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Chapter 2: Design Process 13


Objectives: Upon completion of this chapter the reader will

be able to:
1. Establish ground rules for any design process.
2. Comprehend and implement the principles of product
design & development.
3. Comprehend different stages of design activities.
4. Implement the activities.
In our present day life, whole environments are man- made.
(Right form a needle to the most sophisticated aircraft or
spacecraft systems). So we can say that, manufactured products
are dominating very great part of our life. Design, construction,
usage and salvation of these manufactured products rise from the
need of living things.
(e.g.) Individual human beings, group of individuals, or a nation.
The need may arise because of the desire, want, interest, motive,
drive or necessity of these living things. Generally speaking every
industrial product whether it is a simple device like a tool or
complex systems like a flexible manufacturing system, it is
conceived, constructed, exploited and salvaged to satisfy the
needs of the living things. To analyze this generalization let us
consider the following products and systems.
(e.g.) A plough, a house, a bicycle or car, a restaurant.
Let us ask ourselves the following question.
“Why the above products or systems came into being?”
The answer to the above question obviously will be “to satisfy
certain needs”. These needs may be classified as the needs of the
manufacturer/seller/owner and the needs of the user. For example
the plough is satisfying the need of the user which is ploughing
his/her plot of agricultural land. On the other hand, the plough is
also satisfying the economic need (financial income) of its

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 14
manufacturer and seller. The same way a house or a building
which was constructed by a contractor satisfy the economic needs
of its constructor, and the economic needs of the seller of the
building materials, on the other hand the house or the building
also satisfy the need of its owner namely sheltering. Similarly the
car or the bicycle, which is used for transporting the people or the
restaurant, which is providing drinks and food to the people,
satisfies the economic need of the manufacturer of the car or
bicycle and the owner or proprietor of the restaurant.
To conclude, we can state that
“It is the need of the human beings (even other living things) for
better living that leads to the conception, creation, conservation,
exploitation and salvation of countless industrial and domestic
So, the life cycle of a man-made product or system
(industrial/Domestic) can be shown as follows.

Statement of the need

Need analysis

Conceptualization and Design of the geometric

Creation of the configuration shape
Product/system description/ form design

Functional Analysis and Design & analysis of
Design of the Product/system Dimensions/Size
Description/Theory of

Manufacturing and
Design & analysis of
mechanisms for strength,
Usage/exploitation forces, moments &


Fig: 2.1 Life cycle of a Product/System

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Chapter 2: Design Process 15

Need for Contd..

Need Product
coming Development
from from different
different sources Analysis of

Need Analysis of
Initial Analysis forces
analysis System Analysis of
Analysis strength,
vibrations, &
Functional other aspects
Analysis of
Shape Product
design Concept Detailed Design

design General Component/p
Assembly arts
Concept options

Total structure Pre- Physical
design production Performance
prototype Testing
Individual form
Proto-type Technical breakthrough
developme working prototype
nt developed!!!

Shape design options

Manufacturing systems
design (Tooling design,
production planning etc.)
First breakthrough!!
Legend: Shape developed!
All dashed Production prototype
lines indicates
the iteration
and revision Contd..
process based
on options and
feedbacks Fig 2.1 (contd.) Design activities at different stages of
product development
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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 16

As can be seen from the above life cycle (fig 2.1)the creation of a
new product or systems takes in many levels of activity and many
skills as shown in the block diagram (fig 2.1 contd.)above.

The main aim of this text book is to analyze closely some of these
design aspects like creation of a product, form design, form
factors and appearance of the product. Apart form the above topic,
this text book will also discuss topics such as Need Analysis,
System Analysis, Technical Analysis, and Functional Analysis.
Hence, the contents of this text book should be seen only as apart
of design technique.

For clarity and comprehension reasons, a brief explanation of the

following terms has been outlined below.

1.1.1 Design
The word” design” has many meanings including the following.
To plan, conceive, invent and to designate so as to transmit the
plan to others. Design means creation of the purest sense. It is the
initial process in the construction, manufacturing etc. of products. Construction
It is the process of materialization of the design layout.
Construction could be experimental (prototypes and models) for
testing or manufacturing purposes, or final as in the case building
and road constructions.
1.1.3 Manufacturing
It is the process of industrialization of a product for consumer
applications. Manufacturing could be unit/job/batch/mass
production using machine tools.
1.1.4 Mechanical design and construction
Unlike what is commonly called building construction
(construction of buildings, roads, bridges etc.) mechanical design
and construction deals with the creation and construction of
mechanically or electro- mechanically operated mechanisms such
as machine tools, devices, equipments or systems.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 17



Product Assembly or Model or Proto Type



Product, Assembly or Systems

Fig 2.2 Relationship between Design, Construction and

1.1.5 Mechanisms
In the context of book, a mechanism will be defined and
interpreted as” every mechanical or technical product” (e.g. a tool,
a machine, an equipment, a device, or a systems) which has been
conceived, constructed and/or manufactured and exploited in view
of satisfying a certain need of living things.
1.1.6 Technical object.
A Technical object is every piece, every tool, every equipment,
every machine or in other words every mechanism that functions
with an input or a set of inputs to produce an output. By analogy,
with the science of life, which considers human being like a
functional biological unit, we say that every technical object is a
functional unit. The global function of the technical object is to
bring an added value to the input, which is the output.

Input Mechanism Output

Fig 2.3 Technical object

However everything depends on the manner how we consider the

system or technical object. That is for an user, an electric bulb is a
functional unit and thus it is a technical object But for the

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 18
manufacturer of the electric bulb filament is a functional unit and
thus it becomes a technical object.
1.1.7 Need.
Need may be simply defined as the desire or necessity for a given
industrial product, expressed by a person termed as us user. A
given need may be accurately specified through need analysis.
The need may be satisfied through design, construction and
exploitation of the desired product.
It is a method which tries to analyze systematically the kinds and
qualities of forces at work and the manner of their interaction in
satisfying the need. It consists of listing the user needs for the
design in brief succinct phrases. Each user need should be
identified with the basic need it represents. Needs are identified at
many points in a business or agency. Most organizations have
research and development components whose job is to create
ideas that are relevant to the needs of the organization. Needs may
come from the inputs of operating or service personal or from
customers through sales or marketing representatives. Other needs
are generated by outside consultants, purchasing agents,
government agencies, or trade associations or by the attitudes and
decisions of the general public.
Needs also arise from dissatisfaction with the existing system, or
situation. They may be to reduce cost, increase reliability, or
performance, or just change because the user has become bored
with the product. The first, foremost and the most critical step in
the need analysis is the definition of need or statement of the
problem. The definition of a problem should include writing down
formal problem statement which should express as specifically as
possible what the design is intended to accomplish. The true
problem is not always what is seems to be at first glance. Because
this step requires such a small part of the total time to crate the
final design, its importance is often overlooked. Fig 2.4, 2.5 and
2.6 illustrates how the final design can differ greatly depending
upon how the problem is defined.
It is advantageous to define the problem as broadly as possible. If
the definition is broad you will be less likely to overlook unusual
or unconventional solutions. But in most cases, the extent to
which you are able to follow a broad problem formulation will
depend on the importance of the problem, the limits on time and

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Chapter 2: Design Process 19

money that been placed on the problem, and your own position in
the organization.

As proposed by the As specified in the project

project sponsor request
Fig 2.4 Note how the design depends on Project Request

As designed by the As produced by

senior designer manufacturing
Fig 2.5 Note how the design depends on Designer and Manufacturer

As installed at the user's site What the user wanted

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 20
Fig 2.6 Note how the design is finally installed in relation to
what is expected
The minimum definition of problem should include writing down
a formal problem statement, which should include goals and
objectives, definitions of any special technical terms; the
constraints placed on the design and the criteria that will be used
to evaluate the design. Perhaps the best way to proceed is develop
a problem statement at the initial problem definition step and then
in the second iteration after much information has been gathered,
develop a much more detailed problem statement that is usually
called the Need Analysis. This need analysis should be used to
derive at the final problem analysis and it should be stated in the
project document. Project documents are contractual documents
established between the inventor or designer of the technical
object and it’s future user termed as client.
The above process of initial statement of problem, gathering
information preparing final statement of problem or problem
analysis and preparation of project document for Need Analysis
will be illustrated here with an example. A Design example
Need Analysis Step: 1 Type of Need or formal need statement

A lifting object to be used at the end of the crane hook,

which is capable of lifting transfer ladles along with molten
metal from one place to another place to be used in a steel-
melting furnace.
It can be easily deduced that the technical object with the above
description is a ladle hook. Therefore we can proceed as follows.
Need Analysis Step: 2 First iteration - Preliminary
information gathering
On what type of inputs does the mechanism or technical object

Ladle and Crane

Which is the technical object?


What is expected to accomplish?

Lift the ladle in empty condition and with molten metal

Fig: 2.7 Need Analysis Step 2
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Chapter 2: Design Process 21

The above problem statement is too fragmentary. Many questions

must be answered before we have sufficient information to
complete the problem statement. In order of find out what
questions or details/ information may be asked for? We may have
to go in for a System Analysis.
Why it is necessary?
2.3.1 Definition of Terms System
To transport
Interaction between the molten
the human metal
be being andinhis
the product with a
certain environment. from one place or another place Sub- systems

The individual parts that make –up the whole structure of system. Open system
The one that interacts with the Environment Closed system
The one that does not interact with the environment. Actually any
system interacts with its Environment and the task is to determine
the degree of openness. Boundaries.
They are the points at which the product is in interaction with the
external environment. A boundary must be well defined. Flow
It is the movement of the material and the human energy through
a system. Input
It is the first phase of any system in which data, labor and other
energy, materials, equipment and money is received from other
system. Process

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 22
It is phase of the system that changes or transforms input into a
desired form is called as process (occasionally this phase of the
system is called as processor) Feedback
It is the regulating force that compares the systems’ output ( what
was produced) with the Standards of performance set for the
system (what should have been done or produced?) Control
It is the systems phase that dictates what can and can not be done
in each of other phases.
In our previous discussion, we said that an industrial product is
conceived, constructed and used to satisfy a need. It follows that
the human being is the master in all the above activities.
• He/she manifests his/her wish or will.
• He/she plans the design of the product.
• He/she manufactures and uses his/he product.
• He/she discards it when it is not needed.
So, we can say that the human being is in continuous interaction
with his creation. (i.e. product) We can also say that this
interaction takes place within a certain surrounding environment
is called a system.

External Environment

Internal Environment

Fig 2.8 System and Environment

A system in this case is a group of things or parts and the human
being working together for the purpose of satisfying a need.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 23


The system approach towards need specification and satisfaction
attempts to view the interaction of the human being and his
product within their surrounding environment as a single
integrated system of sub- systems.
It focuses on what role each part plays in the whole organization
of the system. To study a need, crate and construct a product to its
satisfaction, therefore will require the construction of a system
mode shown in Fig 2.9.

Man Power Process
Material Input Transfo Output Products
Machine rmation and
Information Services
Fig 2.9 Systems Approach
First of all a designer should establish whether he has got the
required resources (shown in Fig 2.9) to construct a designed
product. Without the possible availability of the minimum
required resources to manufacture a product there is no point in
making a design.
Hence using the systems approach towards need specification and
satisfaction the designer should make sure that all resources are
available at the disposal of the organization/Agency for which the
design is made and then he can proceed with the design process.
Before proceeding further on the system analysis first let us
discuss the various levels of systems (viz.,) manual systems,
mechanical systems, automated systems etc.
Systems may be classified in terms of processing power and the
degree of automation involved. They are
• Manual systems: in a manual system the earliest and still
most prevalent type of system is a system where the human
being is the data and the process processor. Remark:
Animals can also be integrated as process processors in this

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 24

• Mechanical systems: Also called electro- mechanical

system where most of the effort needed for the process is
furnished by mechanical or electro- mechanical sub-
systems such as wind, water electricity, chemicals etc.
• Automated systems: Unlike the other systems, the
involvement of the human being in this system is minimal
or non- existent. In this system the process is controlled by
programmed information
Generally the process of creating or improving a system is called
system study. In order to create a system first we have to
determine the inputs, commanding part and other interacting
environments, which are shown schematically below.
To illustrate how the above are determined, let us consider the
lifting hook again as an example for a technical object and
continue our discussion further as below.
Input Technical

Command Object Physical

Energy Human
Environment Environment

Fig 2.10 Elements that influence the use of a technical object

The internal, integral and related elements to the technical
object Inputs
The technical object operates on one or several inputs. The use of
these inputs must be specified with precision on the project
document. We can say that every input is an element that
influences the use of the technical object. The principal input of
the Lifting Hook is the ladle with the molten metal or the empty
ladle. The output being lifting the ladle with molten metal or in
empty condition. The project document therefore must specify the
characteristics of the ladle and the molten metal like.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 25

• The volume & weight of molten metal that ladle should

• The empty weight of ladle.
• The dimensions of the ladle
The above details should be written down in the project document
as a specification. Commanding part.
Every technical object will have a commanding part or otherwise
it will be controlled by some commanding part. So, We can say
that, the commanding part is an element, which influence the use
of a technical object.
It is the user (Human- being) and the Crane who is the
commanding part of the lifting hook. The user lifts the hook, load
the hook on the ladle, and remove the hook from the ladle. The
crane lifts the ladle and moves the ladle using the hook. So the
hook must be adaptable to suit the crane attachment, the crane’s
carrying capacity, it’ s speed of movement and the user’s hand. Energy Environment
Any technical object is operated by a particular type of energy or
it operates under particular energy environment. So, the energy
environment is also an element which influences the use of the
technical object.
The project document should specify how energy is used by the
technical object or otherwise it has to state the relationship
between the energy environment and the technical object.
It is evident that the crane and the user again who/which furnishes
the required energy for manipulating, loading, removing and
moving the hook. The shape of the hook which receives the user’s
hand and the muscular energy have to be adaptable to the shape of
the hand, to the intensity (magnitude) of the body, and to the
muscular energy, which a person normally exerts in various
Note: The study of the shape and movements of the human organs
will include study of ergonomics which is further discussed later
in the text.
The hook should be also adaptable to the carrying capacity of the

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 26
The external elements to the object
Finally the output must be obtained within a certain environment
or external environment. We will be able to distinguish three
different elements, which influence the use of ht object. Technical environment
It is the industrial and technical environment of the object, which
influences the use of the object. In reality the technical object
could be integrated into a vast structure in which it enters in
relation with other technical objects. Hence, the project document
should specify the nature of the technical environment and its’
relations with the technical object.
In case of the lifting hook these relationship can be different
depending on:
• its use, that is whether it is to be used with a particular
type of ladle or with different types of ladles
• whether it is to be used with a particular type of crane
and crane attachment
• whether it is to be used with different types of crane and
crane attachments.
In the above example the technical environment is highly reduced
or simply it associated mainly with the type of ladle and crane
with which it is to be used. But in case of complex technical
objects like large systems the technical environments and the
relationship will be also very complex. Physical environment.
Generally speaking, it is the physical universe or certain physical
phenomena that influence the use of the technical object or vice-
versa. For example the presence of humidity in the air brings
about corrosion to metals or it may spoil the wood etc. The project
document should therefor specify the specific or proper physical
environment that is required for the proper function of the
technical object over the stated period of time.
The physical environment of the lifting hook may be.
• the climate existing inside the steel- mill ( humidity,
temperature etc.)
• the temperature of the molten-metal.
• The temperature of ladle etc.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 27 The human environment.

The human environment consists of the human being and the
living things at large. The use of certain technical objects can
cause accidents including deaths. In a general manner the project
document must include the influence of technical object towards
the human environment in view of assuring its’ safe working
• The effect of pollution or the pollution that will be
crated by a technical object might raise a question to its
necessity (e.g. Atomic power plants)
• Action and reaction of its manipulation errors (e.g.
Accident occurred at Chernobyl Atomic power plant
because of manipulation error.)
Generally it is possible to represent schematically the influencing
elements/ environments on the use of the lifting hook as follows.
(Ladle with molten (Types of ladle and
metal) 1 crane)
User and Crane (Temperature, climate
(Fixing, removing (Lifting Hook)
moving etc) 3

User and Crane (Possible accidents to
(Hand And Muscular human being due to
Energy, Lifting Energy) failure)

Fig 2.11 Elements that influence the use of a lifting hook

2.4.1 Properties of the product
Any object (product, machine, or systems) possesses
characteristic properties. Some of these properties may be desired,

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 28
but others may be more or less unwanted. The most important
property of all is the primary function of the product, because it is
this that helps the user in his need. The other desirable properties
may be: pleasing appearance, ease of handling, safety, durability
and reliability, maintainability, ease of manufacturing etc. Before
the product is designed the designer should list the required
properties, perhaps in collaboration with the user. During the
design period when the product is created, it is these properties
that determine the decisions and choices that are made.
Unfortunately one cannot design a product in such a way that the
desired properties are determined one after the other, for they are
not independent variables. We find, however, that five properties
can be distinguished form all others, in that together they
completely define the product. They are:
For the product as a whole: Structure (i.e. the elements of the
Product and their relationship)
For each element: Form, Material, Dimension, surface
The aim in designing is that the qualities present in the finished
product should correspond to the properties required. As this aim,
however, is not always achieved, we must distinguish between the
desired properties and the realized ones. Thus we can arrive at a
model as shown in Fig 2.5. This shows the step by- step process
from the analysis of the problem to the finished product. In the
initial analysis stage, the problem is examined from all sides. This
results on the one hand in concrete formulation of the desired
function, and on the other hand, in a list of the desired properties,
which constitute the criteria, that must make up the background
for the selection of solutions.
Next follows the stage of synthesis, i.e. the stage in which the
product is created. This is done by roughly determining step by
step on the basic properties of structure, form, material,
dimension, and surface. When the basic properties are decided
and the design of the product is finished, then it can be
manufactured. After manufacture, the product exists, and
possesses some ‘realized properties’ which hopefully are close to
the ‘desired properties’ that were formulated during the initial
2.4.2 Functional Analysis
The model shown in Fig 2.12 is a greatly simplified one that
serves only to give a general view of the design process. It cannot
be used as a recipe for designing a product. It can, however, be

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Chapter 2: Design Process 29

elaborated to try to achieve this. As we are primarily concerned at

the first stage with the quality of ‘form’, we will only make the
model more detailed in the stages where the basic properties are
laid down. We can call the detailed model as the product
synthesis, as it shows the individual steps through which the
product is created.
Refer Fig 2.13. The black arrow shows the time sequence. The
product synthesis takes as its starting point the two outputs from
the problem analysis, namely on the one hand the formulation of
the desire function- the main function (possibly several sub-
ordinate main functions), on the other hand the list of desire
properties, which can also be described as criteria for an optimum
Basic Properties:
Desired Realized
Functions Functions
Figure 2.12 The basic properties

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 30


C Functions
I Sub-
T Functions
E and Means
A Basic


Total Form Form of


Fig 2.13 Functional analysis and creation of structure

In the product synthesis the very important stage of creating the
structure of the product is divided into a series of steps, beginning
with a division of the desired function into sub-function. Then
follows an examination of possible means of realizing the sub
functions, a combination of these into a basic structure and finally
an adaptation into a quantified structure, where critical parameters
are optimized and where the relative arrangement of the element
is determined.
Form is treated in two parallel branches, since the total form and
the form of the constituent elements are determined
simultaneously. The detailed form of the elements includes a
specification of materials, dimensions and surfaces. We see from
the product synthesis, Fig 2.13 that the criteria for an optimum
product are used through the whole design process as a guideline
and control for each step where a decision is taken.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 31

The following paragraphs outline the individual stages in the

product synthesis and functional analysis and typical examples are
2.4.3 Global functions
The Global function of a product is the way in which output is
determined by input. If we conceive the product as a compound
system we can discuss functions at all levels from the function of
the total systems (global function, or possibly several parallel
global functions) to the functions of sub- systems and of elements
(principal and elementary functions). The idea of function is a
very important tool for analyzing a problem into a series of clearly
formulated components that express what the product must be
able to do.
• The global function of a car is to transport people
and their property.
• The global function of a lathe machines is to shape
work materials to the desired form and size.
• The global function of a Ladle hook is to lift hot-
metal ladle with the aid of a crane.
Note: Every set of organs or pieces which is associated with a
global function can be called as a mechanism.

2.4.4 Principal, Elementary Functions and Means

Every relationship between technical object and one of the
surrounding environments (such as for example the physical or
human environment which influences the proper use of the
mechanism) is called a principal function.
In order to obtain a global function, it may be necessary first, to
obtain a set of principal functions. The global function of a
technical object/mechanism thus can be considered as an
organized set of principal functions.
When a principal function is complex enough for analysis it will
be necessary to break it down into a number of simple functions
called as elementary functions. This breakdown will then permit a
better analysis of the principal function.

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 32
By means, we understand a solution, i.e. a method, a sub- systems
or an element, with which a given function can be realized. The
division of the main function into principal functions and further
into elementary functions takes place alternately with the search
for means to realize these.
One possible procedure of obtaining the global, principal,
elementary functions and means consists of arranging a so-called
function/ means tree shown in Fig 2.14
The lifting hook of a hot- metal ladle functions with a set of
inputs such as the ladle with hot-metal and the lifting pin. The
functions from the point of view of the relationship between the
hook and these inputs are considered as principal functions. For
example the hot-metal has to be poured down from the ladle after
it was lifted and transported to a particular place. Hence the
distance between the lifting pin and the trunnion must be high
enough to accommodate one half of the diameter of the ladle if it
is tipped to its’ maximum extent. So, this principal function
determines the height of the hook.
Figure 2.14 show how the first stage in the function/ means tree
for an automatic tea maker may look. Theoretically the function/
means tree can be detailed until the means become machine
elements, or parts of machine elements. We stop when we find
means to the most important principal functions.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 33

Tea Process with Normal Tea Tea Process with

tea extract Process perfusion

time tea leaves

Water tea leaves
brewing tea from
Heating water and
Control Separate

Pass thro’ Water Tea Tea Water Remove tea Remove leaves
heating surface

Water Tea
element element
energy to water to
Bring Bring Measure Time Measure Tea Measure time
Concentration dependent status

Figure 2.14 The function/means tree of an automatic tea maker

2.4.5 Basic Structure
A solution is achieved by connecting one process for each
principal function, which we call the basic structure. The basic
structure can be expressed in block diagrams, working (or basic)
drawings (machine symbols, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric
symbols, etc) or otherwise simplified drawings. No decisions are
made at this stage as to ‘quantities’ such as dimensions, relative
arrangement etc. Fig 2.15 shows different basic structures of the
tea maker.
2.4.6 Quantified Structure
The quantified structure is one where the important parameters of
the individual elements are optimized and specified, together with
the relative arrangement of the elements. However, nothing is yet
decided concerning the form design of the elements. Different
quantified structures are shown in Fig 2.16.

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 34
2.4.7 Total form
The total form of the product is determined alternately with the
form of the elements. The requirements of the total design depend
on the product we are dealing with. If aesthetic criteria are
important (i.e. in cars, boats, cameras, etc) the design of the
elements must be adapted to the total design. If technical and
economic criteria are what matters most (i.e. carburetors,
gearboxes, satellites, etc) the design of the elements must take
precedence over the total design. Suggestions for total form of a
tea maker is shown in Fig 2.17.

Figure 2.15 Alternate Basic Structures for an Automatic Tea


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Chapter 2: Design Process 35

Figure 2.16 Quantified Structures for main elements of a Tea


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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 36

Figure 2.17 Suggestions for total form of the tea maker

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Chapter 2: Design Process 37

2.4.8 Form Design based on functional surfaces:

How can one make a start on the form design of a specific
element? We must ask ourselves, what it is that characterizes the
element in question? The element is a part of both a basic
structure and of a quantified structure. We can therefore say that
the element has been defined only by its function and by its
functional relationship to its surroundings. The starting point
of the form design must consequently be to formulate the
functions the element must perform. Thereafter one can sketch the
most important surfaces- or functional surfaces- and from these
the rest of the element may be designed.
In this book a functional surface is taken to mean a surface that
has an active function during use-for example, the slot in the head
of a screw; the area of impact on the head of a hammer; the
surface of a chair seat; the cogs on a wheel; etc. We now examine
the connection between the functional surfaces and the form. For
example, let us select a simple element- a bottle opener shown in
the following figure.

Figure 2.18 Two different bottle Figure 2.19 The functional

Openers with apparently surface of the two bottle
nothing in common openers

Figure 2.18 shows two types of opener which do not appear to

have much in common; however, the functional surfaces are
almost identical, in Figure 2.19, the bottle opener possesses three
functional surfaces as shown, the difference between the two
types illustrated consists in the different special arrangement of
the material connecting the functional surfaces.
We can therefore identify two steps in the design of an element,
on the one hand determining the functional surfaces and, on
the other, deciding how these will be connected together. As

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 38
already mentioned, Figure 2.19 shows this last step, while Figure
2.20 illustrates how other arrangements of the functional surfaces
give rise to other form design possibilities.
Functional surfaces are therefore the basis of the form design of
any product. It is therefore appropriate to discuss in more detail
what, in fact, functional surfaces are. In a product consisting of
more than one element there are two types of functional surfaces
external and internal. External surfaces have an active function
in relation to the surroundings, such as a handle, a supporting
surface, etc. the internal surfaces have an active function in
relation to other elements of the product.
This can be illustrated by imagining a product as a system
consisting of a number of elements with certain relationships to
each other. The vice in Figure 2.21 may thus be described as a
system shown in Figure 2.22 where the elements are represented
by blocks and the relationship between them and the surroundings
by lines.

Figure 2.20 Different choices of functional surfaces give rise to

different design possibilities

Figure 2.21 A vice. The starting point for figures 2.22 to 2.24

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Chapter 2: Design Process 39

If we consider a particular element of the vice e.g. the sliding jaw

we can see that that the relations correspond exactly to the above
mentioned functional surfaces. The sliding jaw has an external
surface, consisting of the surface, which presses on the subject as
well as of the tip horizontal surface. The internal surfaces consist
of the hole for the spindle and the two holes for the rods. The
functional surfaces are illustrated in Figure 2.23.
As shown in figure 2.24, a specific arrangement of functional
surfaces can be the basis for many form designs, and other
arrangements can give other series of form designs. In the
following paragraphs it will be apparent how a great deal of effort
is needed to determine which functional surfaces are to be used in
order that a firm and broad basis for the design work is achieved

Figure 2.22 A vice. Relationship of elements

Figure 2.23 A vice. The functional surfaces of the sliding jaw The method of variation of the functional surfaces
A specification of the parameters that determine the functional
surfaces of an element may form the basis of variation methods

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 40
for generating ideas. By systematic variation of the parameters it
becomes possible to list a number of arrangements of functional
surfaces for a given element. The relevant parameters that can be
varied are: numbers, arrangement, form geometry and dimension.

Figure 2.24 Suggested form designs for the sliding jaw, based
on two different groups of the functional surfaces.

Figure 2.25 Examples of variation of internal functional

surfaces based on the four variation parameters. The
examples shown are- a hinge, overhead projector, a socket for
a camera lens and a socket for an electric light bulb

Prepared by Prof.R.Panneer, Assistant Professor.

Chapter 2: Design Process 41

Figures 2.25 and 2.26 show a number of examples of products,

where the functional surfaces are emphasized. The products are
presented in pairs in order that the four variation parameters may
be observed, partly for the internal and partly for the external
functional surfaces.

2.26 Examples of variation of external functional surfaces based

on the four variation parameters. The examples are; a wheel for
a chair, an electric drill, a hotplate and an electric switch Restrictions of form design
Let us imagine that we have a proposal for the form design of the
functional surfaces of an element. How then do we move on from
there? As has already been mentioned, the functional surfaces
must be connected together. The problem is now to arrange the
connections so that the element can function in use. The role of
the element when in use must therefore be assessed and taken into
consideration. The conditions that may have to be taken account
of in the form design of an element can be formulated as follows: Banned areas:
1. Areas in space which are structurally conditioned must not be
obstructed, i.e. other elements must not be hampered (this
applies to both stationary and movable elements).

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 42
2. Areas in space which are functionally conditioned must not
be obstructed, (e.g. the objects in the process, rays of light
and jets of water).
3. Areas in space, which are operationally conditioned, must not
be obstructed (e.g. room for a hand, room for an operator,
On the basis of these banned areas one can now draw up a number
of form design suggestions that roughly show where in space the
connection must be put. The next step is to decide on the form
geometry and the dimensions- first as rough sketches and,
thereafter, in detail drawings, judged on for instance technological
or aesthetic criteria.
It is important to note from the preceding comments that the form
design of an element contains both a qualitative and a quantitative
part. Any decision on dimensions is irrelevant until it has been
decided how the material will be arranged, e.g. whether a
functional surface will be supported at one point or at several. The
number of elements and the relative arrangement of the
connections belong to the qualitative part of the form design,
while geometry and dimension belong to the quantitative one. The
following section explains how the variation of parameters can be
Taking a typical example-the frame in a hydraulic press- we now
observe how the variation parameters can be used in designing an
element. The frame of the press contains two functional surfaces,
namely the fastening areas for respectively the hydraulic cylinder
and the pressure plate.

Figure 2.27 Functional surfaces and banned areas in

connection with the form design of frame for a hydraulic press

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Chapter 2: Design Process 43

Refer Figure 2.27, when designing the frame there are three
banned areas:
1. There must be room for the piston in all its positions.
2. There must be room for an object of a closely defined
maximum size
3. There must be room for the object to be put into and taken
out of the press.
In other words the frame must be designed so that the two
functional surfaces are connected in a way which takes account of
the banned areas, and which allows it to fulfill its function- to
transmit the necessary forces.

Figure 2.28 Form concepts for frame for a hydraulic press

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 44
Figure 2.28 shows how the variation of number and arrangement
of elements may be used to examine where the material and
arrangement of elements may be used to examine where the
material can lie. After that, the variation of form geometry and
dimension make it possible to detail a number of rough design
suggestions or form concepts. For comparison, figure 2.29 shows
the design of a number of existing presses.

Figure 2.29 Hydraulic press.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 45

A more detailed use of the variation parameters is possible

through a closer indication of the material areas between the
functional surfaces. This is illustrated in the following example.
Figure 2.30 shows the functional surfaces in a fork joint with a
single bearing at one end and double bearings at the other. In
varying the material area it is appropriate to use three sorts of
symbols; a line for something that is approximately a rod (straight
or curved), a hatched plane for something flat, and finally a
hatched area for something solid, i.e. material in three
dimensions. Variations of form geometry and dimension can result
in a series of proposals as shown in figure 2.30. Note that it is
useful to work at two levels of abstraction, namely, with a series
of solutions where number and arrangement are varied and one
where form geometry and dimension are varied (Figure 2.30&
2.31). Note also the considerable difference in illustration
technique. The form proposals must now be further detailed, and
it becomes necessary to take into consideration the form factors
that actually exist. In the example of the fork joint, the
manufacturing process becomes a decisive factor for the choice of
design, which is discussed later.

Figure 2.30 Form concepts for a fork joint at the most

abstract level, where the number and arrangement of the
material areas are examined

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 46

Figure 2.31 Form concepts for a fork joint drawn up on the

basis of figure 2.30 and variation of form geometry and
dimension. The form division method
If the examples in the previous section are studied closely one
more parameter can be identified. This, through conscious
variation, can give rise to ideas for a number of suggestions for
the design.
This choice of dividing into more elements or integrating into a
few is a choice, which is always available. The division need not
lead to more physically separate elements, as it may be caused by
a visual division on a physically whole element.

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Chapter 2: Design Process 47

A deliberate variation of the number of elements may be suitably

called the form division method, bearing in mind that it may be
question of a division into more elements as well as an integration
into a few- possibly into a single whole one. In the examples on
the following pages the physical and the visual divisions are
considered. Incidentally it is not stated whether the elements are
physically separable or not, as either type may be possible when a
specific design is considered.
Figure 2.32 shows a pawl with four functional surfaces, the area
of the breaking function, the area of the bearing, the area of finger
pressure and the area of pressure for a mechanical systems, which
must be moved simultaneously with the pawl being released. If it
is assumed that the pawl must be form designed approximately as
shown in the illustration, that is to say that the material areas are
laid down the form division method may give rise to the form
design proposals shown.
Note that the number of part elements goes form 1 (complete
integration) to 5. It must be emphasized that the form division has
no functional importance, but it may be very important for the
manufacturing process and so for the economics. In Figure 2.32
pawl 4 will be the cheapest one if only one is to be made, whereas
pawl 1 may be cheapest in mass production.

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 48
Figure 2.32 Form concepts for a pawl based on variation of
the form division
We will now demonstrate the application of the form division
method on an element by one more example. The bearing in
Figure 2.33 contains two areas of bearing and a supporting
surface, and the approximate form design is shown. The rest of
the figure contains a number of ideas to which the form division
methods give rise. Here again, an essential factor in the choice of
form design will be the manufacturing process.

Figure 2.33 Form concepts for a double bearing

In the introduction to this topic, it was mentioned that the methods
in question may be used in designing either elements or complete
products. This also applies to the form division method. A coherent example: a pulley
It is usually appropriate to vary the five form variation parameters
in the following order: number and arrangement; form geometry
and dimension; form division. It is, however, not certain that in a
given situation all five parameters can be used. For instance, the
arrangement of material area may be ruled by so many conditions
that there is only one place for it. Alternatively, form geometry

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Chapter 2: Design Process 49

may be decided in advance. An example of the general situation,

where all five- variation parameters can be used, is shown below.
The object to be examined is a pulley, e.g. for a conveyor belt.
The pulley has two functional surfaces, the rolling surface and the
bearings. Variation of functional surfaces has been carried out in
Figure 2.34. where four variation parameter as will as maximum
and minimum surfaces are illustrated.Two groupings of functional
surfaces have been chosen for further examination, and in Figure
2.35 possible material areas are shown based on a variation of
numbers and relative arrangement. A division of the material areas
into the form of rods, planes or solids is useful. Figure 2.36 shows
how, by varying the form geometry and the dimension, a number
of more specific form design ideas can be given. Possible form
divisions for a few of these ideas are shown in Figure 2.37
The final decisions on the form depends largely on the choice of
material and manufacturing process and possibly also on an
evaluation of the appearance. By using sketches, models and scale
drawings one can decide on all the details, which are then
documented in a set of working drawing with the accompanying
assembly drawing. Naturally this plan, which corresponds to
Figures 2.34 to 2.37, is very schematic. This is in order to
underline the steps one must basically take in designing.

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 50
Figure 2.34 Variation of functional surfaces for a pulley on a
conveyor belt

Figure 2.35 Form concepts for a pulley at the most abstract

level where the number and arrangement of the material
areas are examined

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Chapter 2: Design Process 51

Figure 2.36 Form concepts for a pulley arrived at by varying

the form geometry and dimension of selected solutions form
Figure 2.35

Figure 2.37 Form concepts for a pulley. Two of the suggested

solution in Figure 2.36 have been detailed to a certain level by

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 52
varying the form division. For the final detailed design the
design engineer must first decide on the manufacturing
processes to be used.
Having established the relations between the technical object and
the surrounding environment using the systems analysis, the next
step in the design process will be analyzing these relations
between the technical object and its’ surrounding environment in
order to determine the end result viz., Nominal form, Nominal
size, Material required etc.
Knowledge of these relations will reveal the nature of
deformations and the intensity of the applied forces on the
technical object which will enable the designer to,
• Select the material for the technical object
• Calculate the sections of the organs of the assembly of
the technical object
• Selection of arrangement of pieces within the assembly
2.5.1 Technical Analysis Step: 1

1. What is a ladle hook and how does it function?

2. How much molten steel does an average ladle hold?
3. What is the empty weight of ladle?
4. What are the dimensions of the trunnions where the ladle
hooks meet with the ladle?
5. What are the service conditions? What are the maximum
and minimum temperatures?
6. What about corrosion and wear?
7. What is the expected life of a ladle hook?
8. What are the limitations on cost?
9. Are there any special precautions with regard to safety?
10. Is here any Design code?
11. Should the hook be so designed as to be adaptable to use
in handing scrap boxes or charging the furnace with Ferro
alloy additions?

Other questions might also be suggested, but the above will be

sufficient for staring the process. Certainly the list does point up
the need for information. The student can gather information
about the above questions from an experienced steel-mill

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Chapter 2: Design Process 53

engineer, by making phone calls to ladle manufactures and

suppliers, and referring some published information about steel-
mill equipment.

Fig 2.38 Teeming Ladle

2.5.2 Technical Analysis Step: 2

Gathered Information:
1. Fig 2.38 shows a teeming ladle that transfers molten steel
from the melting furnace to the ingot mold. Note that ladle is
supported form the crane by two ladle hooks. The hooks
make contact with the ladle at the bearing surfaces called
2. Steel mill cranes typically have a capacity of 100 to 200 tons.
We will assume a total ladle weight of 150 tons, since the
ladle is made of heavy steel plate lined with refractory brick,
its capacity for holding molten metal is only about 60 percent
of the total weight.
900 3600


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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 54

Fig 2.39 Details of Dimensions of Ladle

3. The specific dimensions of the ladle are given in Fig 2.39
taken form the design of hot metal ladles.
4. The conditions of service: the ladle hook will operate in a
steel mill building. The radiation from the molten-steel in the
uncovered ladle may result in temperatures as high as 6000C
to 10000C in part of the hook surface. Impact loading and
fatigue loading (very low frequency and low number of
cycles will be present. But they are not likely to be the
controlling factors.
5. Corrosion is likely to be a minor problem but wear could be
factor where the hook pins contact the crane and where it
6. Steel- mill equipments are heavy & rugged and built to last
long. An average life of 10-15 years would be a reasonable
estimation for a ladle hook
7. We can not have any special guide-lines on cost of the hook
other than that ladle is a fairly standard item. But we should
bear in our mind that the failure of a ladle hook that dropped
a ladle full of molten steel would be catastrophic
8. The design must have a high safety factor, reliable and yet be
With the above elaboration we can develop the complete problem
statement and problem analysis as follows.

2.5.3 Technical Analysis: Step: 3

Problem Statement:
Design a hook for lifting hot metal ladles with a maximum
weight of 150 tons . The hook should be compatible with the
ladle ( details given in Fig 2.38 & 2.39). The hook eye should
receive a 200-mm diameter pin for attaching to the crane.
2.5.4 Technical Analysis: Step: 4
We first need to determine the form or shape of the hook, which
should be compatible with the ladle and crane attachment.
The hook is a load- connecting member between the crane and the
ladle. From this information, we can deduce that the hook will
have general load configuration as shown in Fig 2.40 (But this
may not be the case for all design problems. Generally a detailed

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Chapter 2: Design Process 55

analysis is required for arriving at an acceptable form of the

product, which is discussed in detail earlier).


P=150 tons
Fig 2.40 Ladle

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 56




Fig 2.41 Ladle Hook

The next step is to establish the stress regions in order to further
refine and develop the form of the hook. (Refer Fig 2.41). There
are three critical stress regions in the hook.
Section A (at bight of the hook): Hook is subjected to 1)
Direct tensile loading 2) Bending stress as a curved beam
and 3) Lateral bending stress due to deflection of trunnions
and concentration of load towards the outer surface of hook
Section B (at shank section of hook): Hook is subjected to 1)
Direct axial stress and 2) lateral bending stress.
Section C (at eye of hook): Hook is subjected to 1) Direct
stress with stress concentration factor land 2) Lateral

Using some intuition, we can hypothesize that section A will be

critical section and stresses acting at section ‘A’ will establish the

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Chapter 2: Design Process 57

thickness of the hook. Section ‘B’ will establish the shank width
and Section ‘C’ will establish eye details.

2.5.5 Technical Analysis: Step: 5

Material selection and working stress
It is almost automatic that a load- bearing member of 2.5m to 3m
tall, in situation where deadweight is not critical will be made
from steel. Moreover the need for high reliability in large section,
coupled with modest cost, suggests that a structure built up form
steel plates is preferable to a monolithic cast or forged steel body.
Therefore we need to make a selection from the standard grades
of carbon and low- alloy steel plates that are commercially
available form the local market.

TABLE 2.1 Characteristics of Structural Steel

APEC. % % N/Mn2 COST
A36 Carbon steel 0.29 1.00 -- 250 1.0
A441 HSLA steel 0.22 1.25 0.02 345 1.15
A442 HSLA steel 0.15 1.10 0.05 V0.3cu 345 1.25
A514 Alloy steel 0.15 0.80 Ni-Cr-Mo 690 2.0

Based on ASTM Specification (Table 2.1) structural quality steel

falls into three categories.
Since welding may be used for fabricating this hook only
weldable grades with less than 0.30 percent carbon will be
considered. The A36 has impact and brittle fracture characteristics
that make it unsuitable for this application. A 514 is ruled out
because of high cost. The balance two HSLA steels defter chiefly
in their resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Since corrosion
resistance is not a crucial property for this application we can
decide to use the cheaper A441 steel.
The effect of high temperature or unrecognized stress
concentration owing to fabrication or metallurgical changes must
be taken into consideration in our analysis because safety is
paramount. Therefore we reduce the yield strength (YS) by a
factor of safety. Because weight is not an important consideration
in our application we have the luxury of using conservatively a
high factor of safety of 4

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 58

Yield Strength 345

∴ Working stress = = ≅ 86 N/mm2
Factor of Safty 4

Although the method of manufacturing the designed hook will be

considered after we have a better understanding of the Hooks’ size
and the detailed dimensions, for present purposes we can assume
that the ladle hook will be manufactured from built- up thickness
of steel plates held together by rivets or welding.

2.5.6 Technical Analysis: Step: 6

Detailed Stress Analysis

a c c


A A’
380 C C

R Centroid Axis

r Neutral Axis
P/2 Axis
I) Stresses at section A-A:
Fig stresses
Three different 2.42 Thecan
act hook
at the as curved
bight beam.
section of the hook. Of
the three, the bending stress in the curved section of the hook that
is due to the weight of the ladle is the most significant. Because of
geometry, the hook at section A is classified as a curved beam. A
characteristic of the curved beam is that the neutral axis does not
coincide with the centroid axis (Fig 2.42).

Even if your previous course on Strength of Materials did not

cover curved beams, you should have received enough
background to read about the subject and apply new information
to this problem.
1. The maximum tensile stress in section ‘A-A’.
The bending stress in section A-A is given by

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Chapter 2: Design Process 59

Ay ( r − y )
where r = v+y (refer Fig 2.15) A = 2ct
P 150 x104
The bending moment is R=M= (190 + c )
2 2
 75 x104 (190 + c ) 
∴Maximum Tensile Stress σmax =  y
 Ay ( r − y ) 
Since minimum value of (r-y) is ‘a’ and the maximum value of y
is (c - y )
 75 x104 (190 + c ) 
σ max =
Ay a
 c− y ( )
 
By definition;
A 2ct
y =R- = (190 + c ) −
dA dA
∫V ∫v
a+2 c
dA tdv
∫v = ∫
+2 c
= t ln v 190
190 + 2c
= t ln
∴ y = (190 + c ) −
 190 + 2c 
t ln  
 190 
if we let 2c = 600mm
then y = 69mm
and σ max =
2. The direct (axial) stress in section ‘A-A’ is,
75 x104 1250
σd = =
600t t
3. The lateral (sidewise) bending stress in section ‘A-A’ is,

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 60
The lateral (sidewise) bending stress can be determined by
assuming that the force on the hook is applied at 25 mm from the
outer surface of the plate.

25 mm



Fig 2.43. Lateral Bending Stress.

1 3 1
I= bh = 2ct 3
My ( pxl ) t
2 12 12
σ lb = =
t t
75 x104  − 25 
t 2  2 = 7500  t − 25 
= − 25 ∴σ lb =  
2 1 t2  2 
x 600t 3
These three stresses act simultaneously and at the critically
stressed location of A:
∴ σ total = σ max + σ d + σ lb
10792 1250 7500  1 
∴ σ total = + + 2  − 25 
t t t 2 
12042 3750 187500
= + −
t t t2
15792 187500
= −
t t2
Since we have already decided to limit the working stress to 86 N/
σ total = 86 N / mm2
By assuming the hook thickness as 125 mm, 150mm, 175mm etc,
we determine the total working stress as

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Chapter 2: Design Process 61


(in mm) at point ‘A’ N/mm2
125 114.34
150 96.95
175 84.12
Thus if the dimension of the hook at A-A are 2c = 600mm and t
=175mm the stress level is kept to a conservative value of 86

II) Stresses in the shank, Section B-B:

75 x104 4285.7
1. Direct stress: σd = =
tw w
Where ‘w’ is the width of the shank at BB.

2. Lateral Bending: σlb

 175 
75 x10 4  − 25 
 2  175
σ lb =
( w)(175) 3

293.88  175 
=  − 25 
w  2 
These two stresses act simultaneously at the location of B:
∴ σ total = σ d + σ lb

4285.7 18367.5
∴86 = +
w w
∴w =263.43 ≈ 264 mm

III) Stresses in Section ‘CC’ through eye of the hook:

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 62

j 200 j 175

Fig 2.44 Section ,CC’ of the Hook

1. Direct stress: σd = 3
3 x75 x10 6428.6
= =
2 jx175 j
2. Lateral Bending: σlb
 175  175
75 x10 4  − 25 
p ( 2 − 25) 2
t t
 2  2
σ lb = =
1 3 1
j (175)
12 12
75 x10 x 62.5 x87.5 x12
5359375 xj
9183.7 6428.6 9183.7 15612
= ∴∂ total = + = = 86
j j j j
∴ j =181. 5mm ≅ 182 mm
2.5.7 Final Dimensions:

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Chapter 2: Design Process 63

182 200 182


380 600

Fig 2.45 Final Dimensions

We have determined the dimensions of the critical elements of the
hook on the basis of the stresses that are expected to be present.
These dimensions have been determined by keeping the nominal
stresses at a level below 86N/mm2. At this point the drawing of
the ladle hook should be made to a suitable scale to check the
validity of the calculated dimensions and establish the remaining
dimensions. Some of the remaining dimensions will be
determined by functional requirements of the hook and its
surrounding environments. Other dimensions will be determined
by engineering common sense. Hence in order to the remaining
dimensions functional analysis of the technical object is essential.
First let us discuss the different types design strategies in order to
explain the need limitation with respect to a particular type of

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Design for Manufacture, Design Process and DFX 64
strategy. Within the realm of mechanical and electrical there are
four design strategies as listed below.
1. One- of – a kind design
2. Design for mass production
3. Large expensive systems
4. Design to code.
The first type is a design for a new product which will be
produced only once or produced few in numbers (like a lifting
hook for a ladle). This design would likely be characterized by
minimum of analysis and optimization. In design for mass
production, emphasis is on cost and quality. Design would
proceed through the various phases with extensive analysis,
prototype testing and optimization.
With a large expensive system like a 100 HW Steam turbine,
testing with prototypes is not affordable. But we must carry out
the design process as much as possible from analysis and from
field experience. In some situations public health or safety issues
are so paramount that available deigns have been circumscribed
by codes or standards. The design of a steam boiler is such an
example, where the code specifies the limiting stress and methods
for calculating it.
Even though the first type of the design will not consume much
time, design for mass production and design or large systems will
extend over a certain period of time. It is worth to mention here
that the conclusions derived over this period of time will have
absolute significance only within that time period of investigation.
After certain period of time the design evolved may not be
adaptable or the developed systems or product might loose its
demand. Even in the case of design for code type the codes may
be changing over the period of time. Hence the product designed
may not be according to the new code. We must consider these
limiting factors when we specify our need.


The above discussion on the various aspects of Design Process
gives the student an overall view on the step- by step procedure of
determining the nominal form, size and the material of a technical
object which will be used for satisfying a need or solving a
problem in the field of Mechanical Engineering. But the student
shall consider this procedure only as apart of the design

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Chapter 2: Design Process 65

technique. The procedure explained in this chapter is not a

universal method which is applicable to each and every object or
The danger of formulating a systematic/universal method for
designing a product is that we will be led into a thinking that a
systematic approach necessarily gives the right design. This is just
not so. The most effective design is achieved by the right balance
of systematic and intuition. Therefore the students are advised to
use the suggested systematic approach as the foundation for the
appropriate attitude to innovation. This approach is an
understanding of the fact that one can, through conscious effort
look objectively and systematically at all the design criteria and
arrives at the optimum solution.
To create something new without any previous design to guide, a
designer will fail miserably unless he has in-depth knowledge and
higher level of understanding. The designers cannot acquire this
by attending lectures and reading books. Understanding coupled
with powers of logical deduction and judgment is not a capability
that can be acquired from outside. It is something purely personal
and inward, acquired only by diligent thinking and working with
the knowledge already possessed.
A set of wrong and right examples or a list of design rules cannot
by themselves cultivate the beginner, the habit of methodical
planned thinking. The advantage of working to a methodical plan
lies mainly in avoidance of superfluous repetitions. Only by
working to a methodical plan a designer can escape straying into a
blind alley and must start again. By adopting the right method of
working and thinking carefully about the design, a designer can
save time, avoid wasteful metal efforts, and thereby increase the
effectiveness of his work.
Working to a method is a welcome prospect. But it does not
provide the creativity and imagination.

Prepared by Prof.R.Panneer, Assistant Professor.