggers a power reduction at good quality
✲ Virtually disabled by setting to “highest” RXQUAL value
✲ Level criterion is more suitable for power reduction
Level-triggered PC
➨ e.g. L_RXLEV_XX_P = 25 (-85 dBm)
✲ Triggers a power increase at bad level
➨ e.g. U_RXQUAL_XX_P = 35 (-75 dBm)
✲ Triggers a power reduction at good level

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Power Control
RXQUAL

Power Increase
(bad quality)

L_RXQUAL_XX_P

Power Decrease
Power Increase
(Good Level)
(bad level)
L_RXQUAL_XX_P

Power Decrease
(good quality)

RXLEV
L_RXLEV_XX_P U_RXLEV_XX_P

2*POW_RED_STEP_SIZE

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Frequency Hopping

0 BCCH
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
0 SDCCH
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
1 Call 1

5 Call 2

f1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TDMA frame
(8 time slots)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Frequency Hopping

0 BCCH
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
0 SDCCH
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
Call 1
Call 2

f1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TDMA frame
(8 time slots)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Frequency Hopping

0 BCCH
Cyclic / Pseudo Random hopping
0 SDCCH
Baseband / Synthesized hopping
1 Call 1

5 Call 2
f1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7 f4 f3 f6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

f2,f3,f4,f5,f6,f7 f7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

TDMA frame
(8 time slots)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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DTX
Goal: Reduce speech data rate from 13 kbps (user speaking) to
500 bps (enough to encode background noise)
➨ reduce MS power consumption
➨ reduce the interference in a cell
SBS parameter for DTX / VAS administration
➨ DTXUL -> 0 : MS may use DTX (If possible)
1 : MS shall use DTX
2 : MS shall not use DTX
➨ DTXDL -> FALSE : downlink DTX disabled at BTS
TRUE : downlink DTX enabled at BTS

PS! No gain for data communications

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Channel Configuration
Channel Type Channel Combination
TCHFULL TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/F
MAINBCCH FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (AGCH+PCH+RACH)
MBCCHC FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 4 (SDCCH+SACCH)
SDCCH 8 (SDCCH + SACCH)
TCHF&HLF* TCH/H(0) + FACCH/H (0) + SACCH/H(0) + TCH/H(1)
BCBCH* FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + 3 (SDCCH+SACCH) + CBCH
SCBCH* 7 (SDCCH + SACCH) + CBCH
CCCH* BCCH + CCCH

✲ For example, Note: * in SBS BR 3.0


– 1TRX : TS0 -> BCBCH
TS1-7 -> TCHFULL
– 2 TRXs : TRX0, TS0 -> MAINBCCH
TRX0, TS1 -> SCBCH
TRX0, TS2-7 -> TCHFULL
TRX1, TS0-7 -> TCHFULL

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Capacity Enhancements
Easy approach: Add TRX’s
Problem: No more frequencies:
➨ Options
✲ Traffic load distribution
✲ Interference optimisation features: FH, PC, DTX
✲ Sectorisation: Increasing cell density
✲ Cell splitting: Increasing site density
✲ HCS
– Dual band operation (e.g. GSM900/DCS1800)
– Dual mode operation (e.g. GSM900/DECT)
– Underlay / Overlay
– Overlaid micro- and picocells
✲ Half rate coding
✲ Migration to 3rd Generation Systems
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Adding TRX
Congested cells found by OMC measurements
Sec TRX GOS 2% Week1 Week2 Week3 Week4 Week5 Week6 Week7
BTS1 1 3 14.9 10.53 9.66 10.21 9.88 10.54 9.97 10.37
BTS2 2 2 8.2 7.43 7.26 7.59 6.98 7.55 8.02 8.33
BTS3 3 3 14.9 11.92 11.4 12.12 11.82 11.75 12.02 12.15

➨ Sector 2 will experience congestion


➨ Sometimes percentage limit, e.g. 80%, of full load defined
✲ Sector 3 is near that limit
Possible limitations of TRX extensions:
➨ Need for changed hardware configuration costly
✲ e.g. new BTS rack needed
➨ Frequency Spectrum limited

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Interference Reduction Features


Frequency Hopping (FH)
Dynamic Power Control (PC)
Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
➨ allow tighter frequency re-us
(already considered for 40-60 Erl./km2 in macrocell layer with 5 to 10 MHz)


✓No
Noadditional
additionalsites
sitesor
orfrequencies
frequenciesrequired
required

✓Available,
Available,stable
stable

✓Implementation
Implementationcauses
causesnonodisturbance
disturbanceofof
network
networkoperation
operation
✗✗LLittle
ittleor
orno
noeffect
effectififavailable
availablespectrum
spectrumisisvery
very
limited
limited(BCCH
(BCCHlimitations)
limitations)

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Traffic Load Distribution

Traffic in a cell related to cell coverage area


If sufficient overlap between cells:
➨ reduce traffic by changing cell boundary
✲ antenna downtilt
✲ reduce power (PWRRED)
✲ alter handover boundaries
➨ Usually a temporary solution only

Default HO boundaries
Changed HO boundaries

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Call Setup/handover mechanisms

Relieve macrocells from traffic

➨ Umbrella type handover into microcells


➨ “Directed retry”
✲ Allows call setup In second-best server, shares traffic resources between
layers

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Hierarchical Cell Structures


Underlay/Overlay
Umbrella cells: Dominant site with large coverage area
➨ low traffic - fast mobiles
Macrocells: Antenna above average rooftop level
➨ normal traffic
Microcell: Antenna below average rooftop level
➨ cover small high traffic areas
Picocell: Antenna P

I
C

E
Indoor coverage
Outdoor Installatio n
Hotspot

C L

usually indoors O Ls
Parking lot

➨ coverage to building
Contiguous Microcellular Coverage

or parts thereof - e.g.


Business users Subway Coverage Extension

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Concentric cells

C/I = 17 dB C/I = 17 dB
Signal
level level
C/I = 0 dB Signal

f3 f1 f2 f3

“Inner cell” can use 1 x 3 reuse pattern


Special handover mechanisms between layers
Limited gains for uniform traffic distribution

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Overlaid Micro- and Picocells

The smallest cells should absorb most of the traffic in their


coverage area
Larger cells for fast moving mobiles / areas not covered by
small cells

Macrocells

Microcells

Picocells

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Microcell Frequency Planning


Different resolutions required for different layers
➨ flexibility of planning tool needed
Dedicated frequency bands for different layers
➨ Reduce complexity of frequency optimisation task
➨ Guard band may be needed to avoid adjacent channel interference
Call Setup/handover strategy
Serving
➨ reduce macrocell traffic BTS
➨ determine mobile speed
➨ Fast handovers
✲ Loss around street corner: 20 dB!
Micro BTS

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Speed Sensitive Handovers

Mechanisms to separate fast from slow mobiles


➨ mobile class
✲ today mostly same class is used (e.g. GSM900 class 4)
➨ measurement of the timing advance delta
✲ only works for direction away from site
➨ cell type
✲ try to keep handovers within same layer unless speed change
➨ mean time between handovers

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Half Rate Coding / Dual Rate Operation

Has potential to double network capacity


➨ Advantages:
✲ No additional sites / frequencies required
✲ Minimum investment for infrastructure upgrade
➨ Disadvantage:
✲ Speech quality degradation (reduction of speech bit rate from 13 kb/s to
6.5 kb/s)
– Especially mobile-to-mobile calls
➨ Gain depends on ratio full rate users / half rate users / data traffic

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Cell Parameter Optimisation


Default parameter sets:
➨ PS! Standard setting suitable for most cases
➨ Starting point for possible optimisation, however
✲ more relevant after other optimisation activities
➨ Different parameter standards may be used for
✲ different area types
✲ BTS types
✲ etc.
Danger
➨ many parameters easy to lose overview
✲ inconsistencies
✲ deterioration of quality

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Possible Network Optimisation Measures


Effect

Overlaid
microcells
Dual mode

Cell spiltting
Dual band
Frequency
Underlay/

Sectorisation
Changes
Overlay

HR Repeaters
FH, PC, DTX

Fine tuning of antenna


Cell parameter

Preamps
orientation and tilt
setting

Adding
TRX

Cost, Effort

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999


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Increasing Network Capacity

The relationship between quality and capacity


➨ In a congested network, quality can deteriorate very quickly:

Congestion
Poor speech
Extended call quality
setup times

Interference/
Noise
Dropped
Unavailability call
of service

– Violation of all 4 basic quality criteria

ICN PLM CA NP © SIEMENS Limited 1999