Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

NCN

www.nanohub.org

EE606: Solid State Electronics Lecture 3: Elements of Quantum Mechanics

Alam ECE 606 S09

1

Outline

 1) Why do we need quantum physics 2) Quantum concepts 3) Formulation of quantum mechanics 4) Conclusions

Reference: Vol. 6, Ch. 1 (pages 23 32)

Alam ECE 606 S09

2

Do I really need Quantum Mechanics ?
Periodic
Original
Structure
Problem
Electrons in periodic
potential: Problem
we want to solve
If it were large objects, like a skier skiing past a set of obstacles,
Newton’s mechanics would work fine, but in a micro-world ……
3
Alam ECE ‐ 606 S09

Carrier Density

Carrier number = Number of states x filling factor

Chapters 23

Chapter 4

Total number of occupants = Number of apartments X The fraction occupied

Alam ECE 606 S09

4

Outline

 1) Why do we need quantum physics 2) Quantum concepts 3) Formulation of quantum mechanics 4) Conclusions

Alam ECE 606 S09

5

Four Quantum Concepts

ï Photoelectric Effect

ï Bohr Atom

ï Wave Particle Duality

Alam ECE 606 S09

6

2000 K
1000 K
300 K
Alam ECE ‐ 606 S08

7

2000 K
(u)

Alam ECE 606 S08

Rayleigh-Jeans Formula

4

u kT λ

B

/

log( u ) =−4 log(λ) + log(T )

Wein’s Formula

u

β /λ T

e

5

λ

Plank’s fitting formula

u

1

5

λ

 

1

e β

/

λ

T

1

 

8

Interpretation of Plankís Formula

ufT =

(,

)

u

λ

(,

T

)

d

λ

df

~

~ f

2

×

1

5

 

×  

1

 

dc

λ

=

f

 

λ

e

β λ

/

T

1

1

e

hf kT

/

1

λ

hf

df

nos. of

modes

Energy

of mode

Occupation

Probability

EM emission occurs in discrete quanta of

E = hf

n=1,2, ……

Alam ECE 606 S09

N

9

Recent Example: COBE Data

J.C. Mather, Astrophysics J., 1 990.

Show that the cosmic background temperature is approximately 3K. Can you ìseeî this radiation?

Alam ECE 606 S09

10

R

V

(2) Photoelectric Effect

W

Light (hf)

υ cathode

hf

V R

E = (hf W)

Electrons

V

R

(

1

2

)

2

mυ

=−hf

W

W

hf

Absorption occurs in quanta as well, consistent with photons having E=hf

Alam ECE 606 S09

11

Origin of Quantization
frequency
1
E
=
const
×−  1
m n
,
2
2
 
m
n
 

Alam ECE 606 S09

12

(3) Bohr Atom

Assume that angular momentum is quantized:

υ = n! mr
/
0
n

Alam ECE 606 S09

13

(3) Bohr Atom (continued) Ö

1
E
=
const
×−  1
m n
,
2
2
 
m
n
 

Alam ECE 606 S09

14

(4) WaveParticle Duality

Photons act both as wave and particle, what about electrons ?

24

0

22

E = m c + pc

hf = pc

m 0 =0 (photon rest mass)

 p = hf c / = = h / λ ! k (because (because c k = = λ f ) 2 π / λ )

Alam ECE 606 S09

15

Outline

 1) Why do we need quantum physics 2) Quantum concepts 3) Formulation of Schrodinger Equation 4) Conclusions

Alam ECE 606 S09

16

Schrodinger Equation

E =

24

22

m c +≈pc

mc

00

2

1+ pc / 2 m

22

E mc

0

2

=

V + ( p

2

/2 m )

0

2

2

hf = !ω = V + ( ! km/ 2

0 )

Alam ECE 606 S09

0

24

c +

17

Schrodinger Equation (continued)

!ω

=

V

2

2

+ ( ! km/ 2

0

)

Assume,

Ψ( x , t ) = A exp(i (ωt kx ))

d Ψ / dt =−iωΨ

2

and d Ψ / dx

22

=− k Ψ

!

2

d

2

Ψ

2 m dx

0

2 +

V

Ψ=

Alam ECE 606 S09

i !

d

Ψ

dt

18

Conclusions

 1 Given chemical composition and atomic arrangements, we are ready to compute electron density by using quantum mechanics. 2 We discussed the origin of quantum mechanics ñ experiments were inconsistent with the classical theory. 3 We saw how Schrodinger equation could arise as a consequence of quantization and relativity, but this is not a derivation. 4 We will solve some toy problems in the next class to get a feeling of how to use quantum mechanics.

Alam ECE 606 S09

19