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n Turning on or off

To turn the calculator on, press [ON ] ; To turn the calculator off, press [ 2nd ] [ OFF ].

n Battery replacement

This calculator is powered by one lithium battery (CR2025). If the display becomes weak, the LOW BATTERY message appears in the display. Please replace the battery as soon as possible. To replace battery : 1) Slide the battery compartment cover in the direction indicated by the arrow and remove it. 2) Remove the old battery and install new ones with polarity in correct direction, then replace the battery compartment cover and press [ ON ] to turn the power on.

This calculator automatically turns it off when not operated for approximately 9~15 minutes. It can be reactivated by pressing [ ON ] key and the display, memory, settings are retained.

n Reset operation

If the calculator is on but you get unexpected results, please press [ MODE ] or [ CL/ESC ] to release the condition and restart the operation. If problems persist, please press [ 2nd ] [ RESET ] in sequence. A message appears on the display to confirm whether you want to reset the calculator and clear memory contents. RESET : N Y Move the cursor to Y by [ ], then press [ ] to clear all variables, programs, pending operations, statistical data, answers, all previous entries, and memory; To abort the reset operation without clearing the calculator, please choose N . If the calculator is lock and further key operations becomes impossible, please press [ 0 ] [ DEL ] at the same time to release the condition. It will return all settings to default settings.

n Contrast adjustment

Pressing the [ ] or [ ] following [ MODE ] key can make the contrast of the screen lighter or darker. Holding either key down will make the display become respectively lighter or darker.

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n Display readout

Graph Display

Graph

Y=

0.546948158

D

Result line

Calculation Display

Entry line

12369*7532*

x 10 D

ENG 99

6 . 903680613

Entry line

Result line

It displays an entry of up to 76 digits. Entries begin on the left ; those with more than 11 digits scroll to the left. However, whenever you input the 69th digit of any calculation, the cursor changes from to to let you know memory is running low. If you still need to input more, you should divide your calculation into two or more parts.

Result line It displays a result of up to 10 digits, as well as a decimal, a negative sign, a x10 indicator, and a 2-digits positive or negative exponent. Results that exceed the digit limit are displayed in scientific notation. Indicators The following indicators appear on the display to indicate you the current status of the calculator. Indicator Meaning M Independent memory Result is negative This action is inactive while pressing 2nd 2nd set of function keys is active X = Y = x and y coordinate location of trace function pointer A Alphabetic Keys are active. STAT Statistics mode is active PROG Program mode is active D R G Angle mode : DEGrees, RADs, or GRADs SCIENG SCIentific or ENGineering display format. FIX Number of decimal places displayed is fixed HYP Hyperbolic-trig function will be calculated y Displayed value is intermediate result. There are digits to the left or right of the display There are earlier or later results that can be displayed Those two indictors will be blinked while an operation or a program is executing E-2

n Key Markings

Many of the calculator s keys are used to perform more than one function. The functions marked on the keyboard are printed differently to help you find the one you need quickly and easily. Keyboard marking White Yellow Green Blue Meaning Direct input Press [ 2nd ] and then key Press key in BaseN mode Press [ ALPHA ] and then key

n Changing a mode

Pressing [ MODE ] can enter mode menus. You can choose one of four operating modes, including 0 MAIN , 1 STAT , 2 BaseN , 3 PROG . Give 2)BaseN as an example : Method 1 : Scroll through the menu using [ ], [ ] or [ MODE ] until 2 BaseN is underlined, then enter the desired mode by pressing [ ]. Key in directly the number of the mode, [ 2 ] , to enter the desired mode immediately.

Method 2 :

Many functions and settings are available on menus. A menu is a list of options displayed across the screen. Give Pressing [ MATH ] key displays the menu for choosing more mathematical functions under MAIN mode as an example : Method : Press [ MATH ] to display the menu, and then move the cursor [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] to an item you want. Press [ ] while the item is underlined.

For menu items followed by an argument value, you can press [ ] while the item is underlined or enter directly the corresponding argument value. To return the previous display from a menu, please press [ CL/ESC ]

To execute the functions marked in yellow, please press [ 2nd ] and then the corresponding key. When you press [ 2nd ], the 2nd indicator shown in the display is to tell you that you will be selecting the second function of the next key you press. If you press [ 2nd ] by mistake, simply press [ 2nd ] again to remove the 2nd indicator.Pressing [ ALPHA ] [ 2nd ] will lock the calculator E-3

in this mode and allow consecutive input of 2nd function keys until [ 2nd ] is pressed. To execute the functions marked in blue, please press [ ALPHA ] and then the corresponding key. When you press [ ALPHA ], the A indicator indicator shown in the display is to tell you that you will be selecting the alphabetic function of the next key you press. If you press [ ALPHA ] by mistake, simply press [ ALPHA ] again to remove the A indicator. Pressing [ 2nd ] [ ALPHA ] will lock the calculator in this mode and allow consecutive input of alphabetic function keys until [ ALPHA ] is pressed.

n Cursor

Pressing [ ] or [ ] key can move the cursor to the left or the right. Hold down any of those keys to move the cursor at high speed. Pressing [ ] or [ ] can scroll the display up or down while there are previous entries hidden the display. You can reuse or edit a previous entry when it is on the entry line. Pressing [ ALPHA ] [ ] or [ ALPHA ] [ ] moves the cursor to the beginning or the end in the entry line. Pressing [ ALPHA ] [ ] or [ ALPHA ] [ ] can move the cursor to the top or bottom of all entries.

The blinking cursor means the calculator is in insert mode. To delete a character at the cursor, make the character underlined by using [ ] or [ ] to move the cursor, and then press [ DEL ] to delete the character. To abort a character which is just deleted by [ DEL ], please press [ 2nd ] [ ]. To insert a character, move the cursor to the position of the character where you want to insert, it will be inserted automatically in the front of the character after pressing a new character. To clear all characters, clear all input character by [ CL/ESC ] key. See Example 1.

n Replay function

The replay function can keep input digits up to 252 characters. After execution is completed or during entering, you can press either [ ] or [ ] to display previous input bytes and edit values or commands for subsequent execution. See Example 2. (Note) :The replay function isn t cleared even when [ CL/ESC ] is pressed or power is turned off, so contents can be recalled even after [ CL/ESC ] is pressed. However, replay function is cleared when mode is switched.

When a mathematically illegal calculation is performed or a program you enter causes an error, an error message ( See Error condition ) appears E-4

5 seconds and then the error position display function will tell you with the cursor where the error is. In that case, please make necessary corrections before executing the calculation again. See Example 3.

n Memory

(1) Independent memory Press [ M+ ] to add a result to running memory. Press [ 2nd ] [ M ] to subtract the value from running memory. To recall the value in running memory, press [ MRC ]. To clear running memory, press [ MRC ] twice. See Example 4. (2) Standard memory variable The calculator has 26 standard memory variables for repeated use : A, B, C, D ....,~ Z. You can store a real number in any one of those variables. See Example5. * * * * [ SAVE ] + memory variablelets you store values to a specified memory variable. [ 2nd ] [ VRCL ] recalls the value of variable. [ ALPHA ] + memory variablerecalls the content to a specified memory variable. [ 2nd ] [ CL-VAR ] clears all variables.

(Note) : To assign multiple data of the same value to more than one memory variable, it can be input using [ ALPHA ] [ ~ ]. For example, to assign the value 98 into memory variable A, B, C, D, please press 98 [ SAVE ] [ A ] [ ALPHA ] [ ~ ] [ ALPHA ] [ D ]. (3) Equation Storage By pressing [ SAVE ] [ PROG ] , You can store one equation in memory for instant recall when you need it. Then you can recall the equation by [ PROG ] at any time, input values, and perform calculations quickly and easily. See Example 6. (4) Array-Type memory variable Though there are 26 standard memory variables, this calculator can be expanded by changing program storage bytes to memory variables. Memory is performed by converting 12 bytes to one memory. A maximum of 33 memories can be added for a maximum total of 59 (26 + 33).

M27 S 388

26

27

28

38 256

45 172

59 4

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(Note) :To return memory variable to the standard configuration, please specify Defm 0. Expanded memories can be used in the same as standard memory variables, and are named as A [ 1 ] , A [ 2 ], ...exc. The letter A followed by a subscript in brackets indicating the sequential position of the memory variable is used as the memory variable name. Here we call them as Array-Type memory variables . See Example 7 . (Note) :When using array-type memory variables, you must be careful to prevent overlap of memories. The relation is as follow :

...

A B C D E F

...

X Y Z Defm 1 Defm 2

A[ 23 ] A[ 24 ] A[ 25 ] A[ 26 ] A[ 27 ] II II II II II B[ 22 ] B[ 23 ] B[ 24 ] B[ 25 ] B[ 26 ] II II II II II C[ 21 ] C[ 22 ] C[ 23 ] C[ 24 ] C[ 25 ]

...

II II II II II II Y[24] Y[23] Y[22] Y[21] Y[20] Y[19] II II II II II II Z[25] Z[24] Z[23] Z[22] Z[21] Z[20]

n Order of operations

Each calculation is performed in the following order of precedence : 1) Coordinates transformation, and Type B functions which are required pressing the function key before entering, for example, sin, cos, tan, sin 1 , cos 1, tan 1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh 1, cosh 1, tanh 1, log, ln, 10 X , e X, , , NEG, NOT, X ( ), Y ( ), MAX, MIN, SUM, SGN, AVG, ABS, INT, Frac, Plot. 2) Type A functions which are required entering values before pressing the function key, for example, x 2, x 3, x 1, x!, , r, g, %, , ENGSYM. 3) Exponentiation ( ), 4) Fractions 5) Abbreviated multiplication format in front of variables, , RAND, RANDI. 6) ( ) 7) Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B functions , Alog2, etc. 8) nPr, nCr 9) x , 10)+, 11) Relational operators = =, < , >, , , 12)AND, NAND -- BaseN calculations only. 13)OR, XOR, XNOR -- BaseN calculations only. E-6

II II II II II Y[ 1 ] Y[ 0] Y[ 1 ] Y[ 2 ] Y[ 3 ] II II II II II Z[ 2 ] Z[ 1] Z[ 0 ] Z[ 1 ] Z[ 2 ]

... ...

14) Conversion (A b/ c 34 d/ e, F34 D, 4 DMS) When functions with the same priority are used in series, execution is performed from right to left. e X ln120 e X { ln (120 ) } otherwise, execution is from left to right. Compound functions are executed from right to left. Anything contained within parentheses receives the highest priority.

Output digits : Up to 10 digits. Calculating digits : Up to 24 digits In general, every reasonable calculation is displayed up to 10 digits mantissa, or 10-digits mantissa plus 2-digits exponent up to 10 99. Numbers used as input must be within the range of the given function as follow : Functions Input range sin x, cos x, tan x Deg| x | < 4.5 x 10 10 deg Rad| x | < 2.5 x 10 8rad Grad| x | < 5 x 10 10 grad however, for tan x Deg| x | 90 (2n+1) Rad| x | (2n+1) Grad| x | 100 (2n+1) ( n is an integer) sin -1 x, cos -1 x tan -1 x sinh x, cosh x tanh x sinh -1 x cosh -1 x tanh -1 x log x, ln x 10 x ex x2 x 1 x! P ( x, y ) | x | 1 | x | < 1 x 10 100 | x | 230.2585092 | x | <1 x 10 100 | x | < 5 x 10 99 1 x < 5 x 10 99 |x|<1 1 x 10 - 99 x < 1 x 10 100 1 x 10 100 < x < 100 1 x 10 100 < x 230.2585092 0 x < 1 x 10 100 | x | < 1 x 10 50 | x | < 1 x 10 100, X0 0 x 69 , x is an integer. < 1 x 10 100 E-7

R (r,)

0 r <1 x 10 100 Deg| | < 4.5 x 10 10 deg Rad| | < 2.5 x 10 8 rad Grad| | < 5 x 10 10 grad however, for tan x Deg| | 90 (2n+1) Rad| | (2n+1) Grad| | 100 (2n+1) (n is an integer) | D | , M, S < 1 x 10 100, 0 M, S , | x | < 10 100 y > 0 : x0, 1 x 10 100 < log y <100 y = 0 x > 0 y < 0x = 2n+1, I/n, n is an integer.(n0) but 1 x 10 100 < log | y | <100 0 r n, n < 10 100, n, r are integers. | x | < 1x10 100 , | y | < 1x10 100 1 -VAR : n 30, 2 -VAR : n 30 FREQ. = n, 0 n < 10 100 : n is an integer in 1-VAR mode _ _ x , y, x, y, a, b, r : n 0 Sx, Sy :n 0,1 DEC : - 2147483648 x 2147483647 BIN : 10000000000000000000000000000000 x 11111111111111111111111111111111 ( for negati ve ) 0 x 01111111111111111111111111111111 (for zero, positive) OCT : 20000000000 x 37777777777 (for negative) 0 x 17777777777 (for zero or positive) HEX : 80000000 x FFFFFFFF(for negative) 0 x 7FFFFFFF (for zero or positive)

DMS

BaseN

n Error conditions

Error message will appear on the display and further calculation becomes impossible when any of the following conditions occur. Indicator DOMAIN Er Meaning (1) When specifying an argument to a function outside the valid range. (2) FREQ value ( in 1-VAR stats) < 0 or noninteger. (3) When USL value < LSL value You attempted to divide by 0. E-8

DIVIDE BY O

OVERFLOW Er When result of function calculations exceeds the range specified. SYNTAX Er (1) Input errors are made. (2) When improper arguments are used in com mands or functions that require arguments. (3) A missing END for marking the end of the program An entry exceeds 84 digits after implied multiplication with auto-correction

LENGTH Er

OUT OF SPEC You input a negative CPU or CPL value , where x LSL C PU = USL x , C PL = 3 3 NEST Er A subroutine nesting exceeds 3 levels GOTO Er GOSUB Er There is no corresponding Lbl n when GOTO n is used (1) There is no corresponding PROG n when GOSUB PROG n is used (2) Attempt to jump to a program area in which there is no program stored

EQN SAVE Er Attempt to save an equation to a program area that has already stored programs EMPTY Er MEMORY Er Attempt to run a program area without any equation or programs (1) Memory expansion exceeds step remaining in program (2) Attempt to use a memory such as Z [ 5 ] when no memory has been expanded Attempt to use the same label name more than once

DUPLICATE LABEL

Basic Calculations

n Arithmetic calculation

For mixed arithmetic operations, multiplication and division are given priority over addition and subtraction. See Example 8. For negative values, press [ () ] before entering the value. See Example 9. Results greater than 1010 or less than 10 9 are displayed in exponential form. See Example 10.

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n Display format

Decimal places formats are selected by pressing [ 2nd ] [ FIX ] to display the menu. To set decimal places to n ( F0123456789 ), enter a n value directly or press [ ] key while the item is underlined. ( The default setting is floating point notation F and the n value is ). See Example 11. Number display formats are selected by pressing [ 2nd ] [ SCI/ENG ] to display the menu. The items on the menu are FLO (for floating point), SCI (for scientific), and ENG (for engineering). Press [ ] or [ ] until the desired formats is underlined, and then press [ ] . See Example 12. You can enter a number in mantissa and exponent form by [ EXP] key. See Example13. This calculator also provides a list of symbols for input of value using engineering notation by pressing [ 2nd ] [ ENG SYM ]. There are eleven symbols in the menu . See Example 14.

nano milli micro pico femto m = 10 3, = 10 6, n = 10 9, p = 10 12, f = 10 15, kilo mega giga tera peta exa K = 10 3, M = 10 6, G = 10 9, T = 10 12, P = 10 15, E = 10 18

n Parentheses calculation

Operation inside parentheses are always executed first. The calculator can use up to 13 levels of consecutive parentheses in a single calculation. See Example15. Closed parentheses occurring immediately before operation of the [ ] key may be omitted, no matter how many are required. See Example 16.

n Percentage calculation

[ 2nd ] [ % ] divides the number in the display by 100. You can use this key sequence to calculate percentages, add-ons, discounts, and percentages ratios. See Example 17.

The calculator enables you to repeat the last operation executed by pressing [ ] key for further calculation. Even if calculations are concluded with the [ ] key, the result obtained can be used for further calculation. See Example 18.

n Answer function

Answer function stores the most recently calculated result. It is retained even after the power is turned off. Once a numeric value or numeric expresE - 10

(Note) :Even if execution of a calculation results in an error, however, Answer memory retains its current value.

Functional Calculations

n Logarithm and Antilogarithm

The calculator can calculate common and natural logarithms and antilogarithms using [ LOG ], [ LN ], [ 2nd ] [ 10 x ], and [ 2nd ] [ e x ]. See Example 20.

n Fraction calculation

Fraction value display is as follow : 5 12 Display of 56 U 5 12 Display of

To enter a mixed number, enter the integer part, press [ A b/c ], enter the numerator, press [ A b/c ], and enter the denominator ; To enter an improper fraction, enter the numerator, press [ A b/c ], and enter the denominator. See Example21. During a fraction calculation, if the figure is reducible, a figure is reduced to the lowest terms after pressing a function command key ( [ + ], [ ], [ x ] or [ ] ) or the [ ] key. By pressing [ 2nd ] [ A b/c34 d/e ], the displayed value will be converted to the improper fraction and vice versa. See Example 22. To convert between a decimal and fractional result, press [ 2nd ] [ F 34 D ] and [ ] . See Example 23. Calculations containing both fractions and decimals are calculated in decimal format. See Example 24.

The angle units (DEG, RAD, GRD) is set by pressing [ DRG ] to display the angle menu. The relation among the three angle units is : 180 =rad = 200 grad Angle conversions ( See Example 25.) : 1. Change the default angle settings to the units you want to convert to. 2. Enter the value of the unit to convert.

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3.

4. 5.

Press [ 2nd ] [ DMS ] to display the menu. The units you can select are (degrees), (minutes), (seconds), r (radians), g (gradians) or 4DMS (Degrees-MinutesSeconds). Select the units you are converting from. ] twice. Press [

To convert an angle to DMS notation, select 4DMS , which converts an entry to DMS notations, i.e., where 1O 30 I 0 II represents 1 degrees, 30 minutes, 0 seconds. See Example 26. To convert a DMS notation to decimal, select (degrees), (minutes), (seconds). See Example 27.

The calculator provides standard trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions - sin, cos, tan, sin 1, cos 1 and tan 1. See Example 28. (Note) :When using those keys, make sure the calculator is set for the angle unit you want.

The calculator uses [ 2nd ] [ HYP ] to calculate the hyperbolic functions and inverse- hyperbolic functions - sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh 1, cosh 1 and tanh 1. See Example 29. (Note) :When using those keys, make sure the calculator is set for the angle unit you want.

n Coordinates transformation

Pressing [ 2nd ] [ R34P ] displays a menu to convert rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates or vice versa. See Example 30. (Note) : When using those key, make sure the calculator is set for the angle unit you want.

n Mathematical function

Each time [ MATH ] is pressed, various mathematical menus and all argument values corresponding the desired item are shown on the screen. With the following functions : ( See Example 31. ) Calculate the factorial of a specified positive integer n , where n 69. RAND Generate a random number between 0 and 1. RANDI Generate a random integer value between two specified integers, A and B, where A random value B . R N D Round off the result E - 12 !

MAX MIN SUM AVG Frac INT SGN ABS nPr nCr

Indicate the maximum of given numbers (Up to 10 numbers) Indicate the minimum of given numbers (Up to 10 numbers) Indicate the sum of given numbers (Up to 10 numbers) Indicate the average of given numbers (Up to 10 numbers) Indicate the fractional part of a given number Indicate the integer part of a given number Indicate the sign of a given number, if negative value, display 1 ; if zero, display 0 ; if positive , display 1 Indicate the absolute value of a given number Calculate the number of possible permutations of n items taken r at a time. Calculate the number of possible combinations of n items taken r at a time.

,x 2, x 3,

The calculator also provides reciprocal ( [ x 1] ), square root ( [ ] ), cub ic ro ot ( [ ] ), squ a re ( [ x 2 ] ), u nive rsa l ro o t ([ ] ), cubic ( [ x 3 ] ) and exponentiation ( [ ] ) functions. See Example 32.

n Unit Conversion

The calculators has a built-in unit conversion feature that enables you to convert numbers from metric to English units and vice versa. See Example 33. 1. Enter the number you want to convert. 2. Press [ 2nd ] [ CONV ] to display the menu. There are 7 menus, covering distance, area, temperature, capacity, weight, energy, and pressure. 3. Use the [ ] or [ ] to scroll through the list of units until a appropriate units menu is shown, then [ ]. 4. Pressing [ ] or [ ] can convert the number to another unit.

n Physics constants

You can use a number physics constants in your calculations. With the following constants : Symbol c g G Vm NA Meaning Speed of light Acceleration of gravity Gravitational constant molar volume of ideal gas Avagadro s number Elementary charge E - 13 Value 299792458 m / s 9.80665 m.s 2 6.6725985 x 10 11 N.m 2 kg2 0.0224141 m 3 mol 1 6.022136736 x 10 23 mol 1 1.602177335 x 10 19 C

me mp

h k IR IF mn

0 0 a0

B N

Electron mass Proton mass Plank s constant Boltzmann s constant Gas constant Faraday constant Neutron constant Atomic mass constant Dielectric permittivity Magnetic permittivity Flux quantum Bohr radius Bohr magneton Neutron magneton

9.109389754 x 10 31 kg 1.67262311 x 10 27 kg 6.62607554 x 10 34 J.S 1.38065812 x 10 23J.K 1 8.3145107 J / mol k 96485.30929 C / mol 1.67492861 x 10 27 kg 1.66054021 x 10 27 kg 8.854187818 x 10 12 F / m 0.000001257 H / m 2.067834616 x 10 15 Vs 5.291772492 x 10 11m 9.274015431 x 10 24 A m2 5.050786617 x 10 27J / T

To insert a constant at the cursor position ( See Example 34. ) 1. Press [ 2nd ] [ CONST ] to display the physics constants menu. 2. Scroll through the menu until the constant you want is underlined. 3. Press [ ].

n Multistatement function

Multistatements are formed by connecting a number of individual statements for sequential execution. You can use multistatement in manual calculations and in the program calculations. For statements that are connected with a display result command ( y ), when execution reaches the end of a statement followed by y , execution stops and the result up to that point appears on the display. You can resume execution by pressing [ ]. See Example 35.

Graphs

n Built-in function graph

This unit contains a total of 21 built-in graphs marking it possible to produce the graphs of basic functions: sin, cos, tan, sin 1, cos 1, tan 1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh 1, cosh 1, tanh 1, , , x 2, x 3, log, ln, 10 x, e x, x 1, Any time a built-in graph is executed, the range is automatically set to their optimum, and any graph previously on the display is cleared. See Example 36.

User generated graphs are produced using the variable X in the expression, such as y = x 3 + 3x 2 6x 8. Unlike built-in functions, the ranger of user E - 14

Whenever you press the [ Range ] key, the range parameter setting screen appears on the display. Range parameter consists of maximum and minimum values for each axis, as well as their scales (distance between hash marks).

After performing ranger settings, user generated graphs can be drawn simply by entering the expression after pressing [ Graph ]. See Example 37.

Switching between graph and text display is performed using [ G34T ]. Each press of [ G34T ] switches from the current type of display to the other. To clear the graph shown on the screen, please press [ 2nd ] [ CLS ].

( Graph display mode ) [ G34T ] [ G34T ] ( Graph display mode ) [ 2nd ] [ CLS ] ( Text display mode )

n Zoom function

Zoom function lets you enlarge or reduce the x and y coordinates. This function enlarges the graphs on the screen to the factors you specified by pressing [ 2nd ] [ Zoom x f ], or reduces to the factors you specified by pressing [ 2nd ] [ Zoom x 1/f ]. To return the graph to its original size, press [ 2nd ] [ Zoom Org ] See Example 37.

Two or more function graphs can be overdrawn, which makes it easy to determine intersection points and solutions that satisfy all the expressions. See Example 38. Be sure to input variable X into the second graph when using built-in graphs for overdraw. If variable X is not included in the second expression, the second graph is produced after clearing the first graph. See Example 39. E - 15

n Trace function

This function lets you move a pointer around a graph by pressing [ ] and [ ] and display the x and y coordinates of the current pointer location. It is also useful for overdrawn function graphs to view and solve their intersection by pressing [ 2nd ] [ X Y ]. See Example 40. (Note) : As you can see, the trace function can be used to move at a fixed interval and locate the pointer at an approximate point. Due to limitations caused by the resolution of the display, the actual position of the pointer can be only approximate.

Immediately after you have drawn a graph, you can scroll it on the display. Use the cursor keys ( [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] ) to scroll the graph left, right, up and down. See Example 41.

Plot function is used to mark a point on the screen of a graph display. The pointer can be moved left, right, up, and down using the cursor keys, and the coordinates for the graph display can be read. When the pointer is at the location you want, press [ 2nd ] [ Plot ] to plot a point, The blinking pointer is positioned at the approximate location. Two points can also be connected by a straight line by pressing [ 2nd ] [ Line ]. See Example 42

Statistical Calculations

There are four menu operations in statistics menu : 1 -VAR ( for analyzing data in a single dataset), 2 - VAR ( for analyzing paired data from two datasets ), REG ( for performing regression calculations ), and D- CL ( for clearing all datasets).

Step : 1. From the statistics menu, choose 1 -VAR or 2 - VAR and press [ ]. 2. Press [ DATA ] and there are three menu:DATA-INPUT, LIMIT, DISTR. Please select DATA- INPUT and press [ ]. 3. Enter an x - value and press [ ]. 4. Enter the frequency ( FREQ ) of the x - value (in 1 -VAR mode) or the corresponding y - value ( in 2 - VAR mode ) and press [ ]. 5. To enter more data, repeat from step 3. 6. Press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] and scroll through the statistical result menus by [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] to find out statistical E - 16

variables you want. (See table below) Variable n _ _ x or y Xmax or Ymax Xmin or Ymin Sx or Sy x or y x or y x 2 or y 2 x y CV x or CV y R x or R y Meaning Number of the x values or x-y pairs entered. Mean of the x values or y values Maximum of the x values or y values Minimum of the x values or y values Sample standard deviation of x values or y values. Population standard deviation of x values or y values Sum of all x values or y values Sum of all x 2 values or y 2 values Sum of (x x y) for all x-y pairs Coefficient of variation for all x values or y values Range for all x values or y values

7. To draw 1-VAR statistical graphs, please press [Graph ] under STATVAR menus. There are three types of graph in 1-VAR mode :N-DIST (Normal distribution), HIST (Histogram), SPC (Statistical Process Control). Without setting the range, the graph will be produced to their optimum on the screen after selecting a graph type and pressing [ ]. To o draw scatter graph based on 2-VAR datasets, please press [ Graph ] under STATVAR menus. 8. To return STATVAR menus, please press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ].

n Process capability

Step : (See Example 43~44) 1. Press [ DATA ] and there are three menu : DATA- INPUT, LIMIT, DISTR. Please select LIMIT and press [ ]. 2. Enter a lower spec. limit value ( X LSL or Y LSL ), then press [ ]. 3. Enter a upper spec. limit value ( X USL or Y USL ), then press [ ]. 4. Enter the datasets you want under DATA-INPUT mode. 5. Press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] and scroll through the statistical results menu by [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] to find out process capability variables you want. (See table below) Variable Cax or Cay Meaning Capability accuracy of the x values or y values

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Cpx or Cpy

Cpkx or Cpky Minimum (CPU, CPL) of the x values or y values, where CPU is upper spec. limit of capability precision and CPL is lower spec. limit of capability precision C pkx = Min (CPUX, CPLX) = Cpx(1Cax) Cpky = Min (CPUY, CPLY) = Cpy(1Cay) ppm Parts per million, Defection Per Million Opportunities (Note): When calculating process capability in 2 - VAR mode, the x n and y n are independent with each other.

n Correcting data

Step : (See Example 45) 1. Press [ DATA ]. 2. To change dataset, please select DATA-INPUT. To change upper spec. limit value, or lower spec. limit value, please select LIMIT. To change ax, please select DISTR. 3. Press [ ] to scroll through the data you have entered. 4. To change an entry, display it and enter the new data. The new data you enter overwrites the old entry. Press [ ] or [ ] to save the change. (Note) :Even you exit STAT mode, all data in 1 - VAR and 2 - VAR mode are still retained unless you clear all data by selecting D-CL mode.

n Probability distribution

Step : (See Example 46) 1. Based on the datasets in 1-VAR mode, press [ DATA ] and there are three menu : DATA-INPUT, LIMIT, DISTR. Please choose DISTR and press [ ]. 2. Enter a a x value, then press [ ]. 3. Press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] and scroll through the statistical results menu by [ ] or [ ] to find out probability distribution variables you want. (See table below) Variable t P(t) R(t) Test value Represent the cumulative fraction of the standard normal distribution that is less than the value t Represent the cumulative fraction of the standard normal distribution that lies between the value t and 0. R(t)=1P(t) E - 18 Meaning

Q(t)

Represent the cumulative fraction of the standard normal distribution that is greater than the value t Q(t)=| 0.5R(t) |

n Regression calculation

After entering the REG menu, there are six regression types as follow : LIN Linear Regression y=a+bx LOG Logarithmic Regression y = a + b lnx e^ Exponential Regression y = a e bx X2 Power Regression y = a x b INV Inverse Regression y=a+ QUAD Quadratic Regression y=a+bx+cx2 Step : (See Example 47~48) ]. 1. Select any of the six regession types and press [ 2. Press [ DATA ] and there are three menu: DATA-INPUT, LIMIT, DISTR. Please select DATA-INPUT and press [ ]. 3. Enter an x - value and press [ ] and the corresponding y - value and press [ ]. 4. To enter more data, repeat from step 3. 5. Press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] and scroll through the statistical result menus by [ ] [ ] to find out regression variables you want. (See table below) 6. To predict a value for x (or y) given a value for y (or x), select the x (or y ) variable, press [ ] , enter the given value, and press [ ] again. Variable a b r c x y Meaning Y-intercept of regression equation Slope of regression equation Correlation coefficient Quadratic regression coefficient Predicted x values given a, b, and y vales Predicted y value given a, b, and x value

7. The way to draw regession graphs is the same as the one of 2-VAR graph. After pressing [ Graph ] under STATVAR menu, the corresponding regression graph will be shown on the display. To retrun STATVAR menu, please press [ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ].

n Bases conversions

The number system (10, 16, 2 , 8 ) is set by pressing [ 2nd ] [dhbo] to display E - 19

the menu, making one of the items underlined followed [ ] . A corresponding symbol - d , h, b, oappears on the display. (The default setting is d : decimal base). See Example 49. (Note) :The total range of numbers handled in this mode is 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, /A, IB, IC, ID, IE, IF. If values not valid for the particular number system are used, attach the corresponding designator (d, h, b, o), or an error message will appear. Binary base ( b ) : 0, 1 Octal base ( o ) : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal base ( d ) : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Hexadecimal base ( h ) : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, /A, IB, IC, ID, IE, IF Pressing [ ] can use block function to display a result in octal or binary base which exceeds 8 digits. The system is designed to display up to 4 blocks. See Example 50.

n Negative expressions

In binary, octal, and hexadecimal bases, the calculator represents negative numbers using complement notation. The complement is the result of subtracting that number from 10000000000 in that number s base by pressing [ NEG ] key in non-decimal bases. See Example 51.

The unit enables you to calculate in number base other than decimal. The calculator can add, subtract, multiply, and divide binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbers. See Example 52.

n Logical operation

Logical operations are performed through logical products (AND), negative logical (NAND), logical sums (OR), exclusive logical sums (XOR), negation (NOT), and negation of exclusive logical sums (XNOR). See Example53.

Programming

There are six menu operations in programming menu : NEW ( for creating a new program), RUN ( for executing a program ), EDIT ( for editing a program ), DEL ( for deleting a program ), TRACE ( for tracing a program ), and EXIT ( for exiting PROG mode).

0NEW 2EDIT 3DEL 1RUN

250

PROG PROG

4TRACE 5EXIT

250

E - 20

PROG T Y P E 0 MAIN 1 BaseN

Program Type

400

PROG

D

285

PROG

Number of remaining bytes : The program capacity of this unit consists of 400 bytes. The number of bytes indicates the amount of storage space available for programs, and it will decrease as programs are input. The number of remaining bytes will also decrease when bytes are converted to memories. See Array-Type memory variable . Program type : Each program must be specified a calculation mode the calculator should enter when executing the program you are inputting. Besides normal function calculations in MAIN mode, to perform binary, decimal and hexadecimal calculations and conversions, please choose BaseN mode. Program Area : This unit contains a total of 10 program areas ( P0 ~P9 ) for storage of programs. Once the numbers of the program areas that contain programs, it will be displayed as lower-case number. Other numbers of the programs areas that haven t contain programs will be displayed as upper-case numbers.

The calculator programming language has similar elements to many programming languages, like BASIC, C, or another languages. The following information will help you to understand and write programs with programming elements. You can access most of the special programing commands from the program control instructions by pressing [ 2nd ] [ INST ]. It includes

0IF 2ELSE 3FOR 1THEN

D

1Lbl

D

PROG

PROG

D

PROG

1END

D

PROG

(1) Clear screen command : CLS ; Clear the display on the screen. E - 21

(2) Input and Output command : INPUT memory variable ; Sometimes you want the program to stop and wait for data input for sequence calculations, a INPUT command can stop the program a memory variable = appears on the display for waiting data input. Enter a value and press [ ]. The value is stored to the variable, and the program resumes execution. To input more than one memory variable, please separate them with a semicolon. PRINT text , memory variable ; Print the text listed in the double quotation marks and the value of the memory variable. (3) Conditional Branching : IF ( condition ) THEN { statement } Conditional branching begins with an IF command followed by a conditional statement in the parentheses, If the condition is true, THEN that statement in the braces is executed. IF ( condition ) THEN { statement }; ELSE { statement } An ELSE command is always used with IF - THEN . ELSE following an IF executes the statement if condition is false. (4) Jump command : Lbl n : A Lbl command marks a branch destination point for GOTO jump command. Each label ( Lbl ) must be unique ( you can t enter the same label more than once in the same program area ) and the n must be the integer from 0 to 9. GOTO n ; When program execution reaches the statement GOTO n , execution then jump to Lbl n ( n is the same value as GOTO n). It is useful to return execution to the beginning for repetitive calculations, or to repeat calculations from a point within a program area. (5) Mainroutine and Subroutine : GOSUB PROG n ; You can also jump between program areas, so that the resulting execution is made up to pieces in different areas. In such a case, the central program from which other areas are jumped to is called a Mainroutine . This areas jumped to from the mainroutine are called Subroutine . To jump to a subroutine, use PROG ( input using [ PROG ] ) followed by a matching program area value, n. End Each program needs an END command to mark the end of a program. Normally, for creating a new program, the comE - 22

mand will be added and displayed automatically on the beginning of the program. (Note) : The GOTO command does not jump between program areas. A GOTO command jumps to the label ( Lbl ) located inside the same program area. (6) Increment and Decrement : Post-fixed : Memory variable + + ; or Memory variable ; Pre-fixed : + + Memory variable ; or Memory variable ; A memory variable is decreased or increased by one. For standard memory variables, the + + ( Increment ) and ( Decrement ) operators can be either in post-fixed or prefixed ; For array-type memory variables, those operators only can be in pre-fixed. With pre-fixed the memory variable is computed before the expression is evaluated whereas with post-fixed the memory variable is computed after the expression is evaluated. (7) For loop : FOR ( start condition; continue condition ; re-evaluation ) { statements } Often, programs need loops that process each data item from some known fixed size collection. This can be handled quite adequately using a standard FOR loop. For example : FOR ( A = 1 ; A 4 ; A + + ) { C = 3 x A ; PRINT ANS = , C } END Result : ANS = 3, ANS = 6 , ANS = 9, ANS = 12 The order of processing each part of a FOR : <1> The first part of the FOR loop, FOR ( A = 1;, initializes the value of A to 1. A = 1 on the iteration. A 4 is true, so the statement block is executed, At the end of the iteration, A is incremented by 1. <2> Next, A = 2 on the iteration. A 4 is still true, so the statement block is executed. At the end of the iteration, A is increased by 1. And so on. <3> A is incremented again, the condition re-evaluated etc., until A reaches a value of 5. When this occurs, A 4 is false, so the statement block isn t executed and terminates this program. (8) Pause command: SLEEP ( time ); A SLEEP command can suspend execution of the program for a specified time. The maximum number of seconds is about 105 seconds. It is useful for displaying intermediate results and other information. (9) Swap command: E - 23

SWAP ( memory variable A, memory variable B ) ; A SWAP command can swap the contents in two memory variables.

n Relational operators

The relational operators can be used for FOR loop and conditional branching in your program. The six operators are :

= = ( Equal to), < ( Less than), > ( Greater than ), ( Not equal to ), ( Less than or equal to ), (Greater than or equal to ) n Creating a new program

Step : ]. 1. Please select NEW in programming menu, and press [ 2. Select a calculation mode you want the program to run in, and then ]. press [ 3. Select one of ten program areas : P0123456789 , and then press [ ]. 4. Enter program commands. You can enter the calculator s regular functions as commands plus additional program control instructions by pressing [ 2nd ] [ INST ]. To enter a white space, please press [ ALPHA ] [ SPC ]. 5. A semicolon ( ; ) indicates the end of the commands. To enter more than one command on a command line, please separate them with a semicolon. Line 1: INPUT A ; C = 0.5 X A ;PRINT C = , C ; END For easy identification, you also can press [ ] to separate each commands into different lines, as follow. This time a semicolon can be omitted. Line 1: INPUT A ; C = 0.5 X A [ ] Line 2: PRINT C = , C ; END

n Executing a program

Step : 1. W hen you finish entering or editing a program, press [ CL/ESC ] to return to the programming menu, select RUN in program]. Or, when in MAIN mode, you also can ming menu, and press [ press [ PROG ] and select an existing program area to execution the program. 2. Select an existing program area. Press [ ] to begin executing of the program. 3. To re-execute the program, please press [ ] while the program s final result is on the display. E - 24

4. To abort execution while a program is being executed, please press [ CL /ESC ]. A message appears on the display to confirm whether you want to stop execution or not. STOP : N Y Move the cursor to Y by [ ], then press [ To abort execution, please choose N . ] to stop execution.

n Debugging a program

A program that has been created and input will sometimes generate error message when it is executed, or it will produce unexpected results. This indicates that there is an error somewhere within the program that needs to be corrected. Such programming errors are referred to as bugs, while the process of correcting them is called Debugging . If it has a problem running your program, an error message appears for 5 second, and then the blinking cursor points out where the error is. Please correct it. When an incorrect or unusual result is generated, please select EDIT in programming menu to enter the EDIT mode for correcting. You also can select TRACE in programming menu to enter the TRACE mode for debugging. The system will check the program step by step and tell you where an error is, if it has.

Using the graph function within programs makes it possible to graphically represent long, complex equations and to overwrite graphs repeatedly. All graph commands (except trace and zoom function) can be included in programs. Range values can also be written into the program. Note that values in some graph commands must be separated from each other by commas , as follow : Range ( Xmin, Xmax, Xscl, Ymin, Ymax, Yscl ) ; Factor ( Xfact, Yfact ) ; Plot ( X point, Y point ) ;

Just like multistatement function using a display result command ( y ) to stop execution at the point, you also can put y at the location of your program where an error may be produced while creating or editing programs. For example : Line 1 : INPUT A ; B = ln ( A + 100 ) [ ] Line 2 : C = 13 x A ; y [ ] Stop at the point y Line 3 : D = 51 / ( A x B ) [ ] Line 4 :PRINT D = , D ; END <1> When in RUN mode, the command momentarily interrupts program execution at that point followed by y . E - 25

<2> At this time, you can press [ 2nd ] [ VRCL ] to view the content of the corresponding memory variable. ]. <3> To resume program execution, please press [

n Deleting a program

Step : 1. To erase a program in a single program area, specify the program menu, DEL and press [ ]. 2. To erase a program in a single program area, select ONE and a pro], select an existing gram area you want to erase, and then press [ program area you want, and then [ ]. To erase all programs stored in program areas 0 through 9, please select ALL. 3. A message appears on the display to confirm whether you want to delete the content of the program area or not.

DELETE : N

D PROG

Y

314

DELETE N Y

ALL:

178

D PROG

Move the cursor to Y by [ ], then press [ ] to delete this program. To abort the operation, please choose N . 4. To exit DEL mode, please select EXIT.

n Program example

Please see Example 54~63.

E - 26

Example Example 1

n Change 123 x 456 as 12 x 457

123 [ x ] 45 [

12345

5535.

D

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ DEL ]

1245

D

[ 2nd ] [

12 3 4 5

D

[ ] [ ] 7 [

1 2 34 7 5

58425.

D

Example 2

n After executing 1+ 2, 3 + 4, 5 + 6, use replay function to recall

1[+]2[

]3[+]4[

]5[+]6[

5+6

11.

D

[]

5+6

D

[]

3+4

D

[]

1+2

D

Example 3

n 14 0 x 2.3 mistakenly input instead of 14 10 x 2.3

14 [ ] 0 [ x ] 2.3 [

DIVIDE

BY

D

EX - 1

( 5 Seconds )

1 4 / 0 2.3

D

[ ] 1 [

14/10 2.3

3.22

D

Example 4

[ ( 3 x 5 ) + ( 56 3 [ x ] 5 [ M+ ] 7 ) ( 74 8 x 7 ) ] = 5

3 5

M D

15.

56 [

] 7 [ M+ ]

56 / 7

M D

8.

[ MRC ] [

M

M D

23.

74 [ ] 8 [ x ] 7 [ 2nd ] [ M ]

74 8 * 7

M D

18.

[ MRC ] [

M

M D

5.

Example 5

n Put the value 30 into variable A

30A

30.

D

n Multiple 5 to variable A, then put the result into variable B 5 [ x ] [ 2nd ] [ VRCL ]

A B C D E F G H I J K L

D

30.

EX - 2

][

5 3 0

150.

D

[ SAVE ] [ B ] [

AnsB

150.

D

B

D

[+]3[

B+3

153.

D

A B C D E F G H I J K L

D

Example 6

n

Set PROG 1 = cos (3A) + sin (5B), where A = 0, B = 0

3A)+sin(5B)

D

[ SAVE ] [ PROG ] 1

( 5 B ) PROG 1

D

cos(3A)+sin

1.

D

Set A = 20,B = 18, get PROG 1 = cos (3A) + sin (5B) = 1.5

[ PROG ] 1 [

][

] [ CL/ESC ] 20

A = 20

D

] [ CL/ESC ] 18

B = 18

D

EX - 3

cos(3A)+sin

1.5

D

Example 7

n To expand the number of memories by 2 to bring the total to 28 [ MATH ] [ MATH ] [ MATH ] [ MATH ] []

0nPr 1nCr 2Defm

D

]2

Defm 2

D

M28

S376

D

66A[27]

66.

D

A[27]

66.

D

n To return memory variable to the standard configuration [ MATH ] [ MATH ] [ MATH ] [ MATH ] []

0nPr 1nCr 2Defm

D

]0[

M26

S400

D

Example 8

7 + 10 x 8 7 [ + ] 10 [ x ] 8 [ 2 = 47 ]2[ ]

7 + 10 8 / 2

47.

D

EX - 4

Example 9

3.5 + 8 4 = 0.5 ]4[ ]

3.5+8/4

1.5

D

[( )]3. 5 [+ ]8 [

Example 10

12369 x 7532 x 74103 = 6903680613000 12369 [ x ] 7532 [ x ] 74103 [ ]

123697532

6.903680613

D x10 12

Example 11

6 7 = 0.857142857 ]

6/7

0.857142857

D

6[ ]7[

[ 2nd ] [ FIX ] [] [] []

F0123456789

D

6/7

0.86

D

FIX

[ 2nd ] [ FIX ] 4

6/7

0.8571

D

FIX

[ 2nd ] [ FIX ] [ ]

6/7

0.857142857

D

Example 12

1 6000 = 0.0001666... ]

1/6000

0.000166667

D

1 [ ] 6000 [

FLO

SCI ENG

D

EX - 5

1/6000

1.666666667

D

SCI

x10 04

FLO

SCI ENG

D

SCI

1/6000

166.6666667

D

ENG

x10 06

FLO

SCI ENG

D

ENG

1/6000

0.000166667

D

Example 13

0.0015 = 1.5 x 10 1.5 [ EXP ] [ () ] 3 [

3

1 .5

0.0015

D

Example 14

20 G byte + 0.15 K byte = 2.000000015 x 10 10 byte 20 [ 2nd ] [ ENG SYM ] [] []

0 K 3 T 5 E 0 K 3 T 5 E 1 M 4 P

D

2 G

1 M 4 P

D

2 G

][

2 0 G + 0 .1 5 K

2.000000015

D x10 10

Example 15

( 5 2 x 1.5 ) x 3 = 6

EX - 6

[ ( ) ] 5 [ ] 2 [ x ] 1.5 [] [ x ] 3 [

( 5 21.5 )3

6.

D

Example 16

2 x { 7 + 6 x ( 5 + 4 ) } = 122 2[ x][( )] 7[+]6[x][( )] 5[+] 4[ ]

2( 7+6(5+4

122.

D

Example 17

n 120 x 30 % = 36 120 [ x ] 30 [ 2nd ] [ % ] [ ]

12030%

36.

D

n 88 88 [

88 / 55 %

160.

D

Example 18

n 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 81 3[x]3[ ]

33

9.

D

[ x] 3 [

Ans3

27.

D

Ans3

81.

D

To calculate

6 after 3 x 4 = 12

3[x]4[

3 4

12.

D

[ ]6[

Ans/6

2.

D

EX - 7

Example 19

123 + 456 = 579 789 579 = 210

123 [+ ]456 [

123+456

579.

D

789Ans

210.

D

Example 20

n ln7 + log100 =3.945910149 [ LN ] 7 [] [ + ] [ LOG ] 100 [ ]

ln( 7 )+log( 1

3.945910149

D

n 10 2 = 100 [ 2nd ] [ 10 x ] 2 [ ]

10( 2 )

100.

D

n e 5 = 0.006737947 [ 2nd ] [ e x ] [ ( ) ] 5 [ ]

e( 5 )

0.006737947

D

Example 21

723+145

D

22 U 8 21

Example 22

4 [ A b/c ] 2 [ A b/c ] 4 [

424

D

4 U 1 2

EX - 8

Ans u Ab/cd/e

D

9 2

Ans u Ab/cd/e

D

4 U 1 2

Example 23

] 4 1 2 u F D

4.5

D

Example 24

8 4 5 + 3.75

12.55

D

Example 25

2 rad. = 360 deg. [ DRG ]

DEG RAD GRD

D

uDMS

][

2 r

360.

D

Example 26

1.5 = 1 O 30 I 0

II

( DMS )

uDMS

EX - 9

][

1.5 u D M S

1 30 I 0 II

D

Example 27

2 0 45 I I 10.5 I I = 2.752916667 2 [ 2nd ] [ DMS ]

uDMS

] 45 [ 2nd ] [ DMS ] []

uDMS

uDMS

][

2 4 5 1 0. 5

2.752916667

D

Example 28

n sin30 Deg. = 0.5 [ DRG ]

DEG RAD GRD

D

] [ SIN ] 30 [

sin(30)

0.5

D

DEG RAD GRD

D

] [ SIN ] 30 [

sin(30)

0.988031624

R

EX - 10

[ DRG ] []

DEG

RAD GRD

R

sin1(0.5)

33.33333333

G

Example 29

n cosh1.5+2 = 4.352409615 [ 2nd ] [ HYP ] [ COS ] 1.5 [] [ + ] 2 [ ]

cosh(1.5)+2

4.352409615

D

sinh1(7)

2. 644120761

D

Example 30

n If x = 5 , y = 30, what are r,? Ans : r = 30.41381265, = 80.53767779 [ 2nd ] [ R34P ]

RuPr RuP PuRx PuRy

D

] 5 [ ALPHA ] [ ] 30 [

R u P r ( 5 , 30 )

30.41381265

D

[ 2nd ] [ R34P ] []

D

] 5 [ ALPHA ] [ ] 30 [

R u P ( 5 , 30 )

80.53767779

D

RuPr RuP PuRx PuRy

D

EX - 11

] 25 [ ALPHA ] [ ] 56 [

PuRx (25,56)

13.97982259

D

[ 2nd ] [ R34P ] [] []

D

] 25 [ ALPHA ] [ ] 56 [

PuRy (25,56)

20.72593931

D

Example 31

n 5 ! = 120 5 [ MATH ]

0! 1RAND 2RANDI 3RND

D

][

5!

120.

D

[ MATH ] []

D

][

RAND

0.103988648

D

[ MATH ] []

D

] 7 [ ALPHA ] [ ] 9 [

RANDI(7,9)

8.

D

0! 1RAND 2RANDI 3RND

D

EX - 12

F0123456789

D

][

RND(sin(45)

0.71

D

FIX

0MAX 2SUM 3AVG 1MIN

D

MAX(sin(30)

1

D

n MIN ( sin 30 Deg., sin 90 Deg. ) = MIN ( 0.5, 1 ) = 0.5 [ MATH ] [ MATH ] []

0MAX 2SUM 3AVG 1MIN

D

MIN(sin(30)

0.5

D

0MAX 2SUM 3AVG 1MIN

D

[ [

] 13 [ ALPHA ] [ ] ] 23 [

] 15 [ ALPHA ]

SUM (13,15,2

51.

D

0MAX 2SUM 3AVG 1MIN

D

[ [

] 13 [ ALPHA ] [ ] ] 23 [

] 15 [ ALPHA ]

AVG (13,15,2

17.

D

EX - 13

n Frac (10

0Frac 2SGN 3ABS 1INT

D

] 10 [

]8[

Frac (10/8)

0.25

D

n INT (10

8 ) = INT ( 1.25 ) = 1

0Frac 2SGN 3ABS 1INT

D

] 10 [

]8[

INT (10/8)

1.

D

0Frac 2SGN 3ABS 1INT

D

] [ LOG ] 0.01 [

SGN ( log(0.0

1.

D

0Frac 2SGN 3ABS 1INT

D

] [ LOG ] 0.01 [

ABS ( log(0.0

2.

D

n 7!

[ ( 7 4 ) ! ] = 840

0nPr 1nCr 2Defm

D

]4[

7 nPr 4

840.

D

EX - 14

n 7!

[ ( 7 4 ) ! x 3 ! ] = 35

0nPr 1nCr 2Defm

D

]4[

7 nCr 4

35.

D

Example 32

n 1.25 [ 2nd ] [ X 1 ] [ ]

1.251

0.8

D

n

2 [ X 2 ] [ + ] [ ] 4 [ + ] 21 [ ] [ + ] ] [ 2nd ] [ 3 ] 27 [ ]

2 2 + ( 4 + 21 ) +

12.

D

n 4 [ 2nd ] [ ] 81 [ ]

4 x ( 8 1 )

3.

D

n 7 4 = 2401 7 [ 2nd ] [ ] 4 [ ]

74

2401.

D

Example 33

1yd

2

= 9 ft 2 = 0.000000836 km 2

ft2 yd2 miIe2 km2 m2

m2

1.

EX - 15

[]

m2

9.

[ ] [ ]

D

Example 34

3 x G = 2.00177955 x 10

10

3 [ x ] [ 2nd ] [ CONST ] [] []

2NA

6.6725985

D x10

11

][

3G

2.00177955

D x1010

Example 35

n Use Multistatement function to the two statements : ( E = 15 ) E x 13 = 195 180 E = 12 15 [ SAVE ] [ E ] [ ]

15 E

15.

D

E13

180 /E

195.

D y

E13

180 /E

12.

D

E13

180 /E

195.

D y

Example 36

Graph Y = e

x

[ Graph ] [ 2nd ] [ e x ]

raph

Y=e^(

D

EX - 16

]

D

Example 37

n

Range : X min = 180, X max = 180, X scl = 90, Y min = 1.25, Y max = 1.25, Y scl = 0.5, Graph Y = sin (2 x)

[ Range ] [ () ] 180

Xmin = 180

D

Yscl = 0.5

D

[ ] [ 2nd ] [ Factor ] 2

Xfact= 2

D

[] 2

Yfact= 2

D

ph

Y=sin(2X

D

]

D

[ G34 T ]

[ G34 T ]

D

[ 2nd ] [ Zoom x f ]

D

EX - 17

[ 2nd ] [ Zoom x f ]

D

D

[ 2nd ] [ Zoom x 1 / f ]

D

[ 2nd ] [ Zoom x 1 / f ]

D

Example 38

n Overdraw the graph for Y = X + 2 on the graph for Y = X 3 + 3 X 2 6 X 8

[ Range ] [ () ] 8 [] 8 [] 2 [] [ () ] 15 [] 15 [] 5 Yscl = 5

D

[

3

2

X 3 + 3 X 2 6 X 8

D

[ x ] [ + ] 3 [ ALPHA ] [ X ] [ x 6 [ ALPHA ] [ X ] [ ] 8

][]

]

D

[ Graph ] [ () ] [ ALPHA ] [ X ] [ + ] 2

raph

Y = X + 2

D

]

D

Example 39

n Overdraw the graph for Y = cos (X) on the graph for Y = sin ( x ) [ Graph ] [ SIN ] [ ]

D

EX - 18

]

D

Example 40

n Use la funci n Trace para analizar el gr fico para Y = cos ( x ) [ Graph ] [ COS ] [ ]

D

[ Trace ]

338.8235294

D X=

[] [] []

275.2941176

D X=

[ 2nd ] [ X Y ]

0.092268359

D Y=

Example 41

n Draw and scroll the graph for Y = cos ( x ) [ Graph ] [ COS ] [ ] []

D

[] []

D

[] [] [] [] []

D

Example 42

n Use Plot function to locate a point on ( 5 , 5 ), ( 5 , 10 ), ( 15 , 15 ), ( 18, 15 ), and

then use Line function to connect.

[ Range ] 0 [ ] 35 [ ] 5 [ ] 0 [ ] 23 [ ] 5

Yscl = 5

D

EX - 19

PLOT(5

,5

D

]

X=

5.147058824

D

[ 2nd ] [ X Y ]

5.227272727

D Y=

X=

5.147058824

D

[ 2nd ] [ Line ] [

]

D

D

]

X=

25.73529412

D

[ 2nd ] [ Line ] [

]

D

Example 43

n Enter data : XLSL = 2, XUSL = 13, _ X 1 = 3, FREQ1 = 2, X 2 = 5 , FREQ2 = 9, X 3 = 12,

FREQ3 = 7, then find out x = 7.5, Sx = 3.745585637, Cax = 0 , and Cpx = 0.503655401

[ MODE ] 1

2-VAR

D

STAT

] [ DATA ] [ ]

D

STAT

EX - 20

]2

X LSL=2

D

STAT

[ ] 13 [

X U S L = 13

13.

D

STAT

[ DATA ]

D

STAT

]3

X1=3

D

STAT

[] 2

FREQ1=2

D

STAT

[ ] 5 [ ] 9 [ ] 12 [ ] 7

FREQ3=7

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ]

D

18.

STAT

[]

D

7.5

STAT

[]

D

STAT

[ Graph ] [ ]

STAT

]

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

x x 2

Cpkx

0.

D

STAT

EX - 21

[]

D

STAT

x x 2

[ Graph ]

STAT

]

D

STAT

STAT

]

D

STAT

Example 44

n Enter data : XLSL = 2, XUSL = _ 8, YLSL = 3, YUSL = 9, X1 = 3, Y1 = 4, X2 = 5 , Y2 = 7,

X3 = 7, Y3 = 6, then find out x = 5, Sx = 2, Cax = 0, Cay = 0.111111111

[ MODE ] 1 []

2-VAR

D

STAT

] [ DATA ] [ ]

D

STAT

] 2 [ ] 8 [ ] 3 [ ] 9 [

Y USL=9

9.

D

STAT

[ DATA ]

D

STAT

] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 5 [] 7 [ ] 7 [ ] 6

Y3=6

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] []

D

5.

STAT

EX - 22

[]

D

2.

STAT

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

x x 2 x y y y 2

Cax Cay

0.

D

STAT

[]

x x 2 x y y y 2

D

STAT

[ Graph ]

D

STAT

Example 45

n Based on Example 44, change Y1 = 4 as Y1 = 9 and X2 = 5 as X2 = 8, then find Sx

= 2.645751311

[ DATA ]

D

STAT

] [] 9

Y1=9

D

STAT

[] 8

X2=8

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] [] []

D

STAT

Example 46

n Enter data : ax = 2, X 1 = 3, FREQ1 = 2, X 2 = 5 , FREQ2 = 9, X 3 = 12, FREQ3 = 7, [ MODE ] 1

1-VAR REG D-CL 2-VAR

D

STAT

] [ DATA ] [ ] [ ]

D

STAT

EX - 23

]2[

ax

=2

2.

D

STAT

[ DATA ] [

] 3 [] 2 [] 5 [] 9 [] 12 [] 7

FREQ3=7

D

STAT

[ 2 nd ] [ STATVAR ] []

P(t) R(t)

Q(t) t

1.510966203

D

STAT

[]

P(t) R(t)

Q(t) t

D

0.9346

STAT

[]

P(t) R(t)

Q(t) t

D

0.4346

STAT

[]

P(t) R(t)

Q(t) t

D

0.0654

STAT

Example 47

n For the following data using linear regression and estimate x =? for y =573 and

y= ? for x = 19

X Y

15 451

17 475

21 525

28 678

2-VAR

D

STAT

[ MODE ] 1 [ ]

e

STAT

] [ DATA ]

D

STAT

Y4=678 L I N

D

STAT

EX - 24

[ 2 nd ] [ STATVAR ] [ Graph ]

D

STAT

[ 2 nd ] [ STATVAR ] [] [] []

x

D

y

STAT

LIN

] 573 [

x ( 5 7 3 )

22.56700734

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] [] [] [] []

x

D

y

STAT

LIN

] 19 [

y ( 1 9 )

510.2658228

D

STAT

Example 48

n For the following data using quadratic regression and estimate y = ? for x = 58

and x =? for y =143

X Y

57 101

61 117

67 155

1-VAR REG D-CL 2-VAR

D

STAT

[ MODE ] 1 [ ]

] [ ] [ ]

e

STAT

] [ DATA ]

D

STAT

Y3=155 QUAD

D

STAT

[ 2 nd ] [ STATVAR ] [ Graph ]

D

STAT

EX - 25

[ 2 nd ] [ STATVAR ] [] [] []

x

D

y

STAT

QUAD

] 143 [

x1 x2 QUAD

65.36790453

D

STAT

[]

x1 x2 QUAD

35.48923833

D

STAT

[ 2nd ] [ STATVAR ] [] [] [] []

x

D

y

STAT

QUAD

] 58 [

y ( 5 8 )

104.3

D

STAT

Example 49

31

10

= 1F 16 = 11111

= 37

[ MODE ] 2

31 [

d31

d

31

[ dhbo ]

D H

B O

d

31

[ ]

D H

B O

h

1F

[]

D H

B O

b

11111

[]

D H

B O

o

37

EX - 26

Example 50

4777 10 = 1001010101001 2 [ MODE ] 2 [ dhbo ] [] []

DEC HEX BIN OCT o d h b DEC HEX BIN OCT o d h b

o

] [ dhbo ] [] []

] 4777 [

d4777

1b

10101001

d4777

2b

10010

d4777

3b

d4777

4b

Example 51

n How is 3A 16 expressed as a negative ? Ans : FFFFFFC6 [ MODE ] 2 [ dhbo ] []

DEC HEX BIN OCT o d h b

b

] [ NEG ] 3 /A [

N E G h 3 /A

h

FFFFFFC6

Example 52

1234

10

+ 1EF

16

24

= 2352

= 1258

10

[ MODE ] 2 [ dhbo ] [ ]

EX - 27

] [ dhbo ] [] []

] 1234 [ + ]

d 1 2 3 4 +

o

[ dhbo ] [] [] []

] 1IEIF [ ]

d 1 2 3 4 + h 1IEIF /

o

[ dhbo ] [] []

] 24

3 4 + h 1IEIF / O 24

o

d 1 2 3 4 + h 1IEIF /

o

2352

[ dhbo ] [] [] []

D H

B O

d

1258

Example 53

1010 2 AND ( A

16

OR 7

16

) = 1010 2 = 10 10

DEC HEX BIN OCT o d h b DEC HEX BIN OCT o d h b

d

[ MODE ] 2 [ dhbo ] [] []

] [ dhbo ] [] [ ] [] []

] 1010 [ AND ] [ ( ) ]

1010

AND (

b

EX - 28

[ dhbo ] [] [] []

] /A [ OR ] [ dhbo ] [] [] []

]7[

b1010

AND (

b

1010

[ dhbo ] [] []

D H

B O

d

10

Example 54

n Create a program to preform arithmetic calculation for complex numbers

Z

1

= A + B i, Z Sum : Z

2 1

=C+Di +Z

2 1

=(A+B)+(C+D)i Z

2 2

1

xZ

= E + F i = ( AC BD ) + ( AD + BC ) i

2

=E+Fi=

EX - 29

1 2

L b l

0 :

2

I F ( O > 4 ) T H E N { G O T O I N P U T A , B , C , D ; I F ( O == 1 ) T H E N { G O T O I F ( O == 2 ) T H E N { G O T O I F ( O == 3 ) T H E N { G O T O

4 ; 4 ;

, ,

input a O value to any of the following values for specifying the type of operation to be performed.

1.... Z 1 + Z 2 3.... Z 1 x Z 2

2.... Z 1 Z 2 4.... Z 1 Z 2

Z 1 = A + B i = 17 + 5 i Z 1 + Z 2 =14 + 19 i Z 2 = C + D i = ( 3 ) + 14 i

] ( 5 Seconds )

CHOOSE THE

D PROG

EX - 30

1:+

2:

D

3:

PROG

]1

O=1

D

PROG

[ [

] 17 [ ] 14

]5 [

][( )]3

D=14

D

PROG

14 +19 I

D

PROG

Z 1 = A + B i = 10 + 13 i Z1Z2 =44i Z 2 = C + D i = 6 + 17 i

] ( 5 Seconds )

CHOOSE THE

D

PROG

1:+

2:

D

3:

PROG

]2

O=2

D

PROG

[ 17

] 10 [

] 13 [

]6[

D=17

D PROG

4 4 I

D

PROG

] ( 5 Seconds )

CHOOSE THE

D

PROG

EX - 31

1:+

2:

D

3:

PROG

]3

O=3

D

PROG

[ [

]2[ ] 17

] [ () ] 5 [

] 11

D=17

D

PROG

107 21 I

D

PROG

] ( 5 Seconds )

CHOOSE THE

D

PROG

1:+

2:

D

3:

PROG

]4

O=4

D

PROG

[ [

] 6[ ]4

]5 [

][()]3

D=4

D

PROG

0. 0 8 1. 5 6 I

D

PROG

Example 55

n Create a program to determine solutions for quadratic equation A X 2 + B X + C = 0, D = B 2 4AC 1) D > 0 2) D = 0 EX - 32 ,

3) D < 0

Program Type : MAIN Line

Program

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

I N P U T D = B E G I G

2

A , B , C ; ) / 2 A

, E ,

"

" X 1 = "

"

X 2 = "

, E ,

"

E N D

RUN 2 X 2 7 X + 5 = 0 X 1 = 2.5 , X 2 = 1 [ ]

A=

D PROG

2[

] [ () ] 7 [

]5

C=5

D

PROG

X1=2.5

X2=1

D

PROG

25 X 2 70 X + 49 = 0 X = 1.4 [ ]

A=

D

PROG

25 [

] [ () ] 70 [

] 49

C=49

D

PROG

X=1.4

D

PROG

EX - 33

X [

+2X+5=0 X

= 1+2i , X2= 1 2i

A=

D

PROG

1[

]2[

]5

C=5

D

PROG

X1=1+2 I

D

X2

PROG

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

2I

X2=1 2I

D PROG

Example 56

n Create a program for common difference sequence and numbers ( A : First

item, D : Common difference, N : number ) Sum : S ( N ) = A+(A+D)+(A+2D)+( A+3D)+... = Nth item : A ( N ) = A+ (N 1)D

8 T = A + ( N 1 ) D 9 P R I N T " A ( N ) = " , T ; 10 L b l 2 : E N D

RUN n When the message 1: A(N), 2 :S(N) appears on the display, you can input

a P value to any of the following values for specifying the type of operation to be performed.

EX - 34

1: A( N ) 2 :S (

D

PROG

P=

D

PROG

1[

]3[

]2 [

]4

N=1

D

PROG

A(N)=9

D

PROG

1: A( N ) 2 :S (

D

PROG

P=

D PROG

2[

]3[

]2 [

] 12

N=12

D

PROG

S(N)=168

D PROG

Example 57

n Create a program for common ratio sequence and numbers( A : First item,

R : common ratio, N : number ) Sum : S ( N ) = A+AR+AR 2 +AR 3 .... 1) R 1 2) R =1 A ( N ) = AR Nth item : A ( N ) = A

(N 1) (N 1)

EX - 35

1 2 3 4 5

P R I N T E E P ( 5 )

" 1 : A ( N ) ;

2 : S ( N ) " ; S L

I N P U T P , A , R , N ; I F ( P == 1 ) T H E N { G O T O 1 ; } I F ( R == 1 ) T H E N { S = A N }

N 1 )

, T ;

RUN n When the message 1: A(N), 2 :S(N) appears on the display, you can input

a P value to any of the following values for specifying the type of operation to be performed.

1: A( N ) 2 :S (

D PROG

P=

D PROG

1[

]5[

]4 [

]7

N=7

D PROG

A(N)=20480

D

PROG

1: A( N ) 2 :S (

D

PROG

EX - 36

P=

D

PROG

2[

]5[

]4[

]9

N=9

D

PROG

S(N)=436905

D

PROG

1: A( N ) 2 :S (

D

PROG

P=

D

PROG

2[

]7[

]1[

] 14

N=14

D PROG

S(N)=98

D

PROG

Example 58

n Create a program to determine solutions for variable linear equation.

EX - 37

I N P U T

A , B , C , D , E , F ;

2 G = A B S ( A ) / A B S ( D ) 3 D = D G ; E = E G ; F = F G 4 I F ( A == D ) T H E N { G O T O 5 H = ( C + F ) 6 G O T O 2 ; 7 L b l 1 : / ( B + E )

1 ; }

, A , "

Y = "

, H ;

RUN

A=

D PROG

A=4

D PROG

[ [

] [ ( ) ] 1[ ]5[ ] 9[

] 30 ] 17

F=17

D PROG

X=7 Y=2

D PROG

Example 59

n Create three subroutines to store the below formulas and use GOSUB-PROG

command to write a mainroutine for executing. ( Subroutine 1~3 ) Subroutine 1 : CHARGE = N x 3 Subroutine 2 : POW ER = I Subroutine 3 : VOLTAGE = I A (BxQ xA)

EX - 38

Note : Subroutine

1 Q = 2 P R 5 ) 3 E N

Line

N 3 I N T ; D

" C H A R G E = " , Q ; S L E E P (

Note : Subroutine

1 2 3

Line

J P ) E

= I / A R I N T ; N D

" P O W E R = " , J ; S L E E P ( 5 W

Note : Subroutine

1 2 3

Line

V = I / ( B Q A ) P R I N T " V O L T A G E = " , V ; E N D

Program

Note : Mainroutine

1 I N P U T 2 G O S U B 3 I N P U T 4 G O S U B 5 B = 2 7 6 G O S U B 7 E N D

N P I P

; R O G , A ; R O G

1 ; 2 ; 3 ;

P R O G

N=

D

PROG

1.5

N=1.5

D

PROG

] ( 5 Seconds )

CHARGE=4.5

D

PROG

486

I=486

D

PROG

EX - 39

]2

A=2

D

PROG

] ( 5 Seconds )

POWER=243

D

PROG

VOLTAGE=2

D

PROG

Example 60

n Create a program that draws Graph Y =

Program Type : MAIN Line Program

and Graph Y = 2 X with Range : X min = 3.4, X max = 3.4, X scl = 1, Y min = 3, Y max = 3, Y scl = 1

R A N G E ( 3 . 4 , 3 . 4 , 1 , 3 , 3 , 1 ) ; 2 G r a p h Y = ( 9 X 2 ) 3 G r a p h Y = 2 X 4 E N D 1

RUN [ ]

n

PROG

[ G34 T ]

D

PROG

Example 61

n Use FOR command to calculate 1 + 6 = ? , 1 + 5 = ? 1 + 4 = ?, 2 + 6 = ?,

2+5=?2+4=?

1 2 3 4 5

C L S ; F O R ( A = 1 ; A < 2 ; A ++ ) F O R ( B = 6 ; B 4 ; B ) { C = A + B ; P R I N T A , , C ; } } E N D

EX - 40

RUN

[

1+6 =7

D

PROG

1+5 =6

D

PROG

1+4 =5

D

PROG

2+6 =8

D

PROG

2+5 =7

D

PROG

2+4 =6

D

PROG

Example 62

n Set the program type of the program area as BaseN and calculate the following

question :

ANS = 1010

AND ( Y OR 7

16

1 2 3 4

I N P U T Y ; C = b 1 0 1 0 A N D ( Y O R P R I N T " A N S = " , C ; E N D

h 7 )

RUN [ If Y = /A ]

16

, Ans = 10

10

Y=

d

PROG

EX - 41

[ dhbo ] [] [] []

PROG

Y=h /A

[ [

] /A

PROG

ANS=10

d

PROG

EDIT [ ]

INPUT Y EDIT: DEC

112

PROG

] [ dhbo ] [] []

PROG

112

PROG

RUN [ ]

Y=

b

PROG

[ dhbo ] [ ] []

PROG

] 11011 1

Y=o11011

b

PROG

ANS=1010

b

PROG

EX - 42

Example 63

n Create a program to perform the following questions and check the content of the

memory variable inserted a display result command ( y )

B = log ( A + 90 ), C = 13 x A, D = 51

Program Type : MAIN Line Program

(AxB)

1 2 3 4 5 6

I N P U T A ; B = l o g ( A + 9 0 ) C = 1 3 A ; y D = 5 1 / ( A B ) P R I N T " D = " , D ; E N D

[

A=

D

PROG

10

A=10

D PROG

C=13A;y PROG

D PROG y

[ 2nd ] [ VRCL ] [] []

A B C D E F G H I J K L

D

130.

PROG

[ CL/ESC ] [

D=2.55

D

PROG

EX - 43

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