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NCN www.nanohub.org EE ‐ 606: Solid State Electronics Lecture 3: Elements of Quantum Mechanics Muhammad
NCN www.nanohub.org EE ‐ 606: Solid State Electronics Lecture 3: Elements of Quantum Mechanics Muhammad

NCN

www.nanohub.org

EE606: Solid State Electronics Lecture 3: Elements of Quantum Mechanics

Muhammad Ashraful Alam alam@purdue.edu

Alam ECE 606 S09

1

Outline

1)

Why do we need quantum physics

2)

Quantum concepts

3)

Formulation of quantum mechanics

4)

Conclusions

Reference: Vol. 6, Ch. 1 (pages 23 32)

Alam ECE 606 S09

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Do I really need Quantum Mechanics ? Periodic Original Structure Problem Electrons in periodic potential:
Do I really need Quantum Mechanics ?
Periodic
Original
Structure
Problem
Electrons in periodic
potential: Problem
we want to solve
If it were large objects, like a skier skiing past a set of obstacles,
Newton’s mechanics would work fine, but in a micro-world ……
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Alam ECE ‐ 606 S09

Carrier Density

Carrier number = Number of states x filling factor

Chapters 23

Chapter 4

Total number of occupants = Number of apartments X The fraction occupied

Alam ECE 606 S09

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Outline

1)

Why do we need quantum physics

2)

Quantum concepts

3)

Formulation of quantum mechanics

4)

Conclusions

Alam ECE 606 S09

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Four Quantum Concepts

ï Blackbody Radiation

ï Photoelectric Effect

ï Bohr Atom

ï Wave Particle Duality

Alam ECE 606 S09

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( 1) blackbody radiation

2000 K 1000 K 300 K Alam ECE ‐ 606 S08
2000 K
1000 K
300 K
Alam ECE ‐ 606 S08

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2000 K (u)
2000 K
(u)

Alam ECE 606 S08

Rayleigh-Jeans Formula

4

u kT λ

B

/

log( u ) =−4 log(λ) + log(T )

Wein’s Formula

u

β /λ T

e

5

λ

Plank’s fitting formula

u

1

5

λ

 

1

e β

/

λ

T

1

 

8

Interpretation of Plankís Formula

ufT =

(,

)

Interpretation of Plankís Formula ufT = (, ) u λ (, T ) d λ df

u

λ

(,

T

)

d

λ

df

~

~ f

2

×

1

5

 

×  

1

 

dc

λ

=

f

 

λ

e

β λ

/

T

1

1

e

hf kT

/

1

λ

hf

df

nos. of

modes

Energy

of mode

Occupation

Probability

EM emission occurs in discrete quanta of

E = hf

n=1,2, ……

Alam ECE 606 S09

N

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Recent Example: COBE Data

Recent Example: COBE Data J.C. Mather, Astrophysics J., 1 990 . Show that the cosmic background

J.C. Mather, Astrophysics J., 1 990.

Example: COBE Data J.C. Mather, Astrophysics J., 1 990 . Show that the cosmic background temperature
Example: COBE Data J.C. Mather, Astrophysics J., 1 990 . Show that the cosmic background temperature

Show that the cosmic background temperature is approximately 3K. Can you ìseeî this radiation?

Alam ECE 606 S09

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R

V

(2) Photoelectric Effect

W

R V (2) Photoelectric Effect W Light (hf) υ cathode hf V R E = (hf

Light (hf)

υ cathode

hf

V R

E = (hf W)

Electrons

V

R

(

1

2

)

2

mυ

=−hf

W

W

hf

Absorption occurs in quanta as well, consistent with photons having E=hf

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Origin of Quantization frequency 1  E = const ×−  1 m n ,
Origin of Quantization
frequency
1
E
=
const
×−  1
m n
,
2
2
 
m
n
 

Alam ECE 606 S09

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(3) Bohr Atom

Assume that angular momentum is quantized:

υ = n! mr / 0 n
υ = n! mr
/
0
n
(3) Bohr Atom Assume that angular momentum is quantized: υ = n! mr / 0 n
(3) Bohr Atom Assume that angular momentum is quantized: υ = n! mr / 0 n

Alam ECE 606 S09

(3) Bohr Atom Assume that angular momentum is quantized: υ = n! mr / 0 n
(3) Bohr Atom Assume that angular momentum is quantized: υ = n! mr / 0 n
(3) Bohr Atom Assume that angular momentum is quantized: υ = n! mr / 0 n

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(3) Bohr Atom (continued) Ö

(3) Bohr Atom (continued) Ö 1  E = const ×−  1 m n ,
(3) Bohr Atom (continued) Ö 1  E = const ×−  1 m n ,
(3) Bohr Atom (continued) Ö 1  E = const ×−  1 m n ,
1  E = const ×−  1 m n , 2 2  
1
E
=
const
×−  1
m n
,
2
2
 
m
n
 

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(4) WaveParticle Duality

Photons act both as wave and particle, what about electrons ?

24

0

22

E = m c + pc

what about electrons ? 24 0 22 E = m c + pc hf = pc

hf = pc

m 0 =0 (photon rest mass)

p

=

hf c

/

 

=

=

h

/

λ

! k

(because

(because

c

k

=

=

λ

f

)

2

π

/

λ

)

Alam ECE 606 S09

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Outline

1)

Why do we need quantum physics

2)

Quantum concepts

3)

Formulation of Schrodinger Equation

4)

Conclusions

Alam ECE 606 S09

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Schrodinger Equation

E =

24

22

m c +≈pc

mc

00

2

1+ pc / 2 m

22

E mc

0

2

=

V + ( p

2

/2 m )

0

2

2

hf = !ω = V + ( ! km/ 2

0 )

Alam ECE 606 S09

0

24

c +

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Schrodinger Equation (continued)

!ω

=

V

2

2

+ ( ! km/ 2

0

)

Assume,

Ψ( x , t ) = A exp(i (ωt kx ))

d Ψ / dt =−iωΨ

2

and d Ψ / dx

22

=− k Ψ

!

2

d

2

Ψ

2 m dx

0

2 +

V

Ψ=

Alam ECE 606 S09

i !

d

Ψ

dt

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Conclusions

1.

Given chemical composition and atomic arrangements, we are ready to compute electron density by using quantum mechanics.

2.

We discussed the origin of quantum mechanics ñ experiments were inconsistent with the classical theory.

3.

We saw how Schrodinger equation could arise as a consequence of quantization and relativity, but this is not a derivation.

4.

We will solve some toy problems in the next class to get a feeling of how to use quantum mechanics.

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