Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Chapter 10

Protection of industrial systems

With the increase in size of industrial plant electrical systems, and the high short-circuit levels encountered on electricity power systems, it is essential that the electrical protection arrangements in any industrial installation are correctly designed and have the appropriate settings applied to ensure the correct functioning of the plant and continuity of supply within the installation. The importance of maintaining con- tinuity of supply to industrial installations cannot be over emphasised and, in this respect, the interconnectors to the public supply system play a vital role. It is crucial that correct co-ordination is maintained between the protection on the main industrial supply infeeds and the power system supply feeders.

10.1 Protection devices

In addition to the overcurrent relay, which has been covered in Chapter 5, moulded- case circuit breakers (MCCBs) and thermal relay-contactor and fuse devices are frequently used to protect elements of the industrial electrical system and these will be covered in more detail in this chapter.

10.1.1 Overcurrent relays

This type of relay is usually equipped with an instantaneous and/or time-delay unit. This latter unit can be inverse, very inverse or extremely inverse, and when it is necessary to prevent the relay from operating in one direction it should be provided with a directional element. This is required for ring systems or networks with several infeed sources, the latter being very common in industrial systems.

10.1.2 Direct acting devices in power and moulded-case circuit breakers

As their name indicates, these are devices that act directly on power breakers and therefore do not require AC or DC coils for tripping. They are especially common

226 Protection of electricity distribution networks

for operating breakers up to 600 V, but are sometimes used on breakers of a higher voltage and, in these cases, are generally fed by current transformers. These devices can be operated by:

1. An armature attracted by the electromagnetic force that is produced by the fault current which flows through a trip coil.

2. A bimetallic strip that is actuated by the heat produced by the fault current.

The characteristic curves of these mechanisms are generally the result of com- bining the curves of instantaneous relays with long or short time-delay relays. The starting current of the long delay units can normally be set to 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 per cent of the nominal value. The calibrations of short time-delay relays are typically 5, 7.5 and 10 times the nominal value. It is common to use breakers to protect circuits of low current capacity with a combination of a single time-delay element plus an instantaneous unit normally having a bimetallic or magnetic element. In this case, the curves are normally set in the factory based on the nominal values.

10.1.3 Combined thermal relay contactor andfuse

The combined thermal relay contactor and fuse is used extensively for protection, mainly in low power systems. In this case the fuse provides protection against short- circuits and the thermal relay gives protection against overloads. Given that the ther- mal relay acts directly on the contactor, special care should be taken to prevent a relay operation for values of fault current that exceed the capacity of the contactor. If this should be the case, a more rapidly acting fuse should be selected in order to guarantee that it will operate for any current greater than the breaking capacity of the contactor.

10.2 Criteria for setting overcurrent protection devices associated with motors

The criteria normally used for the selection of the nominal values and the range of settings of low voltage overcurrent devices such as thermal relays and moulded-case

breakers that are used frequently in industrial plants are similar to those for overcurrent protection included in Chapter 5. An important consideration for these devices is that,

as for overcurrent relays, the selected settings can vary depending upon the criteria

adopted by the particular utility or plant operators, providing that the resultant settings guarantee appropriate protection to the machines and the elements of the system under analysis. Thus, the settings should be higher than the motor-locked rotor current and

below the motor thermal limit.

10.2.1 Thermal relays

A thermal relay basically has three parameters that can be adjusted: the rating of the

coil, the range of taps in the thermal element, and the range of the instantaneous

element.

Protection of industrial systems

227

Coil rating

In order to determine the coil rating, manufacturers provide a range of maximum and minimum current values for which the thermal relay has been designed. The rating of the coil is somewhat above the maximum value of the motor secondary rated current. The range of a thermal relay for a motor should overlap the motor manufacturer's value of the motor nominal secondary current, in amperes. Using a thermal relay that has a maximum current rating very close to the motor nominal secondary current (in amperes) is not recommended; in this case it is better to use the next highest range available.

Example 10.1

Consider a motor with the following characteristics:

power:

100 HP,

p.f. =0.8

voltage:

440 V

efficiency:

100 per cent

The thermal protection consists of three single-phase relays, fed from a set of current transformers with 200/5 ratios. The setting range of the relays is given in Table 10. l, and the operating characteristics are shown in Figure 10.1. Inom = 122.36A, and Inom(sec) = 122.36 x 5/200= 3.06A. In accordance with the data in Table 10.1, a thermal coil with a rating of 3.87A, which has a current range of 3.10 to 3.39 A, can be selected. A relay with a range of 2.82-3.09 A should not be used since the maximum value is very close to the Inom(sec) of the motor.

Range of taps in the thermal element

The tripping current of the thermal element of the relay is normally specified with a range of 90/95/100/105/110 per cent of the current rating of the coil.

Range of instantaneous elements

The instantaneous elements are specified at ten times the nominal current of the motor. Typically this range is 6-150 A. For this example:

Iinst =

10

X /nora

=

10 × 122.36 x 5/200 = 30.59A (secondary)

This confirms that the 6-150 A range is appropriate.

10.2.2 Low voltage breakers

The low voltage breakers used to protect motors usually have two elements: a time- delay unit for long-time overloads and an instantaneous element for short-circuits. The short-time element is optional and recommended only for the more powerful motors, or when the possibility exists of losing co-ordination with other breakers located nearer to the source. The values that should be specified for a breaker are as follows: the nominal current, and the setting ranges for the time-delay unit, the instantaneous unit, and also the short-time unit if this is fitted.

228

e~

~5

e~

Protection of electricity distribution networks

e~
Y.

<~

<~

0

.~

t"q
0

*

.=

<

¢,q
<

<<<<<<<<<<<<<

<<<<<<<<<<<<<

tt~

~E

:=_

e-

~A

(a)

(b)

<

800

700

600

\ \

500

400 ~60 Hz

300

200

100

800

700

600

< 500

,fi

e.

400

300

200

100

Protection of industrial systems

Time (s)

229

Figure 10.1

Time (s)

Range of settings and operating characteristics of GE thermal relays

TMC. (a) Typical time/current characteristic curve for type TMC 23B relays. (b) Average time/current curves based on 40 degrees ambient for relays type TMC21B, 24B and 24D. Source: Protection of electricity distribution systems. Reproduced by permission of General Electric Company

230 Protection of electricity distribution networks

Nominal current

The nominal value of the breaker is selected using the next higher available setting to the value obtained from the following expression:

/breaker

=

1.05 x

SF x

Inom.motor

where SF is the so-called service factor, which is an overload margin permitted by the manufacturer. In the case of breakers associated with motor control centres (MCCs), the nominal current is selected using the following expression:

Inom= 1.2 x 1FL

where IFL is the full-load current taking into account the nominal power of all the motors plus the other loads that are supplied by the feeder. To calculate this, the nominal current of the largest motor, and the current for the rest of the load multiplied by the demand factor, are added together.

Setting of the time band

When selecting the time band there should be a co-ordination margin of 0.2 s between one breaker and the breaker acting as back up. In those breakers associated with MCC feeders, the time setting should be checked to confirm that the largest motor can be started satisfactorily while the rest of the load is taking nominal power. The current of a locked-rotor motor should be estimated in accordance with a stan- dard code of practice such as the National Electric Code of USA (NEC) Article 430-7 using the code letter in those cases where this information is available. Where this is not the case, then the current should be taken as being six times the full load current in accordance with Table 430-151 of NEC Article 430-7. Starting from the value of current with a locked rotor, the starting current for each motor should be calculated taking into account the particular method of starting, and the starting time should be based on manufacturer's data for the motor. In addition, the operating characteristic of the breaker should be checked to ensure that it provides complete cover over the thermal-capacity characteristic of the associated conductors. Table 10.2 compares some of the factors associated with motor starting.

Range of short-time unit

The short-time element is specified taking into account the fact that the operating current includes the motor locked-rotor current. This current is normally of the order of six or seven times the motor nominal current. The range of settings of this element is usually expressed as a multiple of the starting current selected for the long time- delay unit.

Setting of instantaneous element

The instantaneous element provides protection against short-circuits, cutting down

the tripping time of a breaker when there are severe faults on the associated circuit. The

setting of the instantaneous element is calculated using the expression linst ~---10 x where/EL is the full load current of the associated feeder.

IFL,

Table 10.2

Protection of industrial systems

231

Comparison ofmotorstarting methods (fromIndustrial Power

Systems Handbook,

by D. Beeman, 1985; reproduced by

permission of McGraw-Hill Publishing Company)

Type of starter*

Motor voltage

Starting torque

Line current

Line voltage

Full voltage

Full voltage

 

starting torque

starting current

Full-voltage starter 1.0

1.0

1.0

Autotransformer

80% tap

0.80

0.64

0.68

65% tap

0.65

0.42

0.46

50%

0.50

0.25

0.30

Resistor starter, single step (adjustedfor motor voltage to be 80% of line voltage)

0.80

0.64

0.80

Reactor

50% tap

0.50

0.25

0.50

45% tap

0.45

0.20

0.45

37.5% tap

0.375

0.14

0.375

Part-winding starter (low speed motors only) 75% tap

1.0

0.75

0.75

50% tap

1.0

0.50

0.50

line voltage = motor rated voltage * The settingsgiven are the more common for each type.

Example 10.2

Determine the settings for the thermal relay and the 200 and 600 A breakers, which protect the system indicated in Figure 10.2, using the information given.

Induction motor

500 HP, 2400 V, power factor = 0.8 Service factor: 1.0 Code letter: G; thermal limit with locked rotor: 5.5 s Direct start, duration: 1.0 s

Thermal relay

(See Figure 10.1.)

Coil: 3.87 A Taps: 90-110 per cent of coil rating CT ratio: 150/5

232 Protection of electricity distribution networks

~

1500kVA

13.8/2.4 kV

Thermo-magnetic

N / 600 A

interrupter

J

)

4kV

Thermo-magnetic

200 A

interrupter

Contactor

:'--

-- -- I

 

I

I

I

I

150/5

.2

@

500 HP

Figure 10.2

System for Example 10.2

Breakers

The setting values and characteristic curve are shown in Table 10.3 and Figure 10.3 respectively.

Solution

Nominal motor current

500 x 0.746 kW

1N= v/3 x 0.8 x 2.4kV

=112.16A

Locked rotor current

From NEC Table 430-7(b), a motor with code G is assessed at 6.29 kVA/HP, and so:

ILR =

500 x 6.29 kVA

~/3 x 2.4 kV

= 756.57 A

.<

,<

Protection of industrial systems

c'-I

tt~

tt')

¢-q

.

.<

~

X

233

234 Protection of electricity distribution networks

1000

800

600

400

200

100

80

60

40

20

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.01

Figure 10.3

10

20

30

50

70 lO0

Earth fault current in percent of tripping XFMR rating

1

2

3

5

7

lO

20

30

Current in multiples of pick-up

Characteristic operating curvesfor Siemens-Allis Interrupter

Setting of thermal relay

50

70

100

/start

=

1.05 x

1.0

x

112.16A=

 

117.8A

 

5

1

Setting---- 117.8 x

--

x

--

x

100%=

101.46%

150

3.87

With a setting of 100 per cent,

/start =

1.0 x 3.87A

× (150/5)

=

l16.10A

(3.5% overload)

Setting of 2OOA breaker

(i) Long-time element Range: 100/125/150/175/200/250 A

/start =

1.05 × 1.0 x 112.16A---- 117.8A

Protection of industrial systems

235

Set at 125 A (11.45 per cent, overload) Selection of time band:

The long-time element should permit the motor to start:

Start point: I = 756.57 A locked rotor current, and t = 1.0 s Operation of breaker at the start:

I/lstart = 756.7 A/125 A = 6.05 times. Require 1.4 s tripping time. From Figure 10.3, the intersection of 1.4 s and 6.05 times lies above the lower curve of Band 1. Therefore, Band 2 is chosen in this case to guarantee the required discrimination margin of 0.4 s.

(ii) Short-time element

Range: 3/5/8/12 times long-time pick-up current

lstartl =6

x (112.16A)= 672.96A

Given that this value is less than the motor starting current, it is necessary to increase the setting value. Try eight times, then

Istart2 = 8 × (112.16 A) = 897.28 A and setting = 897.28 A/125 A = 7.18

Setting selected: 8 x/pickup = 8 x 125 A = I000 A Time band: in this case the intermediate band was chosen to provide the necessary discrimination margin with the instantaneous unit (see Figure 10.3).

(iii) Instantaneous element

Range: 3/5/8/12 times long-time pick-up current /start = 12 x (112.16A) = 1345.92 A Setting = 1345.92 A/125 A = 10.77 Setting selected: 11 x/pickup (1375 A)

Setting of 6OOA breaker

(i) Long-time element Range: 300/375/400/525/600/750 A

Nominal current of transformer, In --

v/3 x 2.4 kV With a setting of 400 A, the overload = 400/360.84 = 1.108, i.e. 10.8 per cent, which is acceptable.

1500 kVA

-- 360.84 A

/start ~-- 1.10 X (360.84 A) = 396.92 A

Selection of time band:

Operation of motor breaker within the limit of the long-time element:

I/Istart = 1000A/125 A = 8.0 times. At eight times, and with Band 2, =~ t = 1.5 s

236 Protection of electricity distribution networks

Operation of transformer breaker:

I/Istart = 1000 A/400 A = 2.5 times. At 2.5 times, and with t = 1.7 s, Band 1 is chosen since this is the lowest available. Notice that a margin of 0.2 s has been applied here since the co-ordination is between two low voltage breakers where the curves include the opening time.

(ii) Short-time element

/start = 6 × (360.84 A) = 2165.04 A

Setting = 2165.04 A/400 A = 5.41 => 6 times

 

1000

Current (A)

(×10)

2.4kV busbar

800

600

400

200

100

80

60

40

20

10

8

6

4

~

2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.01

 

A

C

B

Protection of industrial systems

237

Since there is no overlap with the short-time element of the motor, the intermediate band is also selected.

(iii) Instantaneous element The instantaneous element is cancelled in order to maintain co-ordination. The co-ordination curves are shown in Figure 10.4. It should be emphasised that, although the values selected for the protective devices in this example ensure proper co-ordination, they are not unique. Other settings could be chosen provided that the curves so obtained guarantee adequate reliability and good selectivity.