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WAR DEPARTMENT

FIELD MANUAL

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WAR DEPARTMENT

DECEMBER 1943

JA R

DEPARTMENT FM 2-6

FIELD

MA4NUAL

CREW DRILL LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8

WAfR

DEPARTMENT

DECEMBER 1943

_ )1 "l~e DISSEMINATION OF RESTRICTED MATTER.-No person is entitled solely by virtue of his grade or position to knowledge or possession of classified matter. Such matter is entrusted only to those individuals whose official duties require such knowledge or possession. (See also AR 380-5.)

United States Government PrintingOic Washington: 1948

WAR DEPARTMENT,
WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 30 December 1943.

FM 2-6, Cavalry Field Manual, Crew Drill, Light Armored Car M8, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.
[A. G. 300.7 (16 Nov 1943).] BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:

G. C. MARSHALL, Chief of Staff,


OFFICIAL:

J. A. ULIO, Major General, The Adjutant General.


DISTRIBUTION:

D 2, 7, 17 (5); Bn and H 2, 18 (5); IC 2, 18 (20). (For explanation of symbols see FM 21-6.)

.~~~~~~~~~I

TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraphs Page SECTION I.General___--___-__--------------__ __-1-2 1 2 3-4 II. Crew composition and formations_________ 5-6 3 III. Crew control___________-______________________________ 7-11 7 IV. Crew drill ______-_______- -V. Signals_----.-----______--__---___-----12 9 VI. Dismounted action__ ------------ ___----13-14 9 15 10 _--------------------VII. Inspections -------10 VIII. Service of 37-mm gun _-----_____ ________- 16-22 23-27 13 -__ -__.__-___--____-----IX. Mounted action_ 28-29 14 __------------X. Special situations______--30-33 15 XI. Destruction of equipment_______-___----APPENDIX -___--- ___----__-___________________---------17

FM 2-6 1-2

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8


SECTION I

GENERAL
1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE.-a. This manual is designed for the

use of the platoon leader and car commander in training members of the crew of the light armored car M8. (See fig. 1.) It is to be used as a guide to achieve orderly, disciplined, and efficient execution of mounted and dismounted action, and precision, accuracy, and speed in the service of the vehicular weapons. b. Reference is made to other War Department publications where appropriate. A complete list is contained in FM 21-6. * 2. TRAINING PRINCIPLE.-Training in crew drill will stress the importance of the prompt execution of correct movements at all times. Strict adherence to standardized procedures during the training period will insure the smooth functioning of the crew as a team in critical combat situations.

FIGURE 1.-Light armored car M8.

3-4

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SECTION II CREW COMPOSITION AND FORMATIONS 3. COMPOSITION.-The crew of the light armored car M8 consists of four members, a car commander, a radio operator and assistant driver (hereafter referred to as radio operator), a driver, and a radio operator and gunner (hereafter referred to as gunner). The car commander may be an officer or a noncommissioned officer.
4. FORMATIONS.-a. Dismounted posts.-The crew forms in

one rank. (See fig. 2.) The car commander takes his post three paces in front of the right front wheel, facing to the front. The radio operator, driver, and gunner, in that order, take posts on the left of the car commander at close interval (4 inches).

3 PACES

0000
CAR COMDR RADIO OPERATOR
L& asst drber)

GUNNER DRIVER

(RadOpr&)

FIGURE 2.-Dismounted posts.

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8

4-5

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CAR COMDR RADIO OPERATOR
(& amst driver)

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GUNNER DRIVER

(Rad Opr&)

FIGURE 3.-Method of mounting.

b. Mounted posts.-The crew forms mounted as follows (see fig. 4): (1) Car commander.-On the right side of the turret,
standing on the floor, or sitting or standing on the turret

seat. (2) Radio operator.-In the assistant driver's seat. (3) Driver.-In the driver's seat. (4) Gunner.-On the left side of the turret, standing on the floor, or sitting or standing on the turret seat.
SECTION III

CREW CONTROL * 5.. OPERATION OF INTERPHONE.-a. The interphone is used


whenever the car is operated. After mounting, headsets and

5-6

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

microphones are put on and tested according to the procedure outlined in paragraph 1 of the appendix. b. In connecting the break-away plug, each crew member inserts the plug of the short cord extending from his headset, into the break-away plug of the extension cord of his interphone control box. The throat microphone is adjusted so that the microphone buttons fit firmly on the front part of the operator's neck, and is connected to the break-away plug on the extension cord. During the procedure of checking interphone, each crew member adjusts the volume control on his interphone control box to the desired level. Care must be taken that the microphone switch does not remain in a locked position. c. It is the duty of each man invariably to check his personal interphone equipment upon mounting. He ascertains that it is properly maintained and reports malfunctions to the car commander. d. Definite Gommands and terminology are set forth in paragraph 6, These terms, and such others as are standardized by individual units, are used in order to insure speed and accuracy in the transmission of orders. General conversation on the interphone causes misunderstanding and disorder and is detrimental to discipline.
* 6. INTERPHONE LANGUAGE.--l. Terms.

Car commander_____ Radio operator ----_ Driver--____--------Gunner--__--------Any unarmored car___ Armored car--------Any unarmored truck_ Any antitank gun.___ Infantry____________ -DOUGHS Machine gun_________ _------__ Airplane --__-----__. Tank ----Mines ______------__Ditch ----__---------

LIEUTENANT or SERGEANT RAD DRIVER GUNNER CAR ARMORED CAR TRUCK ANTITANK MACHINE GUN PLANE TANK MINES DITCH

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8

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CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

b. Commands for movement of car (see also FM 2-5). DRIVER MOVE OUT DRIVER STOP DRIVER REVERSE DRIVER SLOW DOWN DRIVER CLOCK 3, STEADY ON To turn left 60 _ __-- DRIVER CLOCK 10, STEADY ON To turn right (left) --------------- DRIVER, CLOCK 6 RIGHT 180 _ (LEFT), STEADY ON To have driver move toward a terrain feature or reference point, the car being headed in proper DRIVER MARCH ON WHITE direction________-HOUSE (HILL, DEAD TREE, ETC.) To follow in column__ DRIVER FOLLOW THAT CAR (DRIVER FOLLOW C A R To To To To To move forward--_-halt-------------reverse _--------decrease speed__-----turn right 90 _
NO. __)

To follow on road or trail--------------- DRIVER RIGHT ON ROAD (DRIVER RIGHT ON TRAIL) DRIVER CRANK UP To start engine___--To stop engine------- DRIVER CUT ENGINE To proceed in a specific gear________- _ DRIVER THIRD GEAR (FIRST GEAR) (FOURTH GEAR) To proceed at same DRIVER STEADY speed-__--______---

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR MS

6-7

c. Commands for control of turret. To traverse turret---- GUNNER TRAVERSE LEFT (RIGHT) (REAR) To stop turret travGUNNER STEADY, ON _-------erse ----d. Fire orders.-See FM 23-50 and 23-81.
SECTION IV

CREW DRILL U 7. To FORM CREW.-a. Crew being dismounted.-At the


command DISMOUNTED POSTS, FALL IN, crew takes dismounted

posts (see par. 4a and fig. 2). In falling in, crew menbers dress automatically on the car commander at close interval and then come to attention without command. b. Crew being at dismounted posts.-At the command
FALL OUT, the crew breaks ranks. Members habitually fall

out to the right of the car. c. Crew being at dismounted posts.-At the command CALL OFF, the members of the crew call off in turn as follows: (1) Car commander_ _. SERGEANT (or LIEUTENANT). (2) Radio operator-_--. RAD. (3) Driver -----------. DRIVER. GUNNER. (4) Gunner -_____----d. Crew being at dismounted posts.-To change designations and duties, the cbmmand is: FALL OUT SERGEANT (RAD)
(GUNNER).

(1) At the command(a) The man designated to fall out moves by the rear to the left flank position and becomes gunner. (b) The crew members on the left of the vacated post move smartly to the right one position and prepare to call off their new designations. (c) The crew member occupying the car commander's post starts calling off as soon the the crew is re-formed in line. (2) The movement may be executed by ordering any member of the crew except the gunner to fall out. 7

7-11

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

(3) The movement should be executed with snap and precision at double time. * 8. To MOUNT CREW-a. The crew, being at dismounted posts or dismounted, is mounted at the command or signal MOUNT. At the command or signal, crew members mount as prescribed in paragraph 1 of the appendix. (See also figs. 3 and 4.) During early stages of training, mounting should be done "by the numbers." b. Crew drill is conducted habitually with the gun cover of the 37-mm gun and the coaxial machine gun removed. Both hatch top covers will clear the guns if the turret traverse is set between 0 and 1 Left. The exact turret setting for each vehicle should be determined by the gunner and the traverse habitually placed on that setting before the gunner dismounts from the vehicle. Under special circumstances, when it is desired to leave the muzzle cover on during crew drill, the 37-mm gun is carried in a position between 0 and 1 Right to enable the driver's hatch top cover to clear.
9. To CLOSE HATCHES.-At the command CLOSE HATCHES,

the crew proceeds as outlined in paragraph 2 of the appendix.


* 10. To OPEN HATCHES.-At the command OPEN HATCHES,

the crew proceeds as outlined in paragraph 3 of the appendix. * 11. To DISMOUNT CREW.-a. The crew, being at mounted posts with hatch front covers open,'is dismounted without vehicular weapons at the command or signal DISMOUNT. The crew proceeds as outlined in paragraph 4 of the appendix.
for the gunner to move the turrent sufficiently to the left to enable radio operator to open his hatch top cover after the driver has opened his. (See par. 8b.)
NoTE.-If the gun cover is left on the guns, it will be necessary

b. When the radio is to be used, the radio operator or the gunner remains in the car. The command for this is: EXCEPT RAD (GUNNER) DISMOUNT. c. The crew habitually dismounts wearing helmets and carrying individual weapons.

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8 SECTION V SIGNALS

12-14

12. VISUAL SIGNALS.-a. Flag signals.-(1) Each armored car normally carries three solid color flags, red, green, and orange. (2) Flags are displayed vertically through the turret and may be moved to attract attention, or held stationary. (3) The meanings of the signals are as follows: Red-Enemy in sight. Green-All clear, ready, or understood. Orange-Out of action or disregard my actions. Green and orange-Assemble, or close. Red and green-Disperse. Red, green, and orange-Gas. (4) Additional signals may be improvised. (5) The commands conveyed by the flag signals are executed as soon as they are understood. (6) All subordinates are required to repeat flag signals as soon as they are understood. b. Other visual signals.-Arm-and-hand, light, fire con*

trol, driver's, and pyrotechnic signals are discussed in detail in FM 2-7 (when published).
SECTION VI DISMOUNTED ACTION
FIGHT ON FOOT.-At the command or signal FIGHT ON FOOT, the crew proceeds as outlined in paragraph 5 of the appendix.

* 13. To

* 14. To REMOUNT.-a. At the car commander's signal OUT OF ACTION, the machine gun is taken out of action as prescribed in FM 23-45. If the driver has moved the vehicle to cover, the car commander signals BRING UP THE VEHICLE. The crew is mounted as prescribed in paragraph 8. b. After mounting, the crew replaces the weapons and ammunition which were removed for dismounted action.

15-17

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL SECTION VII

INSPECTIONS
To -insure mechanical efficiency it is necessary that the armored car systematically receive preventive maintenance and inspections at regular intervals. The car commander is responsible for seeing that all inspections are made. He aids in making inspections and receives the reports from the various crew members relative to their individual inspections. He indicates in his report anything requiring the services of maintenance personnel. In supervising first echelon maintenance he uses his discretion in delegating responsibility to other crew members. b. The Driver's Report must be prepared carefully and thoroughly. Any irregularity previously reported which is not repaired before the car is used again is reentered on subsequent reports until such time as it has been corrected. c. For crew duties in performing inspection and maintenance before operation, inspection during operation, inspection at the halt, and inspection after operation, see paragraphs 6 to 9, inclusive, of the appendix. * 15. GENERAL.-a. SECTION VIII

SERVICE OF 37-MM GUN


* 16. GENERAL.-The gun crew of the 37-mm antitank gun

consists of the gunner who aims and fires the piece, and the car commander who controls and adjusts fire and also acts as assistant gunner and loader. See paragraphs 10 to 14, inclusive, of the appendix for duties of crew in serving the turret guns. (See fig. 5.) * 17. LOADING.-The car commander grasps the cartridge at the base with his left hand, turns the projectile to the front, swings his arm toward the breech, and inserts the round in the opening. After the nose of the projectile enters the chamber, he propels the round forward by a quick push with his thumb and fingers on the base of the round, and moves the arm upward to clear the closing breechblock. (See fig. 6. Note position of fingers.) He then touches the leg of 10

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8 except in combat.

20-24

The breech is left open and the gunner

takes post to receive the round as it is pushed out of the chamber. The car commander, using the rammer staff, rams the round out. The round should be shoved out of the gun with a steady pressure. If this does not suffice, the rammer may be tapped gently with a light block of wood. If the round cannot be removed by this procedure, experienced ordnance personnel should be called. * 21. MALFUNCTIONS.-A malfunction of the gun or the ammunition causes a temporary cessation of fire. Most malfunctions can be prevented by proper care and cleaning of gun and ammunition. Immediate action is the procedure followed in order to correct the malfunction promptly. The causes of and immediate action for the various malfunctions of the 37-mm gun M6 are set forth in FM 23-81. * 22. CARE AND CLEANING.-The vital importance of proper care and maintenance of vehicular weapons must be stressed throughout crew training. See FM 23-81 and FM 23-50. SECTION IX MOUNTED ACTION * 23. To LOAD WEAPONs.-Normally, the 37-mm gun is left unloaded, with breechblock closed, until the actual fire order is given. The car commander then loads the gun. The machine gun is kept half loaded during the approach march, when action is not imminent, and in bivouac. It is kept fully loaded at all times when there is any likelihood of the appearance of enemy targets. * 24. DUTIES IN FIRING.-a. The car being prepared for action and the weapons loaded, at the command FIRE each crew member executes such of the duties enumerated in paragraph 11 of the appendix as will insure the continued firing of weapons and operation of the car. b. Driver.-(1) When car is moving.-(a) The driver continues to drive in the direction indicated by the car commander. He operates the car at a constant speed, avoiding acceleration and deceleration as much as possible. He does
645958--45 3 13

24-28

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

not deviate from the designated course except to avoid large obstacles or to change course as directed by the car commander. When the car is about to pass over rough ground or make a necessary change of course, the driver warns the gunner by calling "Rough" or "Changing course." Even though the car is slightly off the most advantageous course at the moment, the driver does not make any correction since even a small change in direction Wvill upset the gunner's tracking. (b) If the car commander does not order a gear ratio, the driver selects a gear ratio which will permit maintenance of the ordered constant speed consistent with the variations of the particular terrain. If the car commander announces the gear, the driver drives at the ordered speed or at a selected speed consistent with the terrain. (2) When car is not moving.-(a) The driver keeps the vehicle in readiness to move promptly on order of the car commander. (b) He observes the sector assigned by the car commander and reports targets to the car commander. * 25. To SUSPEND FIRING.-At the command or signal susPEND FIRING, firing is stopped as prescribed in paragraph 12 of the appendix.

* 26. To CEASE FIRING.-At the command CEASE FIRING, the


crew proceeds as outlined in paragraph 13 of the appendix. * 27. To SECURE EQUIPMENT.-At the command SECURE EQUIPMENT, the crew proceeds as outlined in, paragraph 14 of the appendix.
SECTION X

SPECIAL SITUATIONS * 28. ACTION IN CASE OF FIRE.-The first crew member to


discover a fire gives the alarm, announcing the location of the fire; example, ENGINE FIRE (HULL FIRE). Crew members proceed as follows: The driver takes the hand fire extin-

guisher and directs it on the fire. Other members of the crew will assist in combating the fire until further progress seems impossible. They dismount only on order of the car com14

CREW DRILL, LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8

28-30

mander. When time permits, the crew, in abandoning the vehicle, removes the 37-mm gun sight, the machine gun(s), carbines, grenades, and as much ammunition as possible. * 29. To ABANDON VEHICLE.-At the command ABANDON VEHICLE, crew members follow procedure prescribed in paragraph 5 of the appendix, to fight on foot, except that all available caliber .30 machine-gun ammunition and hand grenades are removed from the car, if the situation permits, as a reserve suppfy for the crew. If practicable, wounded personnel are removed.
SECTION XI

DESTRUCTION OF EQUIPMENT * 30. GENERAL.-a. Situations may arise when materiel must be destroyed to prevent(1) Its capture intact by the enemy. (2) Its use by the enemy, if captured, against our own or allied troops. b. The principles to be followed are: (1) The destruction of mat6riel subject to capture or abandonment in the combat zone is undertaken only when in the judgement of the military commander concerned such action is necessary. The destruction of materiel is a command decision to be implemented only on authority delegated by the division or higher commander. (2) Methods for the destruction of materiel subject to capture or abandonment in the combat zone must be adequate, uniform, and easily followed in the field. (3) Destruction must be as complete as available time, equipment, and personnel will permit. If thorough destruction of all parts cannot be completed, the most important features of the materiel should be destroyed, and parts essential to the operation or use of the materiel which cannot be easily duplicated should be ruined or destroyed. The same essential parts must be destroyed on all like units to prevent the enemy from constructing one complete unit from several damaged ones by cannibalization. c. Crews will be trained in the prescribed methods of de15

30-33

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

struction, but training will not involve the actual destruction of mat6riel. d. Certain methods require special tools and equipment, such as TNT and incendiary grenades,' which normally may not be items of issue. The issue of such special tools and mat6riel, the vehicles for which issued, and the conditions under which destruction will be effected are command decisions in each case, according to the tactical situation. * 31. ARMORED CARS.-a. To destroy vehicle see paragraph 15 of the appendix. b. Whenever time and materials are available, combine the vehicle destruction outlined in paragraph 15 of the appendix with the armament and equipment destruction outlined in paragraph 16 of the appendix. If possible, detach and evacuate all machine guns mounted in the vehicle prior to de.stroying it. For additional methods, see FM 25-10. * 32. WEAPONS.-a. 37-mm gun.-To destroy 37-mm gun, see paragraph 16 of the appendix. For additional methods, see FM 23-81. b. Small arms.-For details of destroying carbines and light machine guns, see FM 23-7 and FM 23-50, respectively. - 33. RADIO EQUPMENT.-Secret and confidential equipment, codes, ciphers, cipher devices, and all instruction books will be destroyed beyond recognition when subject to capture or abandonment in the combat area. For details of methods to be employed for destroying various ;types of communication material, see FM 24-5. Radio sets may be destroyed by smashing with an ax'or other heavy instrument. Dispose of broken equipment by burning or burying.

16

Paragraph To mount______________________ ___________________________ 1 2 To close hatches ________________-__________________ ____ _ 3 To open hatches _________________________________-_________ 4 To dismount_____ _____-_______-_____-----_________._ 5 To fight on foot -__________________________________________ 6 Inspection and maintenance before operation -______________ 7 __________--____ Inspection during operation ---- _--_-------___________ 8 Inspection at halt__-___________.___-----9 Inspection after operation ____-__.______-___________________ 10 __________________ ------------To prepare to fire-_ 11 _--_ ---------------------Duties in firing ____----- ___----12 To suspend fire___ -------------. 13 To cease firing______________----___-------------------_---14 _______-------------_------------_--_To secure equipment -_ 15 To destroy vehicle ___________-_____________________-------16 -----------_-------------To destroy weapons--______-----

APPENDIX

17

CAVALRY FIELD MANUAL

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